Last modified on 8 September 2014, at 16:15

UK Independence Party

UK Independence Party
Leader Nigel Farage MEP
Deputy Leader Paul Nuttall MEP
Founded 3 September 1993[1]
Headquarters Lexdrum House, Newton Abbot, Devon
Youth wing Young Independence
Membership  (June 2014) Increase 39,143
(UKIP official website)[2]
Ideology Euroscepticism[3]
Right-wing populism[4]
Political position Right-wing[5]
International affiliation None
European affiliation None
European Parliament group Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy
Colours      Purple      Yellow
House of Commons
0 / 650
House of Lords
3 / 754
European Parliament
24 / 73
Northern Ireland Assembly
1 / 108
Local government (UK)[6]
370 / 20,565
Police and Crime Commissioner
0 / 41
London Assembly
0 / 25
Welsh Assembly
0 / 60
Scottish Parliament
0 / 129
Website
www.ukip.org
Politics of the United Kingdom
Political parties
Elections

The UK Independence Party (UKIP, sometimes styled Ukip /ˈjuːkɪp/) is a Eurosceptic[7][8] right-wing populist[4] political party in the United Kingdom, founded in 1993 by members of the Anti-Federalist League. The party describes itself in its constitution as a "democratic, libertarian party"[9] and, in June 2014, reported a membership of over 39,000.[2]

In May 2014, UKIP became the first party in over a century other than Labour or the Conservatives to come first in a United Kingdom-wide election, with its performance in the 2014 European elections giving it 24 of the UK's 73 seats in the European Parliament.[10] Although UKIP has never won a seat in the House of Commons, it has three members in the House of Lords and holds one seat in the Northern Ireland Assembly.[11][12] The party's performance in the 2013 local elections, when it came fourth in the number of council seats won and third in nationwide vote share,[13][14] was called the "biggest surge for a fourth party" in British politics since the Second World War.[15]

The party's leader, Nigel Farage, was re-elected to the post on 5 November 2010,[16] and was leader from 2006 to 2009. Farage is a founding member of the party,[17] and has been a UKIP Member of the European Parliament (MEP) since 1999.[18]

History

Founding and early years

UKIP was founded in 1993 by Alan Sked and other members of the cross-party Anti-Federalist League, a political party set up in November 1991 with the aim of fielding candidates opposed to the Maastricht Treaty.[19] The nascent party's primary objective was withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union. It attracted a few members of the Eurosceptic wing of the Conservative Party, which was split on the European question after the pound was forced out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism in 1992 and the struggle over ratification of the Maastricht Treaty. UKIP candidates stood in the 1997 general election, but were overshadowed by James Goldsmith's Referendum Party.

After the election, Sked resigned from the leadership and left the party because, he said, it contained members who "are racist and have been infected by the far-right"[20] and was "doomed to remain on the political fringes".[21] However, Goldsmith died soon after the election and the Referendum Party was dissolved, with a resulting influx of new UKIP supporters. The leadership election was won by the millionaire businessman Michael Holmes, and in the 1999 elections to the European Parliament UKIP gained three seats and 7% of the vote. In that election, Nigel Farage (South East England), Jeffrey Titford (East of England), and Michael Holmes (South West England) were elected.

Over the following months there was a power struggle between Holmes and the party's National Executive Committee (NEC). This was partly due to Holmes making a speech perceived as calling for greater powers for the European Parliament against the European Commission. Ordinary party members forced the resignation of both Holmes and the entire NEC, and Jeffrey Titford was subsequently elected leader. After Holmes resigned from the party itself in March 2000,[22] there was a legal battle when he tried to continue as an independent MEP until he resigned from the European Parliament in December 2002. Holmes was then replaced by Graham Booth, the second candidate on the UKIP list in South West England.

UKIP put up candidates in more than 420 seats in the 2001 general election, attaining 1.5% of the vote and failing to win any representation at Westminster. It also failed to break through in the elections to the Scottish Parliament or the Welsh Assembly, despite those elections being held under proportional representation. In 2002, Titford stood down as party leader, but continued to sit as a UKIP MEP. He was replaced as leader by Roger Knapman. In 2004 UKIP reorganised itself nationally as a private company limited by guarantee, with the legal name of United Kingdom Independence Party Limited, though branches remained as unincorporated associations.[23][24]

2004 European elections and 2005 general election

In the 2004 European elections UKIP came third with 12 MEPs being elected. In the London Assembly elections the same year, UKIP won two London Assembly seats.

In late 2004, the mainstream UK press speculated on if or when the UKIP MEP, former Labour Party MP and chat-show host Robert Kilroy-Silk would take control of the party. These comments were heightened by Kilroy-Silk's speech at the UKIP party conference in Bristol on 2 October 2004, in which he called for the Conservative Party to be "killed off" following the by-election in Hartlepool, where UKIP finished third (with 10.2%) above the Conservatives in fourth (9.7%).

Interviewed by Channel 4 television, Kilroy-Silk did not deny having ambitions to lead the party, but stressed that Roger Knapman would lead it into the next general election.[citation needed] However, the next day, on Breakfast with Frost, he criticised Knapman's leadership.[25] After further disagreement with the leadership, Kilroy-Silk resigned the UKIP whip in the European Parliament on 27 October 2004.[26] Initially, he remained a member, while seeking a bid for the party leadership. However, this was not successful and he resigned completely from UKIP on 20 January 2005, calling it a "joke".[27] Two weeks later, he founded his own party, Veritas, taking a number of UKIP members, including both of the London Assembly members, with him.[28]

In the 2005 general election, UKIP fielded 495 candidates and gained 618,000 votes, or 2.3% of the total votes cast in the election, and did not win a seat in the House of Commons. This result placed it fourth in terms of votes cast nationally.[29] Its best performance was in Boston & Skegness, where Richard Horsnell came third with 9.6% of the vote.[30]

Following the 2005 general election, Kilroy-Silk subsequently resigned from Veritas after its performance in the election, the party having received only 40,607 votes.[29] In April 2006 David Cameron, during a phone-in on London's LBC radio station, described UKIP members as being "fruitcakes, loonies and closet racists, mostly."[31] Farage asked for an apology. but Cameron did not back down.[32] On 12 September 2006, Farage was elected leader of UKIP with 45% of the vote, 20% ahead of his nearest rival.

2009 European elections

On 28 March 2009, the Conservative Party's biggest-ever donor, Stuart Wheeler, donated £100,000 to UKIP after criticising David Cameron's stance towards the Lisbon treaty and the European Union. He said, "If they kick me out I will understand. I will be very sorry about it, but it won't alter my stance."[33] The following day, 29 March, he was expelled from the Conservative Party.[34]

The 2009 European elections resulted in UKIP coming second with 16.5% of the vote and 13 MEPs, an increase of one MEP and 0.3% in the share of the vote compared to the 2004 European Elections.[35]

Leadership election, 2009

In September 2009, Nigel Farage announced that he would be resigning as leader of the party in order to stand for Parliament against the Speaker, John Bercow.[36] The leadership election was contested by five candidates - Malcolm Pearson, Gerard Batten, Nikki Sinclaire, Mike Nattrass and Alan Wood - and was won by Malcolm Pearson with just under half of the 9900 votes cast [37]

2010 general election

A UKIP campaign bus

UKIP fielded 572 candidates in the 2010 general election;.[38] Lord Pearson asked some prospective candidates to stand down in favour of Eurosceptic Conservative and Labour MPs. However, some refused to do so.[citation needed] This did not stop Lord Pearson from campaigning on behalf of the Conservative candidates stating that he was "putting country before party". These decisions drew some criticism from within the party from the likes of Michael Heaver of Young Independence.[citation needed]

On the morning of polling day, Farage was injured while flying as a passenger in a light aircraft which crashed near Brackley, Northamptonshire.[39]

In the election the party polled 3.1% of the vote (919,471 votes), an increase of 0.9% on the 2005 general election, but took no seats.[40] This made it the party with the largest percentage of the popular vote to win no seats in the election.[41]

In Buckingham, the seat of the Speaker John Bercow, Farage obtained 17% of the vote, despite receiving some level of support from Lord Tebbit, a senior Conservatives figure.[42] Farage came third behind Bercow and John Stevens, the Buckinghamshire Campaign For Democracy candidate,[43] a Europhile and former Conservative MEP.[44] UKIP was also third in three other constituencies: North Cornwall, North Devon and Torridge and West Devon.[45] Farage's result was the best of all UKIP candidates that the party put forward in the 2010 general election.[46]

Leadership election, 2010

Lord Pearson resigned as leader in August 2010.[47] The subsequent leadership election was contested between Nigel Farage, Tim Congdon, David Bannerman and Winston McKenzie and won by Farage with more than 60% of the vote.[48] During his acceptance speech, Farage spoke out against the leadership of the Conservative Party, and Conservative policy on Europe.[49] Lord Pearson, the previous leader, welcomed Farage's re-election, and said "The UKIP crown returns to its rightful owner."[50]

From the 2010 general election to the end of 2012

UKIP contested two by-elections in early 2011, with candidate Jane Collins coming second in Barnsley Central with 12.2% of the vote[51] and Paul Nuttall finishing fourth in Oldham East and Saddleworth with 5.8% of the vote.[52] Farage welcomed Collins's success and said that UKIP should now aim to replace the Liberal Democrats as the third largest party, saying "The Lib Dems are no longer the voice of opposition in British politics – we are. Between now and the next general election our aim is to replace them as the third party in British politics."[53]

UKIP fielded 1,217 candidates for the 2011 local council elections, a major increase over its previous campaigns,[citation needed] but not enough to qualify for a party election broadcast on television.[54] UKIP said that the party was well-organised in the South East, South West and Eastern regions, but there were still places across the country where there were no UKIP candidates standing at all.[55]

Across the country, many UKIP candidates came second or third. UKIP in Newcastle-under-Lyme gained a total of five seats on Newcastle Borough Council in 2007 and 2008 and three seats on Staffordshire County Council in 2009. Although UKIP did not poll well, it made gains across many parts of England, as well as taking control of Ramsey town council with nine UKIP councillors out of 17. Whilst UKIP made gains and losses, the party fell short of Farage's predictions of major gains. The UKIP MEP Marta Andreasen called for Farage's resignation as leader of the party.[56]

In October 2012, David McNarry, a member of the Northern Ireland Assembly who had been elected as an Ulster Unionist, joined UKIP after being expelled from the Ulster Unionist, becoming UKIPs second representative in Northern Ireland alongside Henry Reilly, a councillor in Newry and Mourne.[57]

On 29 November 2012, UKIP finished in second place in the 2012 Rotherham by-election, with 4,648 votes (21.7% of the votes cast). This was the highest percentage share recorded by UKIP in any parliamentary election (although it had polled a greater number of votes in the 2012 Corby by-election and also in Buckingham in the 2010 general election, where its candidate was Nigel Farage).[58][59] Its candidate, Jane Collins, had previously been the only UKIP candidate to come second in any UK parliamentary election, at Barnsley Central in 2011. UKIP also came second in 2012 in the Middlesbrough by-election and third in the Croydon North by-election, which were held on the same day as Rotherham.

During 2012 and early 2013, UKIP's popularity in opinion polls increased, with many polls indicating that it had overtaken the Liberal Democrats for third place.[60]

2013 to present

Results of the European Parliament election, 2014 by European Parliamentary constituency. Each purple square represents an elected UKIP MEP.
Results of the European Parliament election, 2014 in England. Districts where UKIP received the largest number of votes are shown in purple.

In the Eastleigh by-election on 28 February 2013, the party's candidate Diane James polled the highest percentage (27.8%) and number of votes (11,571) ever for a UKIP parliamentary candidate. UKIP came second, 4.26% (1,771 votes) behind the Liberal Democrats who retained the seat. The Conservatives were pushed into third place with a quarter of the vote and the Labour Party into fourth place with less than 10% of the vote.

In the run-up to the 2013 local elections, UKIP continued to do well in opinion polls and put up a record number of candidates for the party,[61] despite a number of controversies over individual candidates in the weeks before the elections[62][63][64] with the BBC reporting that UKIP was investigating "six candidates over links to the BNP and other far right groups or alleged racist and homophobic comments, following stories in national and local newspapers."[61] Since 2008 UKIP has banned former BNP members from joining UKIP.[65] Several candidates were suspended from the party for racist views.[66] UKIP accused the Conservative Party's Central Office of trawling through candidates' online presences to "smear" the party, but acknowledged that it did not have the time or money to vet all of its candidates.[61]

In the 2013 county council elections across England, the party achieved its best ever local government result, polling an average of 23% in the wards where it stood, and returning 147 elected councillors.[14] It made significant gains in Norfolk, Lincolnshire and Kent, taking 15, 16 and 17 seats respectively.[67] It was described as the best result for a party outside the big three in British politics since the Second World War.[15] A Guardian/ICM poll in the week after these elections placed UKIP third in national polls, with nationwide support of 18%. However, analysis suggests that in one considered scenario[clarification needed] this level of support would not be enough to win any seats at the next general election, and UKIP "face an uphill struggle to secure more than a handful of MPs".[68] By 11 June 2013 UKIP had dropped 6 points in the Guardian/ICM poll, to join the Liberal Democrats on 12%.[69] However by 16 June Comres had UKIP support at 19% [70] and Observer/Opinium at 20%.[71]

Though winning councillors and gaining impressive vote shares in by-elections in England, UKIP has not been able to make any similar advance in Scotland, a trend that was confirmed in the Aberdeen Donside by-election on 20 June 2013, when the UKIP candidate came 5th, losing his deposit with 4.8% of the vote.[72]

During the party's conference in 2013 the whip was suspended from Godfrey Bloom, after he was reported to have made sexist comments.[73]

According to Farage, interviewed on 24 January 2014, UKIP's general election manifesto in 2010 was "drivel" and "nonsense".[74] Though Farage had written the foreword and helped to launch it,[75] he said he had never read the 486 pages of policy documents that were published alongside UKIP's manifesto, which had been written by its then policy chief, David Campbell Bannerman; Farage commented, "The idiot that wrote it has now left us and joined the Conservatives." The party was working on new policies which would be unveiled by the end of 2014, he said.[74]

Farage pledged in January 2014 that he would end the selection of so-called 'Walter Mitty' candidates who bring the party into disrepute.[76] This was interpreted as a rejection of comments made by David Silvester,[76] a former Conservative Party councillor and a (now former) UKIP councillor in Henley-on Thames,[77] who had made comments blaming recent floods in Britain on prime minister David Cameron because he had been responsible for the introduction of same-sex marriage.[78]

In local elections in 2014, UKIP won 163 seats, an increase of 128, but did not take control of any council.[79]

2014 European elections

In March 2014, Ofcom awarded UKIP "major party status" for the 2014 European Elections, but only in England and Wales and not on a permanent basis.[80] This will give UKIP the same number of party election broadcasts as the three larger parties as well as having its views given "due weight" in broadcast news on ITV and Channel 5. A BBC source indicated that it will also do this.[81]

UKIP received the greatest number of votes (27.49%) of any British party in the 2014 European Parliament election and gained 11 extra MEPs for a total of 24.[82] The party won seats in every region of Great Britain, including its first in Scotland, which Farage called a "breakthrough".[83] It was the first time in over a century that a party other than Labour or Conservatives won the most votes in a UK-wide election.[83] Farage said the result would change British politics fundamentally.[84]

Regions

UKIP office in Tunbridge Wells

UKIP's organisation is divided into twelve regions.[85] It also has a branch in Gibraltar.

UKIP Scotland

UKIP in Scotland was led by Lord (Christopher) Monckton of Brenchley and chaired by Mike Scott-Hayward until late 2013, when the Scottish administration was dissolved and the Scottish section of the party "wiped out"[86] following what was described in The Herald newspaper as a "civil war"[87] between the Scottish leadership and challengers favoured by Farage. The dispute concerned the selection of candidates for the European Parliament election in 2014; seven of the nine shortlisted candidates resigned their candidacy immediately before Scottish members were balloted to pick the final six, in protest at what they saw as an unfair balloting process.[87] The ballot was delayed but eventually went ahead with fresh candidates and on 25 February 2014 at Glasgow's Grand Central Hotel, UKIP Scotland announced its full list of candidates for the election.

Commentators have observed that "Ukip in Scotland has failed to replicate the party's success south of the Border".[87] In the 2010 UK general election UKIP Scotland's candidate Robert Smith saved his deposit in the seat of Orkney and Shetland, winning 6.3% of the vote. In 2013 UKIP candidates came fifth narrowly losing their deposit in the Aberdeen Donside by-election and also fifth in the Dunfermline by-election. However, at the start of 2014 in the Cowdenbeath by-election for the Scottish Parliament, UKIP came 4th, outpolling the Scottish Liberal Democrats for the first time.

When Nigel Farage visited Scotland during a by-election campaign in May 2013, protesters from the Radical Independence Campaign interrupted his press conference in the Canon's Gait pub on Edinburgh's Royal Mile and forced him to be taken away in an armoured police van.[88][89][90] Protesters have similarly protested Farage's appearance on a Question Time episode hosted in Scotland.[91]

Citing its consistently low poll numbers in Scotland compared with England,[92] First Minster Alex Salmond dismissed Ukip as "irrelevant".[93] He and other impartial commentators claimed that this apparent divergence might be a significant factor in the independence referendum in September 2014, arguing that a strong result for UKIP in England in the 2014 European parliamentary elections, coupled with a poor result in Scotland, might help push Scottish voters towards supporting independence.[94] During the elections, however, UKIP achieved more than 10% of the vote in Scotland, winning its first Scottish MEP, David Coburn.,[95] and gaining over 140,000 votes.

UKIP Wales

UKIP Wales is headed by Warwick Nicholson[96]and is divided into the same areas as those for the Welsh Assembly. UKIP Wales has grown over the last six years[citation needed] since the election of John Bufton as UKIP's first MEP in Wales. He retired in 2014 to be replaced by Nathan Gill from Anglesey. The UKIP result in Wales was described by Nigel Farage as a great success and one of the best on the night of European Elections.[citation needed] The party polled over 200,000 votes almost beating Labour into second place.

UKIP Northern Ireland

UKIP's membership in Northern Ireland was 247 in June 2013.[97] The party's first representative to be elected under the UKIP label in Northern Ireland, the Kilkeel councillor Henry Reilly, is the party's Northern Ireland chairman. Alan Love is its vice-chairman, Barbara Trotter is secretary and Alan Lewis is treasurer. UKIP has one Member of the Northern Ireland Assembly, namely David McNarry, formerly chief whip for the Ulster Unionist Party, who joined UKIP in 2012. The party is registered as unionist in the Northern Ireland Assembly. Paul Nuttall, MEP for North West England and UKIP's deputy leader, has called for a UKIP-Traditional Unionist Voice electoral pact for the 2014 European Parliament election.[98] At the 2014 local elections the party gained two seats, increasing its number of councillors to three.[99]

UKIP Gibraltar

UKIP Gibraltar operates as a branch of UKIP in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It held its first public meeting at the "Lord Nelson" on 25 April 2013.[100] UKIP leader Nigel Farage has said that Gibraltar, along with all other British Overseas Territories, should have representatives in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, similar to the privileges given to French overseas territories in France. Farage believes that all citizens for whom the British Parliament passes legislation, whether in the United Kingdom or its territories, deserve democratic representation in that Parliament.[101]

Policies

A UKIP marquee at the Croydon Summer Festival, 2007

Although UKIP's original raison d'être was withdrawal from the European Union,[102] it was felt that the public perception of the party as a single-issue party – despite issuing full manifestos – was damaging electoral progress.[103] Farage, on becoming leader, started a wide-ranging policy review, his stated aim being "the development of the party into broadly standing for traditional conservative and libertarian values".[104]

Taxation and economy

UKIP supports raising the personal allowance so that people on minimum wage pay no income tax.[105] The party also proposes cuts in corporation taxes and the abolition of inheritance taxes.[106][107] The abolition of national insurance is advocated by UKIP, which it says will simplify the tax system.[108] UKIP proposes "tens of billions" of cuts to taxation, along with a further £77 billion of cuts to the public sector in order to reduce the deficit.[108] Economic plans outlined by UKIP in its 2010 manifesto have been called into question by The Times, which has claimed there is a “£120 billion black hole” in these spending plans.[109]

Health

According to the party website, UKIP proposes directing the majority of health care spending to elected County Health Boards, making spending decisions directly accountable to the public locally;[110][111] as well as dramatically cutting the Department of Health and bringing in professional procurement skills to reduce what UKIP says are the huge amounts of money wasted in procurement and resource allocation.[110] In addition, UKIP proposes introducing a voucher system that will enable people to receive treatment outside of the NHS, replace non-clinical managers with matrons to run NHS hospitals and introduce free dental and eye checks.[112]

European Union

A UKIP candidate campaigning in the run-up to the 2010 general election

UKIP advocates leaving the European Union, resulting in stopping payments to the EU and withdrawal from EU treaties, while maintaining trading ties with other European countries.[108] Nigel Farage says Britain can get a "simple free trade agreement",[113] and says that Britain can negotiate its own free trade agreements around the world without participation in EU trade agreements. For example, UKIP suggests that Britain can create a Commonwealth Free Trade Area.[114]

In its 2010 general election manifesto, UKIP stated that leaving the EU would allow Britain to "regain three essential Freedoms" and stated a belief in civic nationalism, which it says "is open and inclusive to anyone who wishes to identify with Britain, regardless of ethnic or religious background" while contrasting that with what it described as the "blood and soil" nationalism of extremist parties.[115]

European Court of Human Rights of the Council of Europe

UKIP wants to repeal the Human Rights Act, and remove Britain from both the European Convention on Refugees and the European Convention on Human Rights to "enable us to deport foreign criminal and terrorist suspects where desirable" while still "allow[ing] genuine asylum applications in accordance with our international obligations".[116][117]

Monarchy

UKIP fully supports the British monarchy and its constitutional role.[118] In 2012, it opposed disestablishment of the Church of England and said it would consider a transfer of part of the Crown Estates back to the Monarchy, in exchange for an end to annual State support.[119]

Immigration

UKIP hoarding in Exeter, 2009. Featuring Sir Winston Churchill, it reads "Say no to unlimited immigration. Take back control of our borders"

UKIP's policies on immigration are currently under review[120] after receiving criticism for not having "clear-cut" immigration policies.[121] The party has previously outlined a number of measures designed to reduce immigration into the UK [116][120] which include a five-year "freeze" on immigration for permanent settlement, the introduction of a points-based work-permit system and initiating a drive to remove illegal immigrants. In addition, UKIP proposes to allow EU citizens who have been domiciled in the UK for seven years to apply for citizenship.[116][120] Since EU immigrants are overwhelmingly white and non-EU immigrants are overwhelmingly non-white, UKIP’s immigration policy would mean a higher proportion of immigrants to Britain are ethnic minorities. This opposition to freedom of movement is, according to UKIP, to end discrimination on the basis of EU citizenship in favour of a purely skill based immigration policy.[122]

On 29 December 2013, Nigel Farage told the BBC that the UK should allow Syrian refugees to enter the UK, while continuing to limit "economic migration".[123] The next day he clarified his position, suggesting that Britain should allow refuge to the persecuted Christian minority in Syria.[124][125] His views were rejected by the government.[126]

Same-sex marriage

In November 2012, David Coburn of UKIP's National Executive Committee stated the party's policy on same-sex marriage: the party supports civil partnerships but opposes legalisation allowing same-sex marriage because of concerns that a law change could mean that faith groups and places of worship would be forced to perform same-sex marriages.[127][128] In March 2014, an answer submitted to Pink News by the UKIP press office had Farage saying UKIP would not overturn same-sex marriages if elected. Farage said that answer had not been approved by him, and was a "draft by a staff member that should never have been sent out".[129]

Energy, environment and climate change

UKIP are sceptical of man-made climate change and oppose the creation of wind farms and investment in other renewable energy sources.[127] In 2010, UKIP stated that they would seek to have a Royal Commission investigate whether or not climate change is man-made, to scrap wind farm subsidies, ban the showing of the global warming film An Inconvenient Truth in schools, and ban use of public money by local authorities on climate change-related efforts.[130] UKIP's 2013 energy policy document states that global warming is part of a natural cycle: "the slight warming in the last hundred years is entirely consistent with well-established, long-term natural climate cycles".[131]

On Any Questions, Nigel Farage described plans to increase the use of wind energy as "loopy" and said it would lead to Britain being covered "in ugly disgusting ghastly windmills" that would not satisfactorily provide for Britain's energy needs.[131]

Then UKIP spokesman Christopher Monckton said that the intention of a proposed United Nations climate treaty was to "impose a communist world government",[131] and stated that UKIP was the only option for those who disbelieve in climate change as "all the major parties have decided to sign up to the eco-fascist agenda".[130]

Defence

In its 2010 manifesto, UKIP proposed a 40 percent increase in defence spending and the purchase of three new aircraft carriers.[132] In January 2014, party leader Farage said that all the party's policies were under review and he would not commit to new ones until after the European elections in May.[133] The party has also pledged to streamline the Ministry of Defence and to oppose foreign military intervention and military aid.[134]

Party leaders

Leader Portrait Tenure Related notes
Alan Sked No image.svg 1993–1997
Craig Mackinlay No image.svg 1997 Acting leader
Michael Holmes, MEP No image.svg 1997–2000 MEP from 1999–2004
Jeffrey Titford, MEP No image.svg 2000–2002 MEP from 1999–2009
Roger Knapman, MEP Roger Knapman.jpg 2002–2006 MEP from 2004–2009
Nigel Farage, MEP Nigel Farage MEP 1, Strasbourg - Diliff.jpg 2006–2009 MEP from 1999
Lord Pearson of Rannoch Malcolm Pearson.jpg 2009–2010
Jeffrey Titford No image.svg 2010 Acting leader
Nigel Farage, MEP Nigel Farage MEP 1, Strasbourg - Diliff.jpg 2010–present

Representatives

House of Commons

The party has never had a Member of Parliament elected to the House of Commons under the UKIP banner, although it has twice briefly had representation due to the defection of Conservative MPs. In 2008, Dr Bob Spink, the MP for Castle Point, resigned the Tory whip (becoming an Independent) but then joined UKIP.[135] However, from 24 November he appeared again as an Independent in Commons proceedings,[136] On 28 August 2014, Douglas Carswell MP defected to UKIP after resigning from the Conservatives.[137] The following day, during the Parliamentary recess, he was appointed Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Manor of Northstead, disbarring him from sitting in the Commons and triggering a by-election.[138]

House of Lords

On 24 June 1995, UKIP gained its first member of the House of Lords, Lord Grantley, who had joined the party in 1993 from the Conservatives and had recently succeeded to his father's titles. However, with the coming House of Lords Act 1999, he decided not to stand for election as a continuing member, and so left the House in November 1999. Earlier in 1999, UKIP had gained a second peer in the House of Lords, Richard Thomas Orlando Bridgeman, 7th Earl of Bradford, but he, too, left the House in November 1999 because of the House of Lords Act. The Lord Pearson of Rannoch and Lord Willoughby de Broke both defected to UKIP on 7 January 2007, giving the party its first representation in the House of Lords since the departure of Lord Grantley and the Earl of Bradford.[139] The Lord Pearson of Rannoch went on to serve as party leader from November 2009 to September 2010. On 18 September 2012, The Lord Stevens of Ludgate joined UKIP, having sat as an Independent Conservative since his expulsion from the Conservatives in 2004.[140]

Devolved Seats
London Assembly
0 / 25
Scottish Parliament
0 / 129
Welsh Assembly
0 / 60
Northern Ireland Assembly
1 / 108

Northern Ireland Assembly

On 4 October 2012, UKIP, gained its first representation in the Northern Ireland Assembly in David McNarry, MLA for Strangford, who had been sitting as an independent, following his expulsion from the Ulster Unionist Party.[11][12][141]

Welsh Assembly and Scottish Parliament

UKIP do not currently have any representatives in the other devolved nations of Scotland or Wales. UKIP fielded candidates at the Scottish Parliament election on 5 May 2011, when its platform included a commitment to keep the Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh, while replacing the separately-elected Members of the Scottish Parliament with the Members of the House of Commons elected in Scotland.[142] The party also fielded candidates for the National Assembly for Wales.[143]

European Parliament

In 1999, three UKIP members were elected to the European Parliament. Together with Eurosceptics from other countries, they formed a grouping called Europe of Democracies and Diversities (EDD).

In 2004, 37 MEPs from the UK, Poland, Denmark and Sweden founded a new European Parliamentary group called Independence and Democracy (ID) from the old EDD group. However, following the European Parliament election, 2009, when Eurosceptic parties from Denmark, Sweden and elsewhere lost all representation, the ID group was dissolved.

UKIP has since formed a new right-wing grouping called Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD) comprising nationalist, Eurosceptic, conservative and other political factions. This group is more right-wing than the older Independence and Democracy grouping.[144]

In response to criticism of low participation by UKIP MEPs in the EU Parliament, Farage has said that "Our objective as MEPs is not to keep voting endlessly for more EU legislation and to take power away from Westminster."[145] In the 2009-14 parliament, UKIP ranked 76th out of 76 for attendance, took part in 61% of votes, and had three of six lowest attending MEPs,[146] which led to criticism from other parties and ex-UKIP MEPs that low participation may damage British interests.[147]

Current members of the European Parliament

UKIP has 24 members in the European Parliament, with representatives in eleven of the twelve European Parliament constituencies in the UK.

Constituency MEP(s)
East Midlands Roger Helmer, Margot Parker
East of England Patrick O'Flynn, Stuart Agnew, Tim Aker
London Gerard Batten
North East Jonathan Arnott
North West England Paul Nuttall, Louise Bours, Steven Woolfe
Scotland David Coburn
South East England Nigel Farage, Janice Atkinson, Diane James, Ray Finch
South West England William Dartmouth, Julia Reid
Wales Nathan Gill
West Midlands Jill Seymour, James Carver, Bill Etheridge
Yorkshire and the Humber Jane Collins, Amjad Bashir, Mike Hookem

Source: The Independent, 27 May 2014[148]

Local government

A map showing the representation of UKIP at various levels of English local government as of August 2014. Counties are in light purple; districts, boroughs and unitary authorities are in deep purple.

The first UKIP local council election win occurred when one of their members was elected to South Cambridgeshire District Council in 2000. A number of Conservative, Liberal Democrat, Labour and Independent local councillors in all four constituent nations of the UK have defected to UKIP over subsequent years, with the most recent defections to date (May to July 2013) coming from former Conservative councillors in the London Boroughs of Merton, Richmond upon Thames and Havering, and from Labour in Northampton and North-East Lincolnshire. In the May 2012 local elections, UKIP won a total of 7 seats in England out of 2,414 (no change on the previous year),[149] 2 seats in Wales out of 1,223 (up 1)[150] and no seats in Scotland out of 1,220 (down 1).[151] It failed to win any seats in the London Assembly, coming fifth overall with 4.5% of the vote. In November that year, it failed to win any contests in the England and Wales Police and Crime Commissioner elections. In May 2013, 33 English and one Welsh council held local elections, with UKIP gaining 139 seats for a total of 147, with significant gains in Lincolnshire, Norfolk and Kent.[152]

On 6 May 2011, the party won nine of the seventeen seats for Ramsey Town Council in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire. Before the election, the party had only one seat in the town council. On 12 May, UKIP councillor Lisa Duffy was elected as Mayor. The UKIP group leader for Huntingdonshire District Council said that the town council under UKIP would "be standing up for volunteers and the third sector and will be making grants to them to help the big society develop." The Daily Mail said that UKIP "has made political history after taking control of its first council in the UK".[153][dated info]

Defections and removals

Defections

Former television host Robert Kilroy-Silk who was elected as a UKIP MEP for the East Midlands in 2004 quit UKIP in 2005 he said he was ashamed to have joined the party, which he labelled as a "joke". Kilroy-Silk also said "I'm embarrassed with its allies in Europe,". At the time, the then UKIP leader Roger Knapman said he would "break open the champagne", adding: "It was nice knowing him, now 'goodbye'." Kilroy-Silk later formed Veritas [154]

David Campbell Bannerman defected from UKIP to the Tories on 24 May 2011. 'He said he had been "impressed" by David Cameron's leadership while UKIP was beset by "internal fighting" and was not a "credible" political force.'[155]

On 12 October 2011, Roger Helmer announced that he would resign from the European Parliament at the end of the year, citing "increasing disillusion with the attitudes of the Conservative Party" as the main reason, although admitting that his "twelve-and-a-half years banging my head against the same brick wall in Brussels is perhaps long enough".[156] It was announced on 2 March 2012 that he had defected from the Conservatives to the United Kingdom Independence Party.[157]

Marta Andreasen defected from UKIP to the Conservative Party in February 2013, describing leader Nigel Farage as "a Stalinist" who was "anti-women".[158] Previously Andreasen has called for current UKIP leader Nigel Farage to resign over poor local election results in May 2011.[56]

On 28 August 2014, Conservative MP Douglas Carswell resigned in his defection to UKIP and leading to a by-election in his Clacton constituency, at which he will stand for UKIP. Despite having 'resigned', by convention he remains the MP for the constituency until the completion of the by-election, and as such is an MP for UKIP.

Removals

In March 2010, the UKIP MEP Nikki Sinclaire was expelled from UKIP after resigning from the EFD grouping, citing her displeasure at what she perceived to be racist and extremist parties that belong to the EFD Group. Sinclaire also cited the deterioration of her relationship with Farage, the co-leader of the EFD group.[159] Sinclaire was subsequently expelled from UKIP for refusing to be part of the EFD group.[159] She later won a sex discrimination claim against her former colleagues, to which UKIP did not lodge a defence, and the ruling went against the party by default.[160]

Mike Nattrass failed a candidate assessment test in August 2013 and was deselected by the party for the 2014 European election.[161] He took the party to court over the decision, but lost. In September 2013, Nattrass resigned from UKIP, becoming an Independent MEP in the process. Natrass described Farage's leadership of the party as "totalitarian", following his earlier deselection.[162] He was the fourth UKIP MEP elected in 2009 to leave the party.

Godfrey Bloom whilst sitting as a UKIP MEP, and a senior party member made statements that have been described as "sexist". A few weeks after being appointed to the European Parliament's Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality on 20 July 2004, Bloom told an interviewer that, "no self-respecting small businessman with a brain in the right place would ever employ a lady of child-bearing age."[163] After inviting students from the University of Cambridge Women's Rugby Club to Brussels in 2004, Bloom was accused of sexual assault, making "sexist and misogynistic remarks" and using offensive language during a dinner party. Bloom, who sponsored the club with £3,000 a year, admitted making misogynist comments but denied sexual harassment.[164][165] On 20 September 2013, UKIP withdrew the party whip from Bloom after he assaulted journalist Michael Crick in the street, threatened a second reporter, and at the party's conference jokingly referred to his female audience as sluts.[166] Bloom sits as an independent MEP, but remains a member of UKIP.[167]

A month after being elected with the largest ever majority as Chairman of UKIP's youth wing Young Independence, Olly Neville was fired for his public support of equal marriage. A few days later, the prospective Parliamentary candidate for Chester, Richard Lowe, was also removed for his vocal support for marriage equality.[168]

Election results

House of Commons

House of Commons of the United Kingdom
Election year # of total votes  % of overall vote # of seats won
1997[169] 105,722 0.3% 0
2001[170] 390,563 1.5% 0
2005[171] 603,298 2.2% 0
2010[172] 919,546 3.1% 0

European Parliament

European Parliament
Election year # of total votes  % of overall vote # of seats won Rank
1994[173] 155,487 1% 0 8
1999[174] 696,057 6.7% 3 4
2004[175] 2,650,768 16.1% 12 3
2009[176] 2,498,226 16.6% 13 2
2014[82] 4,376,635 27.5% 24 1

Voter base

In 2011, the British academics Matthew Goodwin, Robert Ford and David Cutts published a study that identified Euroscepticism as the main causal factor for voters supporting UKIP, with concern over immigration levels and distrust of the political establishment also featuring as important motives. The average UKIP voter was 55 years old, which is older than for other parties. There was no correlation between social class and likelihood of voting UKIP, although UKIP voters tended to feel more financially insecure than the average voter. The skilled working class were found to be slightly overrepresented amongst UKIP voters, and there was a higher likelihood that a UKIP voter had grown up in a Conservative-supporting household compared to the average voter.[177]

In the same year, a study by Richard Whitaker and Philip Lynch of the University of Leicester, based on polling data from YouGov, concluded that "the balance of attitudinal explanations of UKIP support makes its voters distinct from those voting for far right parties". The authors found that voter support for UKIP correlated with concerns about the value of immigration, hostility to immigrants and a lack of trust in the political system but the biggest explanatory factor for their support of UKIP was Euroscepticism.[178] A further study by the same authors suggests that UKIP voters' core beliefs align very closely to those of the UKIP candidates; particularly so on issues surrounding European integration, which has resulted in Conservative voters switching to UKIP due to divisions within the Conservatives over this issue.[179]

In May 2013, Stephan Shakespeare, the CEO of YouGov, analysed the reasons for the strong support and performance of UKIP in the 2013 local elections. He observed that voter research showed UKIP had "very loyal" followers, with a high proportion of ex-Conservative voters, and that the primary reason for support was a sense by voters that UKIP "seemed to be on the same wavelength" as the population, was perceived as "genuine", "simply different", and that, by tapping into the "anti-politics mood", became contrasted strongly with "the others [who] haven't got a clue about the real world". He concluded that "you just don't get this [perception] with other party leaders, not even from their supporters". Noting also that 23% of voters reported giving "serious consideration" to voting UKIP, and that non-UKIP voters were "only half as likely to mention immigration or Europe" as existing UKIP voters. He also concluded that these potential voters were "best won" by providing a "broad agenda".[180]

Lord Glasman, an adviser to Labour leader Ed Miliband, said that in his opinion Labour voters who defected to UKIP may never return because the party is failing to address concerns on welfare and immigration.[181]

Membership

UKIP's membership numbers increased from 2002 to the time of the 2004 European Parliament election, before hovering around the 16,000 mark during the late 2000s.[182] By July 2013, the figure grew to 30,000[183] before ending the year at 32,500.[184] In 2014, the number was 36,000 on 22 April,[185] by 7 May reached 37,000[186] and on 19 May, less than a fortnight later and only three days before the 2014 European Parliament election, rose to 38,000.[187] The party announced a figure of 39,000 on 16 June.[188]

[189] Year
2010 15,535
2011 17,184
2012 19,500
2013 30,312
2014 40,000

Parties created by former UKIP members

Veritas

Veritas - Latin for "truth" - which has been described as a breakaway party from UKIP,[190] was founded at a press conference on 2 February 2005, during which Kilroy-Silk proclaimed "unlike the old parties, we shall be honest, open and straight", devoid of the other parties' "lies and spin". There were a number of defections from UKIP to the party including the UKIP London Assembly member Damian Hockney, who became deputy leader.[191] (Damian Hockney and Peter Hulme-Cross had been elected to the London Assembly in June 2004 as UKIP representatives, then switched to Veritas).

An Independence from Europe

An Independence from Europe was set up by the former UKIP MEP Mike Nattrass on 11 November 2013. Nattrass has said that the celebrity chef Rustie Lee, and a former Welsh minister are amongst his supporters.[192] The party stood in every constituency in England at the 2014 European Parliament elections. An Independence from Europe used the ballot paper description "UK Independence Now", drawing complaints from UKIP due to the similarity of the name and the party's description.[193] Three former UKIP councillors on Lincolnshire County Council have also joined the party.[194]

We Demand a Referendum

We Demand a Referendum is a British political party launched by the former UKIP MEP Nikki Sinclaire in June 2012.[195]

New Deal

New Deal, a party, which has been described as "a new left-of-centre anti–EU party which hopes to challenge Labour" was founded in September 2013 by UKIP's founder Alan Sked.[196]

One London

After the failure of Veritas, Damian Hockney and Peter Hulme formed One London on 1 September 2005. One London was registered as a party in November 2005 and was de-registered in November 2008.[197]

British Freedom Party and Liberty GB

Former UKIP candidate Paul Weston founded the defunct British Freedom Party and later Liberty GB, having left the party mainly due to what he described as its failure to address issues around Islam in Britain.[198]

See also

References

  1. ^ Hunt, Alex (1 March 2013). "How UKIP became a British political force". BBC News. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Independence Party, UK (16 June 2014). "UKIP IS DELIGHTED TO ANNOUNCE YET ANOTHER RECORD MEMBERSHIP FIGURE". Newton Abbott. 
  3. ^ Robinson, Chris (13 July 2010). Electoral Systems and Voting in the United Kingdom. Edinburgh University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0748627509. 
  4. ^ a b See:
    Abedi, Amir; Lundberg, Thomas Carl (2009). "Doomed to Failure? UKIP and the Organisational Challenges Facing Right-Wing Populist Anti-Political Establishment Parties". Parliamentary Affairs (Oxford) 62 (1): 72–87. doi:10.1093/pa/gsn036. 
    Benedetto, Giacomo (2006). "The United Kingdom: Position taking and the protection of red lines". Policy-making Processes and the European Constitution: A comparative study of member state and accession countries (Routledge): 235. "The UK Independence Party is a right-wing 'new populist' party..." 
    Owen Jones: Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class, p 245, Verso 2011
    David Art, Inside the Radical Right, p 188, Cambridge University Press, 2011
    Stephen Driver. Understanding British Party Politics, p 151, Polity Press 2011
    Daniel Trilling, Bloody Nasty People: The Rise of Britain's Far Right, p 154, Verso 2012
    Edgar Grande; Martin Dolezal; Marc Helbling; Dominic Höglinger (31 July 2012). Political Conflict in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-1-107-02438-0. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
    Jens Rydgren (20 December 2012). Class Politics and the Radical Right. Routledge. pp. 97–. ISBN 978-1-136-16061-5. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
    *Erik Oddvar Eriksen; John Erik Fossum (17 June 2013). Rethinking Democracy and the European Union. Routledge. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-1-136-49090-3. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  5. ^ Aylott, Nicholas; Magnus Blomgren; Torbjorn Bergman (18 February 2013). Political Parties in Multi-Level Polities: The Nordic Countries Compared. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 2009. ISBN 978-0230243736. 
  6. ^ Keith Edkins (9 February 2014). "Local Council Political Compositions". Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  7. ^ Fieschi, Catherine (15 June 2004). "The new avengers". The Guardian (London: Guardian News & Media). Retrieved 13 November 2008. 
  8. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe: The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe, by Wolfram Nordsieck". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 3 March 2013. 
  9. ^ "Constitution of the UK Independence Party". Retrieved 23 May 2014. "Objectives: 2.5 The Party is a democratic, libertarian Party" 
  10. ^ "What UKIP victory means". BBC. Retrieved 30 May 2014. "It is over 100 years since a national election has been won by a party other than the Conservatives and Labour." 
  11. ^ a b "Strangford MLA David McNarry joins UK Independence Party". BBC News. 4 October 2012. 
  12. ^ a b Sam McBirde, "McNarry set to join UKIP", Belfast Newsletter, 4 October 2012 (Archived at the Internet Archive)
  13. ^ "Local elections: Nigel Farage hails results as a 'game changer'". BBC. 3 May 2013. 
  14. ^ a b Hope, Christopher (5 May 2013). "Local elections 2013: Nigel Farage's Ukip surges to best ever showing, winning 150 seats". Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  15. ^ a b Watt, Nicholas (3 May 2013). "Ukip will change face of British politics like SDP, says Nigel Farage". The Guardian (London). 
  16. ^ "Nigel Farage re-elected to lead UK Independence Party". BBC News. 5 November 2010. 
  17. ^ "Profile: Nigel Farage". BBC News. 12 September 2006. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  18. ^ 'FARAGE, Nigel Paul', Who's Who 2013, A & C Black, 2013; online edn, Oxford University Press, Dec 2012; online edition, November 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  19. ^ "About UKIP". 
  20. ^ Cohen, Nick (6 February 2005). "Nick Cohen: No truth behind Veritas". The Guardian (London). 
  21. ^ "Scottish election: UK Independence Party profile". BBC (London). 13 April 2011. 
  22. ^ "Former UKIP leader quits party". BBC News (London). 21 March 2000. 
  23. ^ "Companies House WebCHeck - UNITED KINGDOM INDEPENDENCE PARTY LIMITED". Companies House. Company No. 05090691. Retrieved 13 September 2013. 
  24. ^ "(1) UK Independence Party Limited, (2) Gordon Howard Parkin v. Alan Hardy". Royal Courts of Justice. 26 October 2011. [2011] EWCA Civ 1204. Retrieved 13 September 2013. 
  25. ^ "Kilroy-Silk wants UKIP leadership", Daily Telegraph, 3 October 2004
  26. ^ "Kilroy quits UKIP group of MEPs", BBC News, 27 October 2004
    Matthew Tempest, "Kilroy resigns Ukip whip" Guardian online, 27 October 2004
  27. ^ "Kilroy-Silk quits 'shameful' UKIP", BBC News, 21 January 2005
  28. ^ Martin Hoscik, "UKIP on the London Assembly? What Farage and the Politics Show didn’t say…", MayorWatch, 23 March 2011
  29. ^ a b The Electoral Commission, Election 2005: constituencies, candidates and results, page 8, March 2006
  30. ^ "Result: Boston & Skegness". BBC News. 
  31. ^ "UKIP demands apology from Cameron", BBC News, 4 April 2006
  32. ^ Ros Taylor "Cameron refuses to apologise to Ukip", theguardian.com, 4 April 2006
  33. ^ Coates, Sam (29 March 2009). "Tory donor Stuart Wheeler faces expulsion over UKIP support". The Times (London). Retrieved 29 March 2010. 
  34. ^ "UK | Tory party to expel donor Wheeler". BBC News. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2010. 
  35. ^ "European Elections 2009, UK results". BBC News. 19 April 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  36. ^ "Farage to stand against Speaker". London: BBC News. 3 September 2009. 
  37. ^ "Lord Pearson elected leader of UK Independence Party". BBC News. 27 November 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  38. ^ "Tories fear Ukip could cause as much harm as SDP did to Labour". The Guardian. 1 March 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  39. ^ "Nigel Farage injured in plane crash on election day". BBC News. 6 May 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2010. 
  40. ^ "Electoral Commission website". Electoralcommission.org.uk. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  41. ^ "Election 2010". BBC News. Retrieved 26 May 2010. 
  42. ^ "Lord Tebbit challenges backing for Speaker John Bercow". BBC News. 7 March 2010. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  43. ^ Electoral Commission, 2010 UK general election results: Buckingham
  44. ^ Emily Andres & Andy Dolan, "Speaker John Bercow holds off challenge from UKIP's Nigel Farage who remains in hospital after election day plane crash", Daily Mail, 7 May 2010
  45. ^ Wells, Anthony. "TORRIDGE AND WEST DEVON". UK Polling Report. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  46. ^ "2010 General Election Results". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  47. ^ Gabbatt, Adam (17 August 2010). "Lord Pearson stands down as Ukip leader because he is 'not much good'". The Guardian (London). 
  48. ^ "Nigel Farage re-elected to lead UK Independence Party". BBC News. 5 November 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  49. ^ "Nigel Farage returns as Ukip leader". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  50. ^ Barnett, Ruth (5 November 2010). "Nigel Farage Re-Elected UKIP Party Leader". Sky News Online. Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  51. ^ "Lib Dems slump to sixth as Labour win Barnsley poll". BBC News. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  52. ^ "Labour celebrate victory in Oldham East by-election". BBC News. 14 January 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  53. ^ "We can become third biggest British party, claims UKIP leader after Lib Dems' Barnsley by-election bashing". Daily Mail (London). 5 March 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  54. ^ "Broadcasters' Liaison Group - Qualification Criteria". Broadcastersliaisongroup.org.uk. 5 May 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  55. ^ "English local elections: UKIP hopes to make gains". BBC News. 26 April 2011. 
  56. ^ a b "Call for UKIP's Nigel Farage to resign as double act turns sour". BBC News. 10 May 2011. 
  57. ^ "McNarry joining UKIP after UUP departure". UTV News. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  58. ^ Aylesburyvaledc.gov.uk Aylesbury Vale District Council
  59. ^ "Election 2010:Buckingham". BBC News. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  60. ^ See Opinion polling for the next United Kingdom general election for detail, including a list of every opinion poll carried out in 2012.
  61. ^ a b c "Local election 2013: Ken Clarke brands UKIP 'clowns'". BBC News. 28 April 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  62. ^ Kevin Schofield (27 April 2013). "Fury at UKIP ‘fruit loops’ being fielded at council elections". The Sun (London). Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  63. ^ "Crowborough UKIP election candidate in holocaust storm". The Argus. 25 April 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  64. ^ Duffin, Claire (5 March 2013). "Ukip candidate: 'PE prevents people becoming gay'". Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  65. ^ "Ukip 'Quite Proud' Of Taking BNP Votes, Says Nigel Farage". Huffington Post. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014. 
  66. ^ Hall, Melanie (30 April 2013). "Ukip candidate suspended over Nazi salute". Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  67. ^ "Local Council Elections: UKIP Make Big Gains". Sky News. 4 May 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  68. ^ Clark, Tom (13 May 2013). "Ukip surge in polls unprecedented since creation of the SDP in 1981". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  69. ^ Clark, Tom (11 June 2013). "Ukip support falls back but main parties remain weak on economy". The Guardian (London: GMG). ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  70. ^ Rentoul, John (15 June 2013). "ComRes Poll: Boris Beckons". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  71. ^ Twitter / tobyhelm: Labour 36 (-1), Tories 27(+1). Twitter.com. Retrieved on 17 July 2013.
  72. ^ "SNP's Mark McDonald wins Aberdeen Donside by-election", BBC News,, accessed 21 June 2013
  73. ^ Rowena Mason, "Ukip's Godfrey Bloom has whip removed after 'sluts' remark", The Guardian, 20 September 2013. Accessed 28 January 2018.
  74. ^ a b "Nigel Farage: 2010 UKIP manifesto was 'drivel'", BBC News, 24 January 2014
  75. ^ Rowena Mason, "Nigel Farage wrote foreword to Ukip's 'drivel' manifesto and helped launch it", The Guardian, 24 January 2014
  76. ^ a b Kunal Dutta "Nigel Farage vows to crack down on Ukip's 'Walter Mitty' candidates following embarrassment of David Silvester gay marriage flooding comments", The Independent, 28 January 2014
  77. ^ Patrick Wintour "Ukip suspends councillor who claimed floods were caused by gay marriage", The Guardian, 19 January 2014
  78. ^ Miranda Prynne "No more 'Walter Mittys' allowed in UKIP, says Nigel Farage", telegraph.co.uk, 28 January 2014
  79. ^ "Local elections 2014: results updated live". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  80. ^ Ofcom list of major parties, Ofcom, 3 March 2014
  81. ^ Jason Groves (4 March 2014). "Ukip must be treated as a major party and given more airtime in run-up to Euro elections, Ofcom orders TV channels". Mail Online (London). 
  82. ^ a b "Vote 2014: UK European election results". BBC News. 26 May 2014. 
  83. ^ a b "Farage: UKIP has 'momentum' and is targeting more victories". BBC News. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014. 
  84. ^ "European voters now calling for less EU". The UK News. Retrieved 27 May 2014. 
  85. ^ "Regions". UKIP. Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  86. ^ PaulHutcheon (1 December 2013). "Ukip 'wiped out' north of the Border after its Scots leader is sacked". Sunday Herald. Retrieved 28 January 2014. 
  87. ^ a b c PaulHutcheon (17 November 2013). "Ukip at war in Scotland". Sunday Herald. 
  88. ^ "Nigel Farage forced to flee Edinburgh's Royal Mile". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). 16 May 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  89. ^ "Farage swarmed by angry protesters in Edinburgh". BBC News. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  90. ^ Carrell, Severin (16 May 2013). "Nigel Farage flees barrage of abuse from Edinburgh protesters". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 18 May 2013. 
  91. ^ "Protest over UKIP leader Nigel Farage's BBC Question Time appearance". STV News. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  92. ^ "Election success for Ukip in England could encourage Scottish independence". New Statesman. Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  93. ^ McKay, David (18 May 2013). "Article - Farage ‘irrelevant’, says Salmond". Press and Journal. Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  94. ^ Glenn Gottfried, "Election success for Ukip in England could encourage Scottish independence", New Statesman, 29 April 2014
    - Ailsa Henderson, "Why Ukip matters in the Scottish independence referendum", The Spectator, 29 April 2014
  95. ^ "European election: UKIP wins first Scottish MEP seat". BBC News. 26 May 2014. 
  96. ^ http://www.farminguk.com/News/FUW-Flintshire-AGM-hears-about-farming-challenges_26580.html
  97. ^ "UKIP membership soars". Belfast News Letter. 9 June 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2014. 
  98. ^ "Would Euro pact give Jim Allister a fighting chance?". BelfastTelegraph.co.uk. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  99. ^ Northern Ireland council results, BBC News, accessed 25 May 2014
  100. ^ "UKIP launch on The Rock". The Olive Press, 30 April 2013
  101. ^ James Chapman, "Give Falklands and Gibraltar their own MP, says Farage: UKIP leader says territories' voices are dangerously 'muted'", Mail Online, 21 May 2013.
  102. ^ Underwood, Simon (6 September 2010). "UKIP's Political Strategy: Opportunistic Idealism in a Fragmented Political Arena". University Association for Contemporary European Studies Annual Conference. Bruges, Belgium. Retrieved 26 October 2010. 
  103. ^ Goodwin, Matthew (29 April 2013). "Ukip will deliver a sting – but not this year". theguardian.com. Retrieved 26 October 2013. 
  104. ^ Will Woodward, "UKIP trebles candidates for local elections", The Guardian, 11 April 2007
  105. ^ "UKIP's tax focus is on helping low paid, says Farage". BBC News. BBC. 1 June 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  106. ^ Watson, Nick (5 October 2006). "West Midlands: On the Coleshill trail". The Politics Show (British Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved 25 June 2008. 
  107. ^ "Inheritance tax U-turn punishes families again". UKIP. 11 February 2013. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013. 
  108. ^ a b c "Local elections: What does UKIP stand for?". BBC. 3 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  109. ^ "A £120bn black hole behind the UKIP dream for a better Britain". The Times. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  110. ^ a b Health. UK Independence Party. Retrieved: 24 May 2013.
  111. ^ "Local elections: What does UKIP stand for?". BBC News. 3 May 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  112. ^ White, Michael. "UKIP and the NHS". Health Service Journal. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  113. ^ "Nigel Farage on trade, National Insurance and expenses". BBC News. 5 November 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  114. ^ Paul Nuttall (18 July 2010). "The Commonwealth: Our alternative future". Ukipnw.co.uk. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  115. ^ "UKIP Manifesto Empowering the people". Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  116. ^ a b c "Immigration". UKIP. Archived from the original on 7 June 2013. 
  117. ^ Booth, Robert (7 March 2013). "What would a Ukip Britain look like?". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  118. ^ "UK Independence Party & policies; an overview". PressTV. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  119. ^ "Policies - The Constitution". UKIP. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2014.  (Archived at the Wayback Machine - no longer part of the party's site at the original URL)
  120. ^ a b c Wintour, Patrick (3 May 2013). "Ukip confirms immigration policy is 'under review'". The Guardian (London: GMG). ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  121. ^ Olad, Awale. "UKIP has an advantage that is not based on concrete policy proposals". Migrants Right Network. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  122. ^ Wickham, Alex (27 April 2014). "THE REAL RACISTS: UKIP IS THE ONLY PARTY THAT DOESN'T DISCRIMINATE AGAINST NON-WHITES". Breitbart. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  123. ^ Christopher Hope (29 December 2013). "Let Syrian refugees come to Britain, says Nigel Farage". Telegraph (London). 
  124. ^ Rowena Mason (30 December 2013). "Nigel Farage rows back on call to grant asylum to Syrian refugees". Guardian (London). 
  125. ^ "UKIP Leader Nigel Farage MEP on the Syrian refugees, Jeremy Vine, BBC Radio 2, 30.12.13". YouTube.com. 31 December 2013. 
  126. ^ Nicholas Watt, "Ukip's Nigel Farage shocks own party with call to let in Syrian refugees", The Guardian, 29 December
  127. ^ a b "Local elections: What does UKIP stand for?". BBC News. 3 May 2013. "They can broadly be seen as right wing, with a strong libertarian flavour and a dash of social conservatism." 
  128. ^ Scott Roberts (27 November 2012). "UKIP ‘not against gay adoption’ says London chairman". Pink News. PinkNews.co.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  129. ^ Joseph Patrick McCormick, "Nigel Farage appears to U-turn again on same-sex marriage", Pink News, 18 March 2014
  130. ^ a b Gray, Louise (25 February 2010). "UKIP would ban Al Gore film in schools". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  131. ^ a b c Ward, Bob (4 March 2013). "Ukip's energy and climate policies under the spotlight". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  132. ^ "What would a Ukip Britain look like?". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  133. ^ "Nigel Farage disowns Ukip's entire 2010 election manifesto". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  134. ^ "Why does UKIP oppose defence cuts if it wants to end "foreign wars"?". New Statesman. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  135. ^ "Ex-Tory MP Spink defects to UKIP". BBC News. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  136. ^ "Tory? UKIP? Now I'm just an independent says MP Bob". Southend Echo. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  137. ^ "Tory MP Douglas Carswell switches to UKIP". BBC News. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  138. ^ "HM Treasury: Manor of Northstead". Politics Home. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  139. ^ "Conservative peers defect to UKIP". BBC News. 9 January 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  140. ^ "Former Conservative peer Lord Stevens to join UK Independence Party". BBC News. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  141. ^ "McNarry explains UKIP move", Belfast Newsletter, 5 October 2012
  142. ^ "Scottish election: UKIP calls for abolition of MSPs". BBC News. 4 April 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  143. ^ "UKIP Polling at 12%". UKIP Wales. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  144. ^ "UKIP forms new Eurosceptic group". BBC News (BBC). 1 July 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2010. 
  145. ^ Dominiczak, Peter (5 March 2014). "Nigel Farage attacks 'hypocrite' Nick Clegg for calling him lazy". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  146. ^ Charter, David (13 May 2014). "Ukip’s lazy MEPs miss crucial votes that would help Britons". The Times. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  147. ^ Pickard, Jim; Stacey, Kiran; Barker, Alex (11 February 2014). "Ukip accused of failing to protect British interests in Brussels". Financial Times. Retrieved 20 July 2014. 
  148. ^ Adam Withnall, "Ukip's MEPs: After months of gaffes and controversies, meet the people who will represent Britain in the European Parliament"
  149. ^ "Vote 2012 - English Council Results". BBC News. 
  150. ^ "Vote 2012 - Welsh Council Results". BBC News. 
  151. ^ "Vote 2012 - Scottish Council Results". BBC News. 
  152. ^ "Vote 2013". BBC News. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  153. ^ "UKIP makes history by taking its first council". Daily Mail (London). 15 May 2011. 
  154. ^ "Kilroy-Silk quits 'shameful' UKIP". BBC News (BBC). 16 July 2004. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  155. ^ "UKIP MEP Campbell Bannerman defects to Conservatives". BBC News (BBC). 24 May 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  156. ^ Barrett, Matthew (12 October 2011). "Roger Helmer MEP to resign from the European Parliament". ConservativeHome. 
  157. ^ "Conservative MEP Roger Helmer joins UKIP". BBC News. 2 March 2012. 
  158. ^ "UKIP MEP Marta Andreasen defects to Conservatives". BBC News. 22 February 2013. 
  159. ^ a b "Rebel Euro MP Nikki Sinclaire expelled by UKIP". BBC News. 4 March 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2013. 
  160. ^ "Nikki Sinclaire wins UKIP sex discrimination case". BBC News. 23 December 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2013. 
  161. ^ Mike Nattrass, "West Midlands MEP 'failed' selection for UKIP", BBC News, (27 August 2013). Retrieved on 7 September 2013.
  162. ^ "Ukip a 'totalitarian party,' says resigning MEP", Channel 4 News, 12 September 2013
  163. ^ Booth, Jenny (20 July 2004). "UKIP man champions a woman's right to clean fridges". TimesOnline (London). 
  164. ^ Castle, Stephen (3 October 2009). "UKIP Man in Brussels faces harassment claim after trying to quash his sexist reputation". The Independent (London). Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  165. ^ "Harrassment case MEP brings debate to Bowtell". Varsity (Cambridge University student newspaper). 22 October 2004. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  166. ^ "Godfrey Bloom: UKIP MEP Calls Women 'Sluts'", Sky News, 20 September 2013
  167. ^ "Bloom quits as UKIP MEP after 'sluts' joke row", BBC News, 24 September 2013
  168. ^ Olly Neville (15 January 2013). "The Full Story: Why UKIP Fired Me". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 August 2014. 
  169. ^ Bryn Morgan. "General Election results, 1 May 1997". House of Commons Library. p. 6. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  170. ^ Bryn Morgan. "General Election results, 7 June 2001". House of Commons Library. p. 11. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  171. ^ "2005 General election results". UK Political Info. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  172. ^ "Election 2010 Results". BBC News. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  173. ^ "UNITED KINGDOM ELECTIONS TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, 9th JUNE 1994". demon.co.uk. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  174. ^ "UK Results - after 12 out of the 12 regions declared". BBC News. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  175. ^ "European Election: United Kingdom Result". BBC News. 14 June 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  176. ^ "European Election 2009: UK Results". BBC News. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  177. ^ Ford, Robert; Goodwin, Matthew J.; Cutts, David (May 2011). "Strategic Eurosceptics and Polite Xenophobes: Support for the UK Independence Party (UKIP) in the 2009 European Parliament Elections". European Journal of Political Research 51 (2): 204. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6765.2011.01994.x. Retrieved 18 November 2011 
  178. ^ Whitaker, Richard; Lynch, Philip (2011). "Explaining Support for the UK Independence Party at the 2009 European Parliament Elections". Journal of Elections, Public Opinion & Parties 21 (Volume 21, Issue 3): 359. doi:10.1080/17457289.2011.588439. Retrieved 18 April 2013 
  179. ^ Lynch, Philip; Richard Whitaker; Gemma Loomes (2012). "The UK Independence Party: Understanding a Niche Party's Strategy, Candidates and Supporters". Parliamentary Affairs 65 (5): 733–757. doi:10.1093/pa/gsr042. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  180. ^ Skakespeare, Stephan (3 May 2013). "Farage fans display a devotion that no other leader can inspire". The Times. p. 4. 
  181. ^ Matthew Holehouse "Labour's working class support 'died'", Daily Telegraph, 28 April 2014
  182. ^ Feargal McGuinness, Membership of UK political parties, House of Commons Library, 2012
  183. ^ George Eaton, "UKIP membership hits 30,000. Could it overtake the Lib Dems next?", New Statesman, 12 July 2013
  184. ^ "UKIP says it has signed up 13,000 new members in 2013", BBC News, 31 December 2013
  185. ^ "Ukip sets sights on dwarfing Lib Dems by general election in 2015". Daily Express. Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  186. ^ Hall, Mercer (7 May 2014). "Half Ukip’s Euro voters pledge to stay loyal to Nigel Farage in the 2015 General Election". The Daily Express (London). 
  187. ^ Martin, Ian (25 May 2014). "Ukip and Nigel Farage: How far they've come…". The Daily Telegraph. London. 
  188. ^ name="UKIP.orgAugust"
  189. ^ http://www.ukip.org/ukip_growth_a_direct_threat_to_labour.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  190. ^ "Kilroy wasn't here". BBC News. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  191. ^ "Kilroy launches 'Veritas' party". BBC News. 2 February 2005. Retrieved 27 May 2010. 
  192. ^ "Mike Nattrass MEP forms new party". An Independence Party. 11 November 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  193. ^ "UKIP suspends fraud trial Euro MP". BBC News. 16 July 2004. Retrieved 7 November 2009. 
  194. ^ Your county councillor, Lincolnshire County Council
  195. ^ Richards, S. (20 September 2012). "Is it time for UKIP to make way for a new Eurosceptic party?". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  196. ^ Shiv Malik, "Ukip founder creates new leftwing anti-EU party", The Guardian, 8 September 2013
  197. ^ "Renamed or Deregistered Parties". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  198. ^ Evans, Martin (28 April 2014). "Election candidate arrested over Churchill speech". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 

Further reading

External links