Downtown Zvornik and Drina River
Location of Zvornik within Bosnia and Hercegovina
|Country||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|• Mayor||Zoran Stevanović (SPRS) (Alliance of Independent Social Democrats)|
|• Urban||376,14 km2 (14,523 sq mi)|
|Elevation||146 m (479 ft)|
|Population (2013 census)|
|• Density||169,3/km2 (4,380/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Zvornik (Cyrillic: Зворник, pronounced [zʋɔ̌rniːk]) is a city on the Drina river in north-eastern, Bosnia and Herzegovina, situated in the Republika Srpska entity. Zvornik is located south of Bijeljina. The town Mali Zvornik ("little Zvornik") lies directly across the river in Serbia.
Zvornik is first mentioned in 1410, although it was known as Zvonik ("bell tower") at that time. The town's geographic location has made it an important trade link between Bosnia and the east. For instance, the main road connecting Sarajevo and Belgrade runs through the city. Zvornik has also the distinction of being the only city in Bosnia that directly lies on the border to Serbia.
The medieval fort known as Kula grad was built in the c. 12th century and still stands on the Mlađevac mountainous range overlooking the Drina Valley.
During the Ottoman period, Zvornik was the capital of the Sanjak of Zvornik (an administrative region) within the Eyalet of Bosnia. This was primarily the case because of the city's crucial role in the economy and the strategic importance of the city's location. The Sanjak of Zvornik was one of six Ottoman sanjaks with most developed shipbuilding (besides the sanjaks of Vidin, Nicopolis, Požega, Smederevo and Mohač). In 1806, Zvornik was home to Mehmed-beg Kulenović.
During the Bosnian War (1992-1995) Zvornik's Bosniak population was expelled. The military attack of paramilitary groups that came from Serbia on Zvornik Bosniaks commenced on 8 April 1992. During April 1992, many European news stations daily reported Serb armed attacks and mass killings of the Bosniak population of Zvornik and the surrounding villages.
On 19 May 1992, combined JNA, Serb paramilitary and Arkan's Tigers occupied Zvornik and Mali Zvornik. It is known that the suburbs of Karakaj and Čelopek were places of prisons where hundreds of Zvornik's Bosniaks were killed. The remaining Bosniaks and non-Serbs were relegated to concentration camps and detention facilities throughout the area. During the war Serb forces destroyed mosques in and around the city.
Vojin Vučković, commander of the Yellow Wasps, and his brother Duško were convicted in 1996 for killing of 17 civilians in Čelopek, a suburb of the town of Zvornik, during the ethnic cleansing of the Bosniak population of the Drina valley in 1992.
According to the 1991 census, the municipality of Zvornik was home to a total of 81,295 inhabitants. They were divided into the following ethnicities:
- Bosniaks - 48,102 (59.16%)
- Serbs - 30,863 (37.96%)
- Yugoslavs - 1,248 (1.53%)
- Croats - 122 (0.15%)
- Others and unknown - 960 (1.18%)
The town of Zvornik proper had a total of 14,584 inhabitants, of which:
- Bosniaks - 8,854 (60.71%)
- Serbs - 4,235 (29.03%)
- Yugoslavs - 944 (6.47%)
- Croats - 76 (0.52%)
- Others and unknown - 475 (3.25%)
However, the city's demographic situation has changed drastically during the Bosnian War that followed.
Just like most of Bosnia, Zvornik has very hot summers and cold winters. Except for the area near the river Drina, the city is surrounded by mountains with preserved forests, which creates a beautiful scenery with the town's location at the bottom of a valley.
Kula Grad, a village that is part of Zvornik municipality, is home to a Middle Age fort, Zvornik fortress, built in the 12th century. Zvornik also has a museum.
The manifestation called the Cultural Summer of Zvornik usually takes place in August, and its main objective is to become a traditional cultural event which will open the doors of Zvornik for the recognized cultural values.
• Androvići • Baljkovica • Baljkovica Donja • Boškovići • Buložani • Čelopek • Divič • Donja Pilica • Donji Lokanj • Drinjača • Dugi Dio • Đevanje • Đulići • Glodi • Glumina • Goduš • Gornja Pilica • Gornji Lokanj • Grbavci Donji • Grbavci Gornji • Gušteri • Jardan • Jasenica • Jusići • Kamenica Donja • Kamenica Gornja • Kiseljak • Kitovnice • Klisa • Kostijerevo • Kozluk • Kraljevići • Križevići • Kučić Kula • Kula Grad • Liješanj • Liplje • Malešići • Marčići • Međeđa • Mehmedići • Nezuk • Novo Selo • Pađine • Paljevići • Petkovci • Potočani • Rastošnica • Roćević • Rožanj • Sapna • Skočić • Snagovo • Snagovo Donje • Snagovo Gornje • Sopotnik • Šepak Donji • Šepak Gornji • Šetići • Tabanci • Trnovica • Tršić • Ugljari • Vitinica • Vrela • Zaseok • Zelinje
- Official results from the book: Ethnic composition of Bosnia-Herzegovina population, by municipalities and settlements, 1991. census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine - Bilten no.234, Sarajevo 1991.
- Godis̆njak grada Beograda. Beogradske novine. 1979. p. 35. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
Ипак градња бродова се посебно везивала за шест санџака: никопољски, видински, смедеревски, зворнички, пожешки и мохачки.
- UN report on Zvornik
- ""One of the biggest" mass graves found in Bosnia". BBC News. 1998-10-08. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- "NIN, Belgrade, article, "St. Vitus Day Massacre"". 12 July 2001. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- ICTY Krajsinik Trial Chamber Judgment, Note 1750
- "‘Ethnic Cleansing Operations’ in the northeast-Bosnian City of Zvornik from April through June 1992". Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights.
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