Last modified on 23 November 2014, at 12:11

Walnut

This article is about walnuts as food. For the genus, see Juglans. For other meanings, see Walnut (disambiguation).
The common Walnut in growth.

A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia. It is used for food after being processed while green for pickled walnuts or after full ripening for its nutmeat. Nutmeat of the eastern black walnut from the Juglans nigra is less commercially available, as are butternut nutmeats from Juglans cinerea. The walnut is nutrient dense with protein and essential fatty acids.

Californian black walnut in growth.

CharacteristicsEdit

Walnut shell inside its green husk

Walnuts are rounded, single-seeded stone fruits of the walnut tree commonly used for the meat after fully ripening. Following full ripening, the removal of the husk reveals the wrinkly walnut shell, which is usually commercially found in two segments (three-segment shells can also form). During the ripening process, the husk will become brittle and the shell hard. The shell encloses the kernel or meat, which is usually made up of two halves separated by a partition. The seed kernels – commonly available as shelled walnuts – are enclosed in a brown seed coat which contains antioxidants. The antioxidants protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen, thereby preventing rancidity.[1]

TypesEdit

The two most common major species of walnuts are grown for their seeds – the Persian or English Walnut and the Black Walnut. The English Walnut (J. regia) originated in Persia, and the Black Walnut (J. nigra) is native to eastern North America. The Black walnut is of high flavor, but due to its hard shell and poor hulling characteristics it is not grown commercially for nut production. The commercially produced walnut varieties are nearly all hybrids of the English walnut.[2]

Other species include J. californica, the California Black Walnut (often used as a root stock for commercial breeding of J. regia), J. cinerea (butternuts), and J. major, the Arizona Walnut.

Walnuts are late to grow leaves, typically not until more than halfway through the spring. They also secrete chemicals into the soil to prevent competing vegetation from growing. Because of this, flowers or vegetable gardens should not be planted too close to them.

EtymologyEdit

Etymologically, the word walnut derives from the Germanic wal- and Old English wealhhnutu, literally "foreign nut", wealh meaning "foreign" (wealh is akin to the terms Welsh and Vlach; see Walha).[3]

ProductionEdit

Top 10 Walnut Producing Countries - 2012[4]
Rank Country Production
(Tonnes)
1  China 1,700,000
2  Iran 450,000
3  United States 425,820
4  Turkey 194,298
5  Mexico 110,605
6  Ukraine 96,900
7  India 40,000
8  Chile 38,000
9  France 36,425
10  Romania 30,546
World 3,282,398

The worldwide production of walnuts has been increasing rapidly in recent years, with the largest increase coming from Asia. The world produced a total of 2.55 million metric tonnes of walnuts in 2010; China was the world's largest producer of walnuts, with a total harvest of 1.06 million metric tonnes.[5] The other major producers of walnuts were (in the order of decreasing harvest): Iran, United States, Turkey, Ukraine, Mexico, Romania, India, France and Chile.

The average worldwide walnut yield was about 3 metric tonnes per hectare, in 2010. Among the major producers, eastern European countries have the highest yield. According to the FAO, the most productive walnut farms in 2010 were in Romania, with yields above 23 metric tonnes per hectare.[6]

The United States is the world's largest exporter of walnuts. The Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys of California produce 99 percent of the nation’s commercial English walnuts.

StorageEdit

Walnuts, like other tree nuts, must be processed and stored properly. Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold infestations; the latter produces aflatoxin—a potent carcinogen. A mold-infested walnut batch should not be screened and then consumed; the entire batch should be discarded.[1]

The ideal temperature for longest possible storage of walnuts is in the -3 to 0 oC and low humidity — for industrial and home storage. However, such refrigeration technologies are unavailable in developing countries where walnuts are produced in large quantities; there, walnuts are best stored below 25 oC and low humidity. Temperatures above 30 oC, and humidities above 70 percent can lead to rapid and high spoilage losses. Above 75 percent humidity threshold, fungal molds that release dangerous aflatoxin can form.[1][7]

Freshly harvested raw walnuts offer the best color, flavor and nutrient density when with water content between 2 to 8 percent.[citation needed]

Food useEdit

Walnut meats are available in two forms; in their shells or shelled. The meats can be as large as halves or any smaller portions that may happen during processing, candied or as an ingredient in other foodstuffs. Pickled walnuts that are the whole fruit can be savory or sweet depending on the preserving solution. All walnuts can be eaten on their own (raw, toasted or pickled) or as part of a mix such as museli, or as an ingredient of a dish.

Walnut Whip, coffee and walnut cake and pickled walnuts are three disparate examples.

Walnut oil is available commercially and is used chiefly used as a food ingredient particularly in salad dressings. It has a low smoke point, which limits its use for frying.[8][9]

Nutritional valueEdit

Walnut, English
3 walnuts.jpg
Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia
Nutritional value per 100 grams
Energy 2,738 kJ (654 kcal)
13.71
Starch 0.06
Sugars 2.61
0
Dietary fiber 6.7
65.21
Saturated 6.126
Monounsaturated 8.933
Polyunsaturated 47.174
15.23
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(0%)
1 μg
(0%)
12 μg
9 μg
Vitamin A 20 IU
Thiamine (B1)
(30%)
0.341 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(13%)
0.15 mg
Niacin (B3)
(8%)
1.125 mg
(11%)
0.570 mg
Vitamin B6
(41%)
0.537 mg
Folate (B9)
(25%)
98 μg
Vitamin B12
(0%)
0 μg
Vitamin C
(2%)
1.3 mg
Vitamin D
(0%)
0 μg
Vitamin D
(0%)
0 IU
Vitamin E
(5%)
0.7 mg
Vitamin K
(3%)
2.7 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(10%)
98 mg
Iron
(22%)
2.91 mg
Magnesium
(45%)
158 mg
Manganese
(163%)
3.414 mg
Phosphorus
(49%)
346 mg
Potassium
(9%)
441 mg
Sodium
(0%)
2 mg
Zinc
(33%)
3.09 mg
Other constituents
Water 4.07
0
Caffeine 0
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Walnuts are a nutrient-dense food: 100 grams of walnuts contain 15.2 grams of protein, 65.2 grams of fat, and 6.7 grams of dietary fiber. The protein in walnuts provides many essential amino acids.

While English walnuts are the most common, their nutrient density and profile are significantly different from those of black walnuts. For example, the Omega-3 fatty acid content of English walnuts is approximately 4.5 times that of black walnuts.[10][11]

Unlike most nuts that are high in monounsaturated fatty acids, walnut oil is composed largely of polyunsaturated fatty acids (47.2%), particularly alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n - 3; 9.1%) and linoleic acid (18:2n - 6; 38.1%). The beneficial effects of this unique fatty acid profile have been a subject of many studies and discussions. Banel and Hu concluded in 2009 that while walnut-enhanced diets are promising in short term studies, longer term studies are needed to ascertain better insights.[12]

Non-food applicationsEdit

A whole walnut kernel, with both halves unbroken.

MedicinalEdit

Black walnut has been promoted as a potential cancer cure, on the basis it kills a "parasite" responsible for the disease. However, according to the American Cancer Society, "available scientific evidence does not support claims that hulls from black walnuts remove parasites from the intestinal tract or that they are effective in treating cancer or any other disease".[13]

Walnuts have been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare Bach flower remedies,[14] a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its effect on health. However according to Cancer Research UK, "there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer".[15]

Medical benefits and claimsEdit

Raw walnuts contain (mostly insoluble) antioxidants.[16][17][18] They also contain triglycerides of the n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)[19] which is effective in reducing heart risk.[20]

Roasting reduces antioxidant quality.[citation needed]

Inks and dyesEdit

The husks of the black walnut Juglans nigra are used to make an ink for writing and drawing. Walnut ink has good archival properties, and was used by several great artists including Leonardo da Vinci and Rembrandt.[21]

Walnut husks are used as a brown dye for fabric.[22] Walnut dyes were used in classical Rome and in medieval Europe for dyeing hair.[23]

CleaningEdit

The United States Army used ground walnut shells for the cleaning of aviation parts because it was inexpensive and non-abrasive. However, an investigation of a fatal Boeing CH-47 Chinook helicopter crash (September 11, 1982, in Mannheim, Germany) revealed that walnut grit clogged an oil port, leading to the accident and the discontinuation of walnut shells as a cleaning agent.[24]

Chemical analysisEdit

Compared to certain other nuts, such as almonds, peanuts and hazelnuts, walnuts (particularly in their raw form) contain the highest spectrum of antioxidants, including free antioxidants and antioxidants bound to fiber.[17]

Walnut hulls contain phenolics that stain hands and can cause skin irritation. Seven phenolic compounds (ferulic acid, vanillic acid, coumaric acid, syringic acid, myricetin, juglone[25] and regiolone[26]) have been identified in walnut husks by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography or crystallography.

Walnuts also contain the ellagitannin pedunculagin.[27]

(−)-Regiolone has been isolated with juglone, betulinic acid and sitosterol from the stem-bark of J. regia.[28]

Uses in Chinese cultureEdit

In China, pairs of walnuts have traditionally been rotated and played with in the palm of the hand, both as a means to stimulate blood circulation and as a status symbol. Pairs of large, old and symmetrically shaped walnuts are valued highly and have recently been used as an investment, with some of them fetching tens of thousands of dollars.[29] Pairs of walnuts are sometimes sold in their green husks for a form of gambling known as du he tao.[30]

CultivarsEdit

  • Ashley
  • Chandler
  • Franquette
  • Germisara
  • Hansen
  • Hartley
  • Howard
  • Jupanesti
  • Lara
  • Marbot
  • Mayette
  • Mellanaise
  • Parisienne
  • Payne
  • Rita
  • Serr
  • Tulare
  • Valcor
  • Vina

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Walnut; Agriculture - Transport Information Service". Association for German Insurance. 2010. 
  2. ^ "Commodity Profile: English Walnuts". AgMRC, University of California. 2006. 
  3. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary - "Walnut"
  4. ^ "Production of Walnut with shell by countries". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. 2012. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  5. ^ "Total production, 2010, Walnut with Shell". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2012. 
  6. ^ "Crops production & yields, 2010, Walnut with Shell". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2012. 
  7. ^ "Food, Nutrition & Agriculture - Prevention of aflatoxin". FAO, United Nations. 1998. 
  8. ^ "Walnut oil recipes". BBC. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  9. ^ Turner, Lisa. "Oil Change". Better Nutrition. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  10. ^ "Nutrition facts: Nuts, walnuts, English". CondéNet. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  11. ^ "Nutrition facts: Nuts, walnuts, Black, Dried". CondéNet. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  12. ^ Deirdre K Banel and Frank B Hu (2009). "Effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis and systematic review". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90: 1–8. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27457. 
  13. ^ "Black Walnut". American Cancer Society. April 2011. Retrieved September 2013. 
  14. ^ D. S. Vohra (1 June 2004). Bach Flower Remedies: A Comprehensive Study. B. Jain Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-7021-271-3. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  15. ^ "Flower remedies". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved September 2013. 
  16. ^ Arranz, Sara; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio (2007). "Antioxidant capacity of walnut (Juglans regia L.): Contribution of oil and defatted matter". European Food Research and Technology 227 (2): 425–31. doi:10.1007/s00217-007-0737-2. 
  17. ^ a b "Walnuts are top nut for heart-healthy antioxidants". American Chemical Society (Anaheim). 27 March 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  18. ^ Park, Alice (29 March 2011). "The Supernut: Walnuts Pack a Powerful Dose of Antioxidants". Time (magazine). Retrieved 4 April 2011. 
  19. ^ "Omega-3 Fatty Acids". Tufts University. Retrieved 4 April 2011. 
  20. ^ Disorders of lipid metabolism. Evidence-based nutrition practice guideline. "...the RD can recommend foods rich in plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids (alpha-linoleic acid [ALA]) to reduce the risk of CVD or CVD events."
  21. ^ "Black Walnut Ink Workshop". Guild of Natural Science Illustrators. October 2002. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  22. ^ "The Colors of Invention – How to Dye Fibers Naturally". Smithsonian Museum. November 13–16, 1997. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  23. ^ Sherrow, Victoria (2006). Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 267, 355. ISBN 9780313331459. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  24. ^ "In Re Air Crash Disaster at Mannheim Germany on 9/11/82. Ursula J. Schoenborn, As Executrix of the Estate of Leonedward Schoenborn, Deceased, v. the Boeing Company. Appeal of the Boeing Company. United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit. 769 F.2d 115". Justia. 1985. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  25. ^ Phenolics of Green Husk in Mature Walnut Fruits. Sina Cosmulescu, Ion Trandafir, Gheorghe Achim, Mihai Botu, Adrian Baciu and Marius Gruia, Not. Bot. Hort. Agrobot. Cluj, 2010, 38 (1), pages 53-56 (article)
  26. ^ Regiolone from the pericarps of Juglans regia L. J.-X. Liu, D.-L. Di, C. Li and X.-Y. Huang, Acta Cryst., 2007, E63, pages o2713-o2714, doi:10.1107/S1600536807019976
  27. ^ Metabolism of Antioxidant and Chemopreventive Ellagitannins from Strawberries, Raspberries, Walnuts, and Oak-Aged Wine in Humans: Identification of Biomarkers and Individual Variability. Begoña Cerdá, Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán, and Juan Carlos Espín, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53 (2), pages 227–235, doi:10.1021/jf049144d
  28. ^ (−)-Regiolone, an α-tetralone from Juglans regia: structure, stereochemistry and conformation. Sunil K. Talapatra, Bimala Karmacharya, Shambhu C. De and Bani Talapatra, Phytochemistry, Volume 27, Issue 12, 1988, pages 3929–3932, doi:10.1016/0031-9422(88)83047-4
  29. ^ "Status-conscious investors shell out on great walnuts of China". Reuters. Aug 28, 2012. 
  30. ^ "Game of clones". Global Times. 16 October 2012. 

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit