|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2008)|
|European Union / EEA|
|UK / Ireland / Commonwealth|
A business entity is an entity that is formed and administered as per commercial law in order to engage in business activities, charitable work, or other activities allowable. Most often, business entities are formed to sell a product or a service. There are many types of business entities defined in the legal systems of various countries. These include corporations, cooperatives, partnerships, sole traders, limited liability company and other specifically permitted and labelled types of entities. The specific rules vary by country and by state or province. Some of these types are listed below, by country. For guidance, approximate equivalents in the company law of English-speaking countries are given in most cases, e.g.
However, the regulations governing particular types of entity, even those described as roughly equivalent, differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
When creating or restructuring a business, the legal responsibilities will depend on the type of business entity chosen.
- S.A. (Sociedad Anónima): ≈ plc (UK)
- S.R.L. (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada): ≈ Ltd. (UK): ≈ limited liability company(USA)
- S.C.S. (Sociedad en Comandita Simple): ≈ limited partnership
- S.C.p.A.(Sociedad en Comandita por Acciones): limited partnership with shares
- Soc.Col.(Sociedad Colectiva): ≈ general partnership (USA)
- S.C.e I. (Sociedad de Capital e Industria)
- S.E. (Sociedad del Estado): ≈ state-owned enterprise
- S.G.R (Sociedad de Garantía Reciproca)
- Inc. (Incorporated): restricted to non-profit associations
- Ltd. (Limited): ≈ plc (UK). The suffix Ltd. may also be used by a private company limited by guarantee, such as a charity or university (these may obtain dispensation from the Registrar of Companies to operate without the suffix).
- NL (No liability): A type of mining, speculative, or research company with no right to call up the unpaid issue price of shares.
- Pty. Ltd. (Proprietary Limited Company): ≈ Ltd. (UK) ATF Trust. In Australia companies can act as a trustee for a trust.
- Pty. (Unlimited Proprietary) company with a share capital: A company, similar to its limited company (Ltd., or Pty. Ltd.) counterpart, but where the liability of the members or shareholders is not limited.
- Gen (Genossenschaft; types: Erwerbs- und Wirtschaftsgenossenschaft): ≈ cooperative
- Privatstiftung: ≈ private foundation
- Verein: ≈ nonprofit association
- European business entities
- e.U. (eingetragenes Einzelunternehmen): ≈ sole trader (UK), sole proprietorship (US)
- Kapitalgesellschaften: ≈ companies
- Personengesellschaften: ≈ partnerships
- unincorporated (i.e. unregistered and without legal personality):
- stG (stille Gesellschaft): ≈ partnership by estoppel (i.e., no partnership agreement)
- GesbR (Gesellschaft des bürgerlichen Rechts): ≈ partnership by contract (i.e., formed by partnership agreement); statutes and regulations concerning Austrian companies, especially with regards to the companies register (Firmenbuch), do not apply.
- incorporated (i.e. registered and with legal personality):
- unincorporated (i.e. unregistered and without legal personality):
See also help.gv.at (Austrian government site, in German)
- ААТ (Адкрытае акцыянернае таварыства Adkritaye Aktsiyanernaye Tavaristva): ≈ plc (UK), open
- ЗАТ (Закрытае ацыянернае таварыства Zakritaye Aktsiyanernaye Tavaristva): ≈ plc (UK), closed
- ІП (Індывідуяльны прадпрымальнік Individuyalni Pradprimalnik): sole proprietorship
- ПУП PUP (Прыватнае унітарнае прадпрыемства Privatnaye Unitarnaye Pradpriyemstva): private unitary enterprise
- ТАА (Таварыства з абмежаванай адказнасцю Tavaristva z Abmezhavanaj Adkaznastsiu): ≈ Ltd. (UK)
- private stichting / fondation privée: ≈ private foundation
- stichting van openbaar nut / fondation d'utilité publique: ≈ public foundation
- coentreprises (joint ventures):
- ESV (economisch samenwerkingsverband) / GIE (groupement d'intérêt économique): ≈ economic interest grouping
- stille handelsvennootschap / société interne: ≈ contractual joint venture (i.e., no JV company is created)
- tijdelijke handelsvennootschap / société momentanée: ≈ equity joint venture (i.e., JV company is created)
- VZW (vereniging zonder winstoogmerk) / ASBL (association sans but lucratif) / VoG (Vereinigung ohne Gewinnerzielungsabsicht): ≈ nonprofit association
- vereniging in deelneming / SEP (société en participation): ≈ equity partnership
- feitelijke vereniging / société de fait: ≈ de facto partnership, partnership by estoppel
- eenmanszaak / entreprise individuelle: ≈ sole trader (UK), sole proprietorship (US)
- VOF (vennootschap onder firma) / SNC (société en nom collectif): ≈ general partnership
- Comm.V (gewone commanditaire vennootschap) / SCS (société en commandite simple): ≈ limited partnership
- Comm.VA (commanditaire vennootschap op aandelen) / SCA (société en commandite par actions): ≈ publicly traded partnership
- BVBA (besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid) / SPRL (société privée à responsabilité limitée): ≈ Ltd. (UK)
- EBVBA (eenpersoons besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid) / SPRLU (société privée à responsabilité limitée unipersonnelle): single member Ltd.
- NV (naamloze vennootschap) / SA (societé anonyme): ≈ plc (UK)
- co-operative companies:
- CVBA (coöperatieve vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid) / SCRL (société coopérative à responsabilité limitée): ≈ limited liability cooperative
- CVOA (coöperatieve vennootschap met onbeperkte aansprakelijkheid) / SCRI (société coopérative à responsabilité illimitée): ≈ unlimited liability cooperative
- d.d.(dioničko društvo): ≈ plc (UK) ≈ AG (Germany)
- a.d.(akcionarsko društvo): ≈ plc (UK) ≈ AG (Germany)
- d.n.o.(društvo s neograničenom solidarnom odgovornošću): ≈ general partnership
- d.o.o.(društvo s ograničenom odgovornošću): ≈ Ltd. (UK) ≈ GmbH (Germany)
- k.d.(komanditno društvo): ≈ limited partnership
- s.p. (samostalni preduzetnik): ≈ Sole proprietorship (UK)
- Sociedade limitada (Ltda.): ≈ Ltd. (UK)
- S.A. (Sociedade anônima): ≈ plc (UK)
- Sociedade simples: PLLC
- Sociedade em comandita simples: ≈ ordinary limited partnership
- Sociedade em nome coletivo: ≈ general partnership
- Sociedade em conta de participação: ≈ general partnership
- Sociedade em comum: ≈ general partnership
- Cooperativa ≈ cooperative
- Empresa individual (firma individual): ≈ individual proprietorship / sole proprietorship
- Empresa Individual de Responsabilidade Limitada (EIRELI): Same as Ltd., but without partners.
- Micro empreendedor individual: ≈ individual enterprise
- Empresa pública: ≈ Government-owned corporation
- Sociedade de economia mista: ≈ Government-owned corporation
- Associação em sentido estrito (sem finalidade lucrativa): ≈ nonprofit association
- Organização não governamental: ≈ nonprofit association
- Organização da sociedade civil de interesse público: ≈ nonprofit association
- Organização social: ≈ nonprofit association
- Serviços sociais autônomos: ≈ nonprofit association
- Fundação privada: ≈ private foundation
- Fundação pública: ≈ public foundation
- AD / АД (aktsionerno drujestvo / акционерно дружество): joint stock company ≈ plc (UK)
- ADSITz / АДСИЦ (aktsionerno druzhestvo sus spetsialna investitsionna tsel / акционерно дружество със специална инвестиционна цел): real estate investment trust
- EAD / ЕАД (ednolichno aktsionerno druzhestvo / еднолично акционерно дружество): type of AD with a single member
- EOOD / ЕООД (ednolichno druzhestvo s ogranichena otgovornost / еднолично дружество с ограничена отговорност): type of OOD with a single member
- ET / ЕТ (ednolichen turgovetz / едноличен търговец): sole proprietorship
- OOD / ООД (drujestvo s ogranichena otgovornost / дружество с ограничена отговорност): ≈ Ltd. (UK)
- KD / КД (komanditno druzhestvo / командитно дружество): ≈ limited partnership
- KDA / КДА (komanditno druzhestvo s aktzii / командитно дружество с акции): limited partnership with shares
- SD / СД (subiratelno druzhestvo / събирателно дружество): ≈ general partnership, but having legal personality
- SP (Sole Proprietorship)
- GP (General Partnership)
- LP (Limited Partnership)
- SM Pte Ltd. (Single Member Private Limited Company):
- Pte Ltd. (Private Limited Company): ≈ [private limited company (Ltd.)] (UK)
- Plc Ltd. (Public Limited Company): ≈ plc (UK)
- PEEC (Public Establishment with Economic characteristics)
- State Company: ≈ plc
- State Joint Venture Company: ≈ plc
- Import Export Co., Ltd
In Canada entities can be incorporated under either federal or provincial (or territorial) law. Unlimited liability corporations can be formed in Alberta "AULC" and Nova Scotia "NSULC".
The word or expression “Limited”, Limitée, “Incorporated”, Incorporée, “Corporation” or Société par actions de régime fédéral or the corresponding abbreviation “Ltd.”, Ltée, “Inc.”, “Corp.” or S.A.R.F. forms part of the name of every entity incorporated under the Canada Business Corporations Act (R.S., 1985, c. C-44). ≈ Ltd. or Plc (UK)
As an exception, entities registered prior to 1985 may continue to be designated Société commerciale canadienne or by the abbreviation S.C.C.
Under the Canada Cooperatives Act (1998, c. 1), a co-operative must have the word “cooperative”, “co-operative”, “coop”, “co-op”, coopérative, “united” or “pool”, or another grammatical form of any of those words, as part of its name.
Unlike in many other Western countries, Canadian businesses generally only have one form of incorporation available. The aforementioned AULC and NSULC are generally not used as operating business structures, but are instead used to create favorable tax positions for either Americans investing in Canada or vice versa.
Rather, Canadian businesses are generally formed under one of the following structures:
- SP (Sole Proprietorship): No formal business structure is established
- GP (General Partnership): Either a formal structure with a partnership agreement, or an informal structure, in which case the Partnerships Act for the province will apply
- LP (Limited Partnership): An investment structure, limiting both the liability and the participation of the investor. An investor who takes an active role will be deemed a general partner, and become exposed to unlimited liability.
- Joint Venture: A business activity shared by two or more business entities. The joint venture's activities must be finite in terms of either time or scope.
- S.A. (Sociedad Anónima): ≈ plc (UK), Corporation (US)
- Ltda. (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada): ≈ Ltd. (UK), LLC (US)
- S.A.S. (Sociedades por Acciones Simplificada): Similar to the French S.A.S (societé par actions simplifieé)
- S. en C. (Comandita Simple): Limited partnership
- S.C.A. (Comandita por Acciones): Public–private partnership
- S.C. (Sociedad Colectiva): General partnership
- E.U. (Empresa Unipersonal): Sole proprietorship
- a.s., akc. spol. (Akciová společnost): ≈ plc (UK). Minimum share capital CZK 2m (20m for IPOs). Must have a supervisory board in addition to the management board.
- s.r.o., spol. s r.o. (Společnost s ručením omezeným): ≈ Ltd. (UK)
- v.o.s. (veřejná obchodní společnost): ≈ general partnership
- k.s. (komanditní společnost)
- Enkeltmandsvirksomhed: sole proprietorship
- Forening: ≈ association
- I/S (Interessentskab): ≈ general partnership.
- ApS (Anpartsselskab): private limited company.
- A/S (Aktieselskab): public limited company.
- K/S (Kommanditselskab): limited partnership
- P/S (Partnerselskab or Kommanditaktieselskab): partnership limited by shares
- A.M.B.A. (Andelsselskab med begrænset ansvar): limited liability co-operative.
- F.M.B.A. (Forening med begrænset ansvar): limited liability voluntary association.
- S.M.B.A. (Selskab med begrænset ansvar): limited liability company.
- Partsrederi: A form of combined and continued ownership of a merchant vessels.
- Erhvervsdrivende fond: commercial foundation
- G/S (Gensidigt selskab): mutual organization
- C. por A. (Compañía por Acciones), also abbreviated CXA
- S.A. (Sociedad Anónima): ≈ public limited company
- S.A.S (Sociedad Anónima Simplificada): ≈ [(Simplified public limited company)]
- SRL. (Sociedad de Resposabilidad Limitada): ≈ Limited Liability Company
- EIRL. (Empresa Individual de Responsabilidad Limitada): ≈ [(Sole proprietor Limited Liability Company)]
- Sociedad En Comandita Simple.
- FIE (Füüsilisest isikust ettevõtja): ≈ sole trader (UK), sole proprietorship (US)
- UÜ (Usaldusühing): ≈ limited partnership
- TÜ (Täisühing): ≈ general partnership
- OÜ (Osaühing): ≈ (Ltd.) private limited company (UK), (LLC) limited liability company (US)
- AS (Aktsiaselts): ≈ (PLC) public limited company (UK), corporation (US)
- Tulundusühistu: ≈ commercial association
European Economic Area (including the European Union)Edit
- SCE (Societas Cooperativa Europaea): a European Cooperative (Societas Cooperativa Europaea is Latin for "European Cooperative Society").
- SE (Societas Europaea): a European (Public) Limited Company (Societas Europaea is Latin for "European Company").
- (proposed) SPE (Societas Privata Europaea): a European private limited company, corresponding to Ltd., GmbH, etc. This form of company is currently being proposed by the European Commission.
An SE or SCE may be created by registration in any of the EU/EEA Member States, and is subject to the European Company Statute. It may relocate its registered office to any other EU/EEA Member State with minimal formalities.
General economic entities
- Ay (avoin yhtiö, Swedish: öppet bolag): ≈ general partnership (use optional)
- Ky (kommandiittiyhtiö, Swedish kommanditbolag, Kb): ≈ limited partnership
- Oy (osakeyhtiö, Swedish: aktiebolag, Ab): ≈ Ltd. (UK). Minimum share capital €2500.
- Oyj (julkinen osakeyhtiö, Swedish: publikt aktiebolag, Abp): ≈ plc (UK)
- osk (osuuskunta, Swedish: andelslag, Anl.): ≈ cooperative
- T:mi (toiminimi), Yksityinen elinkeinonharjoittaja (Swedish: firma/F:ma, enskild näringsidkare): sole proprietorship (use optional)
The abbreviations are usually in Finnish, but Swedish names may also be used either as is or in combination with Finnish, e.g. Oy Yritys Ab.
- rekisteröity yhdistys, abbr. ry (Swedish: förening, abbr. rf): registered association, capable of acting as a legal person
- rekisteröity puolue, abbr. rp Swedish: registrerat parti): registered political party
- säätiö, abbr. rs (Swedish: stiftelse): foundation
- uskonnollinen yhdyskunta (Swedish: religionssamfund), religious community
- voluntary associations chartered by statute law (e.g. Finnish Red Cross, National Defence Training Association of Finland, Finnish Bar Association)
For-profit entities of public law
- valtion liikelaitos (Swedish: statens affärsverk): commercial government agency, expected to fund themselves, but debts directly backed by state funds — distinguished from regular companies where the government owns stock. (See: List of Finnish government enterprises)
- kunnallinen liikelaitos (Swedish: kommunal affärsverk): municipal enterprise, similar as previous but run by a municipality
- paliskunta: a reindeer herding corporation, governed like a stock company except that the "stocks" are reindeer
Economic entities for special purpose
- asunto-osakeyhtiö (Swedish: bostadsaktiebolag), a limited liability company for the ownership, construction and maintenance of an apartment building
- julkinen keskinäinen vakuutusyhtiö, abbreviated jy (Swedish: publikt ömsesidigt försäkringsbolag), public mutual insurance company
- keskinäinen kiinteistöosakeyhtiö (Swedish: ömsesidiga fastighetsaktiebolag, a limited liability company for the ownership, maintenance and construction of real property.
- keskinäinen vakuutusyhtiö (Swedish: ömsesidigt försäkringsbolag), mutual insurance company
- laivaisännistöyhtiö (Swedish: partrederi), a type of general partnership for the owning of a merchantman
- säästöpankki (Swedish: sparbank), a type of loans and savings association
Real estate law corporations
In the corporations of real estate law, the ownership or membership may be vested either in the real property or in a legal or natural person, depending on the corporation type. In many cases, the membership or ownership of such corporation is obligatory for a person or property that fulfils the legal requirements for membership or wishes to engage in certain activities.
- keskivedenkorkeuden muuttamista varten perustettu yhteisö (Swedish: Sammanslutning som bildas för höjning av medelvattenståndet), a corporation of water law for the permanent change of the median water level
- ojitusyhteisö (Swedish: dikningssammanslutning), a corporation of water law for the construction and maintenance of ditches
- säännöstely-yhteisö (Swedish: regleringssammanslutning), a corporation of water law for the regulation of water level in a body of water
- tiekunta (Swedish: väglag), a type of limited-liability corporation for the maintenance of private road
- uittoyhteisö (Swedish: flottningssammanslutning), a corporation of water law for timber-floating
- vesioikeudellinen yhteisö (Swedish: vattenrättslig sammanslutning), a corporation of water law for a project that involves economic use of bodies of water
- yhteisalue (Swedish: samfälliga område), a corporation for the maintenance of a real property jointly used by several other properties or persons
- yhteismetsä (Swedish: samfälld skog), a jointly owned forest
- osakaskunta (historically "jakokunta"), a partition unit, i.e. a corporation for maintenance of the commons.
In addition to native types, European Union types are implemented:
- Micro-entreprise: special framework for minute businesses, a recent addition to French business law -with both revenue and pre-tax net income caps, of which Auto-entrepreneur (below) is a special case
- Freelancers, individual independent contractors:
- Auto-entrepreneur: ≈ self-employed (UK), independent contractor (US), a recent addition to French business law -with both a revenue cap and a specific set of derogatory income tax rates
- Profession libérale: ≈ sole proprietorship such as a medical practice, an enduring entity stemming from the protected status designed for "liberal professions" with unlimited personal liability
- Sociétés d'exercice libéral: the incorporated equivalent of the latter, sole shareholder limited liability being key
- EI (Entreprise individuelle/entreprise en nom personnel):
- EURL, SASU (U- unipersonnelle): limited liability, sole shareholder Ltd. company (UK) or single member close corporation
- Investment funds/companies:
- FCP (Fond commun de placement): unincorporated investment fund
- Société d'investissement à capital fixe: ≈ investment trust (UK); closed-end fund (CEF), closed-end company (US); listed investment company (LIC) (Au)
- SICAV (Société d'investissement à capital variable): ≈ investment company with variable capital (ICVC), open-ended investment company (OEIC) (UK); mutual fund, open-end company (US)
- GIE (Groupement d'intérêt économique): economic interest grouping
- Association: ≈ nonprofit association
- Association non-déclarée: ≈ unincorporated association (UK)
- Association déclarée: ≈ incorporated association (Au)
- Partnerships (société de personnes):
- Companies (société de capitaux):
- SARL, SàRL (Société à responsabilité limitée): ≈ private limited company (Ltd.) (UK), limited liability company (US)
- EURL (Entreprise unipersonnelle à responsabilité limitée): ≈ single shareholder limited company (SME Pvt) (UK)
- stock companies (société par actions)
- SA (Société anonyme): ≈ public limited company (plc) (UK), corporation (US/Can)
- SAS (Société par actions simplifiée): ≈ unlisted public company (Au), close corporation (CC) (S.Africa), private corporation (Can); often used for subsidiaries; minimum of one director and two members/shareholders; no limit on share capital; liability can be restricted to director; no "one share - one vote" principle
- SARL, SàRL (Société à responsabilité limitée): ≈ private limited company (Ltd.) (UK), limited liability company (US)
- Einzelunternehmen: individual entrepreneur ≈ sole trader (UK), sole proprietorship (US)
- e.K./e.Kfm./e.Kfr. (eingetragener Kaufmann/eingetragene Kauffrau): registered entrepreneur ≈ sole trader (UK), sole proprietorship (US)
- Partenreederei: A form of combined and continued ownership of a single merchant vessel.
- e.G. (eingetragene Genossenschaft): ≈ cooperative
- e.V. (eingetragener Verein): ≈ association
- Partnerships (Personengesellschaften)
- GbR (Gesellschaft bürgerlichen Rechts): no minimum capital, unlimited liability of partners, non-business or small-business activities only.
- Innengesellschaft: ≈ anonymous partnership (S.Africa)
- registered business partnerships (Personenhandelsgesellschaften)
- OHG (offene Handelsgesellschaft): ≈ general partnership; no minimum capital, unlimited liability of partners.
- KG (Kommanditgesellschaft): ≈ limited partnership
- In case the general partner is a limited company, the legal form of the general partner must be included in the name of the company, resulting in combined legal forms such as:
- GmbH & Co. KG: the general partner is a GmbH
- AG & Co. KG: the general partner is an AG
- GmBH & Co. OHG: each of the general partners are a GmbH
- PartG (Partnerschaftsgesellschaft): ≈ professional (service) partnership
- Limited Companies (Kapitalgesellschaften)
- KGaA (Kommanditgesellschaft auf Aktien): ≈ publicly traded partnership (US)
- Although it is a Kapitalgesellschaft ≈ limited company, the KGaA has at least one general partner whose liability is not limited
- As with the KG, the legal form of the general partner must be included if it is another limited company, resulting in combined legal forms such as:
- GmbH & Co. KGaA: the general partner is a GmbH
- AG & Co. KGaA: the general partner is an AG
- GmbH (English //) (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung): ≈ private limited company (Ltd.) (UK), limited liability company (LLC) (US). Minimum capital €25,000.
- If under the trade name "Unternehmergesellschaft (haftungsbeschränkt)", its minimum capital is €1 (times the number of shares).
- The "mit beschränkter Haftung (mbH)" suffix (English //) ("with limited liability") is sometimes added to the name of a firm that already ends in "-gesellschaft" ("company"), e.g., "Mustermann Dental-Handelsgesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung" ("dental trading company with limited liability"), which would be abbreviated as "Mustermann Dental-Handelsgesellschaft mbH".
- KGaA (Kommanditgesellschaft auf Aktien): ≈ publicly traded partnership (US)
- A.E. (Anónimi Etería / Ανώνυμη Εταιρεία, Α.Ε.): ≈ plc (UK), minimum capital €24,000
- A.V.E.E. (Anónimi Viomihanikí Emborikí Etería / Ανώνυμη Βιομηχανική Εμπορική Εταιρεία, Α.Β.Ε.Ε.)
- E.E. (Eterórithmi Etería / Ετερόρρυθμη Εταιρία, Ε.Ε.): limited partnership
- E.P.E. (Etería Periorisménis Euthínis / Εταιρεία Περιορισμένης Ευθύνης, Ε.Π.Ε.): ≈ Ltd. (UK), minimum capital €4,500
- M.E.P.E. (Monoprósopi Etería Periorisménis Euthínis / Μονοπρόσωπη Ε.Π.Ε., Μ.Ε.Π.Ε.): type of E.P.E. with a single member
- O.E. (Omórithmi Etería / Ομόρρυθμη Εταιρεία, Ο.Ε.): general partnership
- O.V.E.E. (Omórithmi Viomihanikí Emborikí Etería / Ομόρρυθμη Βιομηχανική Εμπορική Εταιρεία, Ο.Β.Ε.Ε.)
- I.K.E. (Idiotiki kefaleouhiki Eteria / Ιδιωτική Κεφαλαιουχική Εταιρεία) = Private Company, minimum capital=€0. The shares do not take the form just of capital but also warranties, labor offer etc. This form is a composite form between A.E. E.P.E and O.E. which is greatly affected by the Articles of Incorporation.
- y Cía. S. C. (Sociedad Colectiva)
- y Cía. S. en C. (Sociedad en Comandita Simple)
- Cía. Ltda. (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada)
- S. A. (Sociedad Anónima)
- Cía. S. C. A (Sociedad en Comandita por Acciones)
- Standardized Company; Legal Form, Sociedad Anónima (SA) – Stock Corporation; Minimum Capital Requirement, 25,000
- Ltd (Limited/有限公司): may denote either a private or public company limited by shares, or a company limited by guarantee. Under the Companies Ordinance, the name of a Hong Kong incorporated company may be registered in English, Chinese, or both.
- Unltd or Ultd (Unlimited/無限公司): similar to a limited liability company (Ltd) but whose members or shareholders do not benefit from limited liability should the company ever go into formal liquidation. It is not a requirement under company law to add or state the word or designation Unlimited (無限公司) or its abbreviations (Unltd or Ultd) at the ending of its legal company name, and most unlimited companies do not.
- e.v. (egyéni vállalkozó): sole proprietorship
- e.c. (egyéni cég): sole proprietorship registered at "companies house"
- bt. (betéti társaság): partnership, at least one unlimited/general partner and one limited partner
- kft. (korlátolt felelősségű társaság): ≈ Ltd. (UK)
- kht. (közhasznú társaság): community interest Ltd. (UK) (not registrable anymore, must use Nonprofit Kft. instead)
- kkt. (közkereseti társaság): ≈ general partnership
- kv. (közös vállalat): joint venture
- rt. (részvénytársaság) limited company with shares (not registrable anymore, must use Zrt or Nyrt depending on publicness)
- zrt. (zártkörűen működő részvénytársaság): ≈ Ltd. (UK)
- nyrt. (nyilvánosan működő részvénytársaság): ≈ plc (UK)
Of these, only nyrt., zrt., the formerly used rt., and kft. have legal personality.
|ehf. (einkahlutafélag)||≈ Ltd. (UK)|
|hf. (hlutafélag)||≈ plc (UK)|
|ohf. (opinbert hlutafélag)||government-owned corporation|
|samlagsfélag||≈ limited partnership|
|sf. (sameignarfélag)||≈ general partnership|
|ses. (sjálfseignarstofnun)||non-profit organization||
- Sole Proprietorship - liability is unlimited.
- No registration.
- Partnership - liability is joint and unlimited.
- Registration not compulsory.
- Active partners take part in day-to-day operations of the business, in addition to investing in it. Active partners are entitled to a share of the enterprise's profits.
- Sleeping partners invest in the business and are entitled to a share of its profits, but do not participate in day-to-day operations.
- Limited Liability Partnership - Liability is limited
- HUF (Hindu Undivided Family) - businesses owned by a joint family belonging to Hindu religion. Even though Jain and Sikh families are not governed by the Hindu law, they can still form a HUF.
- Dormant company - A company which has been created for a future project or for holding assets including intellectual property of the company
- Family Owned Business
- Pvt. Ltd. (Private Limited Company): ≈ Ltd. (UK). May have 2–200 shareholders; shares are held privately and can not be offered to public.
- Small company - A company other than a public company whose paid up share capital is not more than 50 lakh rupees or turnover does not exceed two crore rupees.
- Ltd. (Public Limited Company): ≈ plc (UK)
- Public Sector Unit (PSU) - Alternatively known as Public Sector Enterprise (PSE). It may be public limited company listed on stock exchanges with major ownership by a state government or a central government of India or it may be unlisted entity with major ownership by a state government or a central government of India. Some of these entities are formed as business entities through special legislation, where these entities are governed by the statutes of these legislation and may or may not be governed by company laws like a typical business entity.
- One person company - It is a type of private company which can have only one director and member.
- Unlimited Company. A company, similar to its limited company (Ltd., or Pvt. Ltd.) counterpart, but where the liability of the members or shareholders is not limited.
- Incorporated Company
- Yayasan: foundation
- UD (Usaha Dagang): sole proprietorship
- Fa (Firma): a partnership firm for the purpose of dealing with third parties.
- Koperasi: a cooperative, where the clients/customers are also the owner
- Maatschap (Persekutuan Perdata): a professional partnership, where the partners are treated as natural persons for tax and liability purposes e.g. Kantor Akuntan Publik Siddharta, Siddharta & Wijaya.
- Persekutuan Komanditer (Dutch: CV – Commanditaire Vennootschaap): limited partnership
- Perusahaan Umum (Perum), Perusahaan Jawatan (Perjan): state-owned entities e.g. Perum Peruri, Perjan Rumah Sakit Fatmawati
- PT (PERSERO) Tbk, PT (PERSERO): state-owned or majority state-owned PT Tbk or PT, e.g. PT Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk
- PT (Perseroan Terbatas): ≈ Ltd. (UK), e.g. PT Astra Honda Motor
- PT Tbk (Perseroan Terbatas Terbuka or Perseroan Terbuka): ≈ plc (UK). Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange, e.g. PT Multi Bintang Indonesia Tbk. Formerly also Dutch NV (Naamloze Vennootschap)
- شرکت سهامی عام (Sherkat Sahami Am): ≈ plc (UK), public
- شرکت سهامی خاص (Sherkat Sahami Khas): ≈ plc (UK), private
- شرکت با مسئولیت محدود (Sherkat ba Masouliyat Mahdoud): ≈ Ltd. (UK)
- شرکت مختلط غیر سهامی (Sherkat Mokhtalet Gheyr Sahami): ≈ limited partnership
- شرکت مختلط سهامی (Sherkat Mokhtalet Sahami): mixed joint-stock partnership
- شرکت تضامنی (Sherkat Tazamoni): ≈ general partnership
- شرکت نسبی (Sherkat Nasabi): proportional liability partnership
- شرکت تعاونی تولید و مصرف (Sherkat Ta’avoni Tolid va Masraf): production and consumption cooperative
Similar to United Kingdom below, though without the class Community Interest Company. There were two forms of Company Limited by Guarantee, but only the form without a share capital is now used. Irish names may also be used, such as cpt (cuideachta phoibli theoranta) for plc, and Teo (Teoranta) for Ltd.
- Limited Company – Four types:
- Private company limited by shares – If company is wound up, members’ liability is limited to the amount, if any, unpaid on the shares they hold. Maximum number of members in the Republic of Ireland is 99.
- Company limited by guarantee not having a share capital - Public company. Must have at least seven members. Members' liability limited to amount they have undertaken to contribute to company assets. If wound up, liability does not exceed amount specified in memorandum. If a guarantee company does not have a share capital, members are not required to buy shares (such as charities).
- Company limited by guarantee having a share capital - As with a private company if the maximum number of members is 99. Members have liability either for the amount, if any, that is unpaid on the shares they hold, or for the amount they have undertaken to contribute to company assets, in the event that it is wound up.
- A public limited company. Must have at least seven members. Liability is limited to the amount, if any, unpaid on shares they hold. Unlawful to issue any form of prospectus except in compliance with the Companies Acts 1963-2006. Nominal value of Company's allotted share capital must satisfy specified minimums which must be fully paid before company commences business or exercises any borrowing powers.
- Single Member Company – Private company limited by shares or a guarantee company having a share capital, which is incorporated with one member, or whose membership is reduced to one person. Must have at least two directors and one secretary. Sole member can dispense with holding General Meetings including Annual General Meetings.
- Unlimited Company - No limit on liability of members. Creditors may have recourse to shareholders for unpaid liabilities of the company. Must have at least two shareholders.
- Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities (UCITS) - Public limited companies formed under EU Regulation and the Companies Acts 1963-2006. Sole object of a UCIT is collective investment in transferable securities of capital raised from the public that operates on the principle of risk-spreading. Central Bank of Ireland must approve all registrations of UCITS.
- European Economic Interest Groupings (EEIG) - Mechanism for a business within the EU to engage in cross-border commerce. Purpose is to facilitate or develop economic activities of its members. Must have between two and 20 members which may be companies or individuals from different EU states.
- Societas Europaea (SE) – A European public limited liability company formed under EU Regulation and the European Communities Regulations 2007. Can be formed by merger or as a holding or subsidiary SE or by conversion of a PLC to an SE. Must have members from different Member States unless an SE itself is setting up a subsidiary SE.
- B.M./BM/בע"מ (Be'eravon Mugbal) literally: by limited liability/warranty, usually translated "Ltd." in English, pronounced "BE'AM" in Hebrew.
- Company (corporation) - Formed and registered in Israel in accordance with Israeli law. Most companies limit liability of their members in the form of shares. In this case the term "Limited" or the abbreviation "Ltd." must appear as part of the full name of the Company.
- Private Company, 1-50 shareholders, 1 director, may not offer or sell stock or debentures to the public. Articles must containt restriction on transfer of shares.
- Public Company, minimum 7 shareholders, may offer stock or debentures to the public after issuing a prospectus with specified information. Must publish annual report that includes audited financial statements and directors' report, filed with Register of Companies, available to the public.
- Foreign Company (branch) - Company formed overseas may have a branch or local office in Israel. Must register as a foreign company with Register of Companies within one month of its establishment. If the company uses "limited" as part of its name, it must display its name and the country where it is formed in every invoice, letter, announcement, advertisement, or other official publication. No requirement to publish financial statements of a private company.
- Partnership - Entity that consists of persons who contract to form a partnership. Personal liability of the partners is not limited unless they are limited partners of limited partnerships. A foreign partnership is also permitted to do business in Israel.
- Self-employed - A self-employed person works entirely for him/herself and is entirely liable for the business. Same rules of registration apply.
- Cooperative - Entity found mainly in agriculture (such as a kibbutz or moshav), or transportation, or certain types of marketing operations associated with agricultural products.
- Non profit organization - Mainly academic institutions, hospitals, charitable organizations, and municipalities. Non profits are subject to a special law governing their formation and operations.
- Forme individuali:
- Società di persone (Partnerships):
- Società di capitali (Companies):
- S.c.r.l. (Società cooperativa a responsabilità limitata) cooperative limited (liability) company
Business corporations are referred to as kaisha (会社) and are formed under the Companies Law of 2005. There are currently (2010) 5 types and each of them has legal personality:
- 株式会社 (kabushiki-kaisha or kabushiki-gaisha, "K.K.") - lit. "stock company," the most typical form of business corporation.
- 有限会社 (yūgen-kaisha or yūgen-gaisha, "Y.K.") - lit. "limited company," a close corporation form for smaller businesses, abolished in 2006
- 合同会社 (gōdō-kaisha or gōdō-gaisha, "G.K.") - lit. "amalgamated company," a close corporation form similar to the American LLC, introduced in 2006 instead of abolished "Y.K."
- 合資会社 (gōshi-kaisha or gōshi-gaisha, "GSK") - corporation similar to a limited partnership
- 合名会社 (gōmei-kaisha or gōmei-gaisha, "GMK") - corporation similar to a general partnership
Partnerships are referred to as kumiai (組合). Each of these 4 types has no legal personality though other corporations, which include "kumiai" in their name, have:
- 任意組合 (nin'i kumiai, "NK") - general partnership (Civil Code)
- 匿名組合 (tokumei kumiai, "TK") - anonymous partnership, an investment bilateral contract (Commercial Code, Book 2 Ch.4 Article 535 et seq)
- 投資事業有限責任組合 (tōshi jigyō yūgen sekinin kumiai) - limited partnership for investment (Limited Partnership for Investment Act 1998, Rev.2004)
- 有限責任事業組合 (yūgen sekinin jigyō kumiai) - similar to a Limited Liability Partnership (Limited Liability Partnership Act of 2005)
- Partnership (General Partnership Company).
- Limited Liability (Limited Liability Company).
- Limited Liability in Shares (Limited Liability in Shares).
- Public Shareholding (Public listed stock company).
- Private Shareholding Companies (Private listed stock company).
- Foreign Company (None Jordanian company operating in Jordan).
- АО (Aktsionernoe obschestvo/Акционерное общество): Joint stock company
- ТОО (Tovarishchestvo s ogranichennoy otvetstvennostyu/Товарищество с ограниченной ответственностью): limited liability partnership
- ТДО (Tovarishchestvo s dopolnitelnoyu otvetstvennostyu/Товарищество с дополнительной ответственностью) Additional liability partnership
- ГП (Gosudarstvenoe predpriyatie/Государственное предприятие): State company
- КТ (Komanditnoe Tovarishchestvo; Командитное товарищество)
- ОО (Obshestvennoe Obedinenie / Общественное объединение) Social association
- ПТ (Polnoe Tovarishchestvo / Полное товарищество) Full partnership
- ПтК (Potrebibitelskii Kooperativ / Потребительский кооператив)
- ПрК (Proizvodstvenni Kooperativ / Производственный кооператив)
- РО (Relitioznoe Obedinenie / Религиозное объединение)
- Учр (Urezdenie/Учреждение)
- s.a.l. (Societe Anonyme Libanaise ): a form of a joint stock company
- S.A.R.L. (Société à responsabilité limitée): a form of a Limited Liability Company
- S.N.C.(Société en Nom Collectif): General partnership
- S.C.S.(Société en Commandite Simple): Partnership in commendam
- UAB (Uždaroji akcinė bendrovė): ≈ Ltd. (UK)
- AB (Akcinė bendrovė): ≈ plc (UK)
- VšĮ (Viešoji įstaiga): ≈ non-profit organization
- IĮ (Individuali įmonė): ≈ sole proprietorship
- TŪB (Tikroji ūkinė bendrija): ≈ general partnership
- KŪB (Komanditinė ūkinė bendrija): ≈ limited partnership
- MB (Mažoji bendrija) : ≈ small partnership
- A.D./А.Д. (Акционерско друштво): ≈ plc (UK) or Joint-stock company
- D.O.O./Д.О.О. (Друштво со ограничена одговорност): ≈ Ltd. (UK)
- D.O.O.E.L./Д.О.О.Е.Л. (Друштво со ограничена одговорност основано од едно лице): type of DOO with a single member
- K.D./К.Д. (Командитно друштво): ≈ limited partnership
- K.D.A./К.Д.А. (Командитно друштво со акции): ≈ limited partnership with shares
- J.T.D./Ј.Т.Д. (Јавно трговско друштво): ≈ General partnership
- Business entities according to the "Ley General de Sociedades Mercantiles" (General Law of Business entities)
- S.A. (Sociedad Anónima): ≈ plc (UK)
- S. de R.L.(Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada): ≈ Ltd. (UK)
- Associates name and "y compañía" or Associates name and "y sucesores"(Sociedad en Nombre Colectivo): ≈ general partnership
- S. en C. (Sociedad en Comandita Simple): ≈ limited partnership
- S. en C. por A. (Sociedad en Comandita por Acciones): ≈ master limited partnership
Note: Any of these entities can be incorporated as a "Capital Variable" entity, in which case has to add the " de C.V." sufix to its company name. Example: "S.A. de C.V.", "S. de R.L. de C.V."
- Business entities according to the "Ley del Mercado de Valores" (Stock Market Law)
- S.A.B. (Sociedad Anónima Bursátil)
- S.A.P.I. (Sociedad Anónima Promotora de Inversión)
- ХК (Хувьцаат Компани): ≈ joint stock company
- ХХК (Хязгаарлагдмал Хариуцлагатай Компани): ≈ p.l.c (UK) limited liability company
- ТББ (Төрийн Бус Байгууллага):≈ non governmental organization
- Close Corporation*
- Companies (Private, Public and Section 21)*
- Sole Trader*
- Private Limited Company: Liability, limited by shares; Name, cannot be deceptively similar to another registered company; Management, at least 1 director; Shareholders, limited to 1-50 excluding persons who are employed by company, prohibition against any invitation to the public to subscribe for shares; Founders, 1-50; Nationality, Nepalese company; Company purpose, any lawful purpose except industry on Negative List; Formation, file Memorandum and Articles of Association with Registrar of Companies.
- Public Limited Company: Liability, limited by shares; Name, cannot be deceptively similar to another registered company; Management, at least 3 directors; Shareholders, minimum 7, no maximum, share subscription by public pursuant to a prospectus that complies with Companies Act of 2007 and Securities Act; a Private Limited Company can convert to Public Limited Company by complying with Companies Act of 2007; Founders, minimum 7; Nationality, Nepalese company; Company purpose, any lawful purpose except industry on Negative List; Formation, file Memorandum and Articles of Association with Registrar of Companies.
- Branch: Liability, main company remains liable; Name, same as main company; Nationality, foreign company; Company purpose, any lawful purpose except industry on Negative List; Formation, file Memorandum and Articles of Association with Registrar of Companies, plus permission to work in Nepal by concerned authority; Founders, main branch.
- Stichting: ≈ foundation. Can run a business. No profit distribution to founders or board members.
- mutual societies (associations which are allowed to pay dividends to their members; liability may be unlimited (W.A. - Wettelijke Aansprakelijkheid), limited (B.A. - Beperkte Aansprakelijkheid) or exempt (U.A. - Uitsluiting van Aansprakelijkheid)):
- Coöperatie: ≈ co-operative society
- Onderlinge waarborgmaatschappij: ≈ mutual insurance company
- Mts (Maatschap): ≈ group practice (of professionals, e.g. doctors, accountants, lawyers); share facilities not profits, members are treated as natural persons for tax and liability purposes.
- Eenmanszaak: ≈ sole trader (UK), sole proprietorship (US)
- incorporated entities:
- vof (Vennootschap onder firma): ≈ GP
- cv (Commanditaire vennootschap): ≈ LP
- bv (Besloten vennootschap): ≈ Ltd. (UK), LLC (US). Shares are privately registered and not freely transferable. The name means "closed company", stemming from the fact that the (group of) shareholder(s) is cannot be changed without consent from the majority of shareholder(s).
- nv (Naamloze vennootschap): ≈ plc (UK), Corp. (US). Minimum issued share capital upon incorporation: €45,000. Literally translated, the title has the "nameless company", owing to the fact that shareholders are not formally known as such in company statutes and other legal documents.
The Commercial Code establishes the following types of companies:
- S.A.: Sociedad Anónima
- Cia.: Sociedad en Nombre Colectivo
- Cia. Ltda.: Sociedad en Nombre Colectivo de Responsabilidad Limitada
- S.C.S.: Sociedad en Comandita Simple
- S.C.A.: Sociedad en Comandita por Acciones
- Limited (Ltd.): a private company limited by shares
- Public Limited Company (PLC): a public company limited by shares
- Limited by Guarantee (Ltd./Gte.): a company limited by guarantee (non-profit company)
- Unlimited (ULtd.): A company with a share capital, similar to its limited company (Ltd., or PLC.) counterparts, but where the liability of the members or shareholders is not limited.
- ASA (Allmennaksjeselskap): ≈ plc (UK). Minimum capital NOK 1,000,000
- AS (Aksjeselskap): ≈ Ltd. (UK). Minimum capital NOK 30,000.
- ANS (Ansvarlig selskap): general partnership with mutual liability
- BA (Selskap med begrenset ansvar): cooperatives and companies created by legislatation
- BL (Borettslag): housing share company
- DA (Selskap med delt ansvar): general partnership with apportioned liability
- Enkeltpersonforetak: sole proprietorship
- Etat: state, county or municipal agency
- FKF (Fylkeskommunalt foretak): county enterprise
- HF (helseforetak): subsidiary health enterprise
- IKS (Interkommunalt selskap): inter-municipal enterprise (owners' liability)
- KF (Kommunalt foretak): municipal enterprise (owner's liability)
- KS (Kommandittselskap): ≈ limited partnership
- NUF (Norskregistrert utenlandsk foretak): foreign enterprise registered in Norway
- RHF (regionalt helseforetak): regional health enterprise
- SF (Statsforetak): state enterprise
- Sparebank: savings bank
- Stiftelse: a foundation, with capital but without members or shareholders. It is allowed to make a profit, but is more suited for non-commercial purposes.
- S.A. (Sociedad Anónima): ≈ plc (UK)
- Sociedad Anónima Abierta (S.A.A.): To qualify to register as an S.A.A., a company must meet one or more conditions laid down in Article 249 of Peru's General Corporation Law. Those conditions state there must be a primary public offering of shares or convertible bonds in stocks, which are held by more than 750 shareholders, more than 35% of its capital belonging to 175 shareholders, or that all shareholders entitled to vote approve the adjustment to the scheme. The S.A.A. is then audited by the Comisión Nacional Supervisora de Empresas y Valores (CONASEV).
- Co. (Company): can be used for general partnerships
- Coop. (Cooperative)
- Corp. (Corporation)
- Ent. (Enterprise)
- Inc. (Incorporated)
- LLC (Limited Liability Company)
- Ltd. (Limited), Ltd. Co. (Limited Company): for limited partnerships
Older forms (now rarely used)
- Cía (Compañía): for partnerships and other forms of business during the Spanish rule
- SA (Sociedad Anónima): formed under Spanish rule
- jednoosobowa działalność gospodarcza: sole proprietorship
- Przedsiębiorstwo Państwowe: state enterprise (has legal personality)
- S.A. (spółka akcyjna): ≈ plc (UK). Minimum share capital PLN 100,000 (approx. €25,000)(has legal personality).
- s.c. (spółka cywilna): "civil partnership", not a partnership or a company, but rather an agreement on the sharing of profits, losses and ownership of a business. Can be likened to a voluntary association.
- S.K.A. (spółka komandytowo-akcyjna): limited partnership with shares. Minimum share capital PLN 50,000 (approx. €12,500).
- sp.j. (spółka jawna): ≈ general partnership
- sp.k. (spółka komandytowa): ≈ limited partnership
- sp.p. (spółka partnerska): ≈ limited liability partnership May also be denoted by the addition of i partner(zy) ("and partner(s)") to the firm's name. Can only be used for the purpose of practicing as a licensed professional listed in the appropriate provision of the Commercial Companies Code. The partners are fully liable for the partnership's debts, with the exception of debts incurred by other partners practicing their licensed profession and employees under their direction.
- Sp. z o.o. (spółka z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością): ≈ Ltd. (UK). Minimum share capital PLN 5,000 (approx. €1,250)(has legal personality).
- Spółdzielnia: ≈ cooperative. Has legal personality. May also be denoted by the word Spółdzielczy in the firm's name(has legal personality).
References: (Polish) Commercial Companies Code of 15 September 2000 (Dz.U. No 94 item 1037 as amended); (Polish) Civil Code of 23 April 1964 (Dz.U. No 16 item 93 as amended); (Polish) Law on Cooperatives of 16 September 1982 (Dz.U. 2003 No 188 item 1848 as amended)
- CRL (Cooperativa de Responsabilidade Limitada): limited liability cooperative
- S.A. (Sociedade Anónima): ≈ plc (UK), and these are further classified as:
- S.A., Sociedade Aberta: ≈ publicly traded corporation (literally "open company").
- S.F., Sociedade Fechada: ≈ privately held (closely held) corporation (literally "closed company")
- Lda. (Limitada): ≈ Ltd. (UK), and these might be:
- Unipessoal Lda.: single member company (literally: "Unipersonal Ltd.")
- SGPS (Sociedade Gestora de Participações Sociais): holding corporation (literally "shareholding management company")
- S.A. (Societate pe Acţiuni): ≈ plc (UK)
- S.C.A. (societate în comandită pe acţiuni): limited partnership with shares
- S.C.S. (societate în comandită simplă): ≈ limited partnership
- S.N.C. (societate în nume colectiv): ≈ general partnership
- S.R.L. (societate cu răspundere limitată): ≈ Ltd. (UK)
- O.N.G. (Organizație Non-Guvernamentală): ≈ Non-state pension fund (literally: Non-Governmental Organization)
limited liability company "societate cu raspundere limitata" (SRL); joint stock company "societate pe actiuni" (SA);
- Nekommercheskaya organizatsiya/некоммерческая организация: non-profit organization (there are many types of non-profits in Russia, the type depends on the ownership of the assets (Non-state pension fund/Негосударственный пенсионный фонд, for example))
- GP/ГП, GUP/ГУП (Gosudarstvennoye unitarnoye predpriyatie/Государственное унитарное предприятие): state (unitary) enterprise
- IP/ИП (Individualny predprinimatel/Индивидуальный предприниматель): sole proprietorship
- OOO (Obshchestvo s ogranichennoy otvetstvennostyu/Общество с ограниченной ответственностью): ≈ LLC (UK)/
- OAO (Otkrytoye aktsionernoye obshchestvo/Открытое акционерное общество): ≈ plc (UK), publicly traded shares (similar to a corporation in the US)
- kooperativ/кооператив : cooperative (many types, which differ by the type of activity, e.g. agricultural, production, etc.)
- ZAO/ЗАО (Zakrytoe aktsionernoye obshchestvo/Закрытое акционерное общество): ≈ ltd (UK), privately held shares (similar to a close corporation, or closely held corporation, in the US) (maximum 50 "owners of capital" (not shareholders). If there are more 50 "owners of capital", they have a year to transform into a "OAO")
- Prostoye Tovarishestvo (General Partnership) and Kommanditnoe Tovarishestvo (Limited Partnership). This types of business entities are not popular (approximately 0,5% of total amount of business entities).
- Hozyaystvennoe Partnerstvo (Business Partnership) is "secret" entity. There is no equivalent in other jurisdictions.
- Private Limited Company ( شركة ذات مسئولية محدودة)
- Joint-Stock company ( شركة مساهمة )
- General Partnership Company ( شركة تضامن )
- Limited Partnership (شركة التوصية البسيطة )
- Foreign Company ( شركة أجنبية )
- Individual Establishment ( مؤسسة فردية )
- a.d./a.д. (akcionarsko društvo / aкционарско друштво): ≈ plc (UK) ≈ AG (Germany)
- d.o.o./д.о.о. (društvo sa ograničenom odgovornošću / друштво сa ограниченом одговорношћу): ≈ Ltd. (UK) ≈ GmbH (Germany)
- k.d./к.д. (komanditno društvo / командитно друштво): ≈ Limited partnership (UK)
- o.d./о.д. (ortačko društvo / ортачко друштво): ≈ General partnership (UK)
- preduzetnik : ≈ Sole proprietorship (UK)
- Private Limited Company, Sole Proprietorship and Partnership are the predominant types of business found in Singapore.
- LLP (limited liability partnership): owners have the flexibility of operating as a partnership while enjoying limited liability. An LLP can sue and be sued, acquire and hold property, and have a common seal.
- Ltd/Bhd/Pte Ltd/Sdn Bhd (private limited company/Sendiran Berhad): ≈ Ltd. (UK). Maximum 50 shareholders. There also exist "exempt private companies", being either owned by no more than 20 non-corporate shareholders, or wholly state-owned and designated by the finance minister as exempt.
- Ltd/Bhd (public limited company/Berhad): ≈ plc (UK). There also exist public companies limited by guarantee, which conduct non-profit activities; the finance minister may approve the registration of such companies without the addition of the word “Limited” or “Berhad” to the name.
- Singapore subsidiary company is a popular term used for a form of Singapore business entity. A subsidiary company can have different structures but is essentially a Private Limited Company and so is a separate legal entity. Characteristics of a Singapore subsidiary company include: i) 100% foreign ownership is allowed, ii) the company enjoys low tax incentives as per a resident company, iii) repatriation of profits is allowed and iv) the minimum paid up capital required is S$1.
- Other forms including Pte exist
- a.s. (Akciová spoločnosť)): ≈ plc (UK). Minimum share capital SKK 1m (approx. €25,000). Must have a supervisory board in addition to the management board.
- s.r.o., spol. s r.o. (Spoločnosť s ručením obmedzeným): ≈ Ltd. (UK)
- k.s. (Komanditná spoločnosť): ≈ LLP. or Limited liability partnership (UK). Must have at least one "general partner" with unlimited liability.
- v.o.s. (Verejná obchodná spoločnosť): ≈ general partnership or unlimited partnership
- družstvo: ≈ Cooperative
- Sole proprietorship/Alleeneienaar
- Business trust/Trust
- Company limited by guarantee
- Incorporated association not for gain/vereniging sonder winsoogmerk (section 21 company/artikel 21-maatskappy): ≈ nonprofit association.
- Companies having a share capital
- Private company/privaat maatskappy: ≈ private limited company (UK), limited liability company (US); has 1–50 shareholders, one or more directors. The name must end "(Pty) Ltd"; registration number ends /07. Registration number and directors' names must appear on all correspondence.
- Section 53(b) company (unlimited liability company): ≈ professional limited liability company (PLLC) (US)
- Public company/publieke maatskappy: ≈ public limited company (UK), corporation (US); has at least 7 shareholders (unless it is a wholly owned subsidiary of another company) and at least two directors. The company's name must end in "LTD"; its registration number ends in /06.
- Private company/privaat maatskappy: ≈ private limited company (UK), limited liability company (US); has 1–50 shareholders, one or more directors. The name must end "(Pty) Ltd"; registration number ends /07. Registration number and directors' names must appear on all correspondence.
- Company limited by guarantee
- CC/BK (Close corporation/beslote korporasie): Has 1–10 non-corporate members. The name must end "CC" or "BK"; registration number ends /23. Registration number and members' names must appear on all correspondence. On 1 May 2011 the new Companies Act (Act 71 of 2008) came into force and disallows any new incorporations under this form.
- S.A. (Sociedad Anónima): ≈ plc (UK), minimum capital €60,101.21
- S.A.D. (Sociedad Anónima Deportiva): a limited liability sports corporation
- S.L. (Sociedad Limitada): ≈ Ltd. (UK), minimum capital €3,012
- S.L.L. (Sociedad Limitada Laboral): a labour limited corporation
- S.L.N.E. (Sociedad Limitada Nueva Empresa): similar to S.L., it was introduced in 2003 to speed up new company registration (registration can be completed in one day), minimum capital €3,012
- S.C. (Sociedad Colectiva): roughly a general partnership
- S.Cra. (Sociedad Comanditaria): roughly a limited partnership
- S.Coop. (Sociedad Cooperativa): a cooperative that typically is owned and democratically controlled by its workers
- AB (Aktiebolag): ≈ Ltd. (UK). Minimum capital SEK 50,000.
- AB (publ) (Publikt aktiebolag): ≈ plc (UK). Minimum capital SEK 500,000.
- Ek. för. (Ekonomisk förening): economic association (minimum three members)
- Bostadsrättsförening: home-owners' association
- Hyresrättsförening: home-renters' association
- Kooperativ: cooperative
- Enskild firma: sole proprietorship
- HB (Handelsbolag): ≈ general partnership
- KB (Kommanditbolag): ≈ limited partnership
- Enkelt bolag: Regulated partnership between two parts (Companies or private persons)
- Ideell förening: non-profit organization
- Stiftelse: Foundation has capital or property but no members or owners (shareholders)
|AG (Aktiengesellschaft)||SA (Société anonyme)||SA (Società anonima)||≈ plc (UK) or Inc. (US). Min. share capital CHF 100,000. Bearer or registered shares, of a par value of min. CHF 0.01 each. Details of shareholders generally not publicly available (except for main shareholders and management shares of publicly listed companies).|
|GmbH (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung)||Sàrl (Société à responsabilité limitée)||Sagl (Società a garanzia limitata)||≈ Ltd. (UK), LLC (US). Min. capital CHF 20,000. Registered shares only, of a par value of min. CHF 100 each. Name, address and share of each owner (and any changes) publicly recorded in the Official Register of Commerce.<http://zefix.admin.ch/>|
- Stiftung / fondation / fondazione:≈ foundation
- investment fund (Anlagefonds / fonds de placement / fondo di investimento)
- Investmentgesellschaft mit festem Kapital / SICAF (société d’investissement à capital fixe) / SICAF (società di investimento a capitale fisso):≈ investment trust (UK), closed-end company (US)
- Investmentgesellschaft mit variablem Kapital / SICAV (société d’investissement à capital variable) / SICAV (società di investimento a capitale variabile):≈ OEIC (open-ended investment company) (UK), open-end company (US)
- Verein / association / associazione:≈ non-profit association
- wIG (wirtschaftliche Interessengemeinschaft) / GIE (groupement d'intérêt économique) / gruppo di interesse economico:≈ EIG (economic interest grouping)
- Einzelunternehmen / RI (raison individuelle) / ditta indivduale:≈ sole trader (UK), sole proprietorship (US)
- Gesellschaft "business entities"
- partnerships (Rechsgemeinschaft / société de personnes / società di persone)
- trading companies (Körperschaft / société de capitaux / società di capitale)
- KomAG (Kommanditaktiengesellschaft) / SCA (société en commandite par actions) / società in accomandita per azioni:≈ publicly traded partnership (PTP)
- GmbH (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung) / Sàrl (société à responsabilité limitée) / Sagl (società a garanzia limitata):≈ Ltd. (UK), LLC (US)
- AG (Aktiengesellschaft) / SA (société anonyme) / SA (società anonima):≈ plc (UK), Corp. (US/Can)
- Genossenschaft / Scoop (société coopérative) / società cooperativa:≈ co-operative
- Zweigniederlassung / succursale / succursale:≈ branch (of a company)
- 無限公司 (Unlimited Company)
- 有限公司 (Limited Company)
- 兩合公司 (Limited Partnership)
- 股份有限公司 (Public Limited Company or Corporation)
- บริษัทมหาชนจำกัด, name format บริษัท corporation name จำกัด (มหาชน): ≈ plc (UK). Minimum 15 shareholders.
- บริษัทเอกชนจำกัด (name format บริษัท corporation name จำกัด): ≈ Ltd. (UK). Minimum three shareholders.
- ห้างหุ้นส่วนจำกัด (name format ห้างหุ้นส่วน corporation name จำกัด): ≈ limited partnership
- ห้างหุ้นส่วนสามัญนิติบุคคล (name format ห้างหุ้นส่วน corporation name): ≈ general partnership
According to Code of Obligations (fifth book of Civil Code) (Act No: 6098)
- Adi Şirket : ≈ Simple Partnership (has no legal personality)
According to the Commercial Code (Act No: 6102)
Şahıs şirketleri ≈ Partnerships
- Koll. Şti. (Kolektif şirket): ≈ Collective partnership
- Kom. Şti (Komandit şirket) ≈ Commandite partnership Can be established as simple commandite partnership or as commandite company divided into shares (Sermayesi paylara bölünmüş komandit şirket).
Sermaye şirketleri ≈ Companies
- A.Ş. / A.O. (Anonim Şirket / Anonim Ortaklık): ≈ Joint stock company Minimum capital is TRY 50.000. Bearer or registered shares, of a minimum par value of TRY 0,01 each. Only type of company that can be publicly traded in Turkish Law.
- Ltd. Şti. / L.Ş. / L.O. (Limited şirket / Limited Ortaklık) ≈ Limited company Minimum capital is TRY 10.000. Registered shares only, of a minimum par value of TRY 25 each.
According to the Capital Markets Act (Act No: 6362)
- HAAO (Halka Açık Anonim Ortaklık) ≈ Publicly held corporation This essentially is a special type of A.O. These type of companies can only be established as A.O.'s. When there are no specific rules under Capital Markets legislation, A.O. rules under Turkish Commercial Code will be applied to HAAO's.
According to the Cooperatives Act (Act No: 1136)
- Koop. (Kooperatif Şirket) ≈ Cooperative
- DAT/ДАТ (Державне акціонерне товариство Derzhavne Aktsionerne Tovaristvo): ≈ plc (UK), national
- FOP/ФОП (фізична особа підприємець F O P): sole proprietorship
- KT (Командитне товариство Comanditne Tovaristvo): ≈ limited partnership
- PT/ПT (Повне товариство Povne Tovaristvo): ≈ general partnership
- TDV/ТДВ (Товариство з додатковою відповідальністю Tovaristvo z Dodatkvoyu Vidpovividalnistyu): "additional liability company"
- TOV/TOB (Товариство з обмеженою відповідальністю Tovaristvo z Obmezhenoyu Vidpovividalnistyu): ≈ Ltd. (UK). Minimum capital = 1 minimum wage (UAH 960 -29.05.2011) .
- PP/ПП (Приватне підприємство Privatne Pidpriemstvo): ≈ Ltd. (UK). No minimum capital.
- VAT/ВАТ( Вiдкрите акцiонерне товариство Vidkrite Aktsionerne Tovaristvo) or PAT/ПАТ (Публічне акціонерне товариство Tovaristvo) since 29.04.2009: ≈ plc (UK), public. Minimum capital UAH 630,000.
- ZAT/ЗАТ (Закрите акцiонерне товариство Zakrite Aktsionerne Tovaristvo)or PrAT/ПрАТ (Приватне акціонерне товариство Pritvatne Aktsionerne Tovaristvo) since 29.04.2009:: ≈ plc (UK), private.
- AТ/AТ (Акціонерне товариство Aktsionerne Tovaristvo): ≈ JSC.
Company formation is regulated by the Ukrainian Civil Code and Commercial Code, Law of Commercial companies, Law of stock companies, law and order.
- CIC or community interest company
- CIO or Charitable Incorporated Organisation
- Industrial and provident society, e.g. a co-operative (which does include Ltd. at the end of its name) or charity
- Ltd. or Cyf (Limited, or Welsh Cyfyngedig): a private company limited by shares, the shares not being traded publicly
- plc or Ccc (public limited company, or Welsh Cwmni Cyfyngedig Cyhoeddus): a company whose shares may be traded publicly. Requires an authorized minimum share capital of £50,000; of which it must have allotted shares to the value of at least £50,000 and a minimum of 25% must be fully paid up prior to starting business.
- Private company limited by guarantee. Such a company must include Limited or Ltd. at the end of its name (so cannot readily be distinguished from a private company limited by shares), unless it cannot distribute its profits. Guarantee companies are commonly used by not for profit organizations, which may omit Ltd. at the end of their names.
- Unlimited company (or Welsh Anghyfyngedig). A company either with or without a share capital whose members or shareholders do not benefit from limited liability should the company ever go into formal liquidation. It is not a requirement under company law to add or state the word or designation Unlimited or its abbreviations (Unltd., or Ultd.) at the ending of its legal company name, and most unlimited companies do not. Unlimited companies are exempted from filing accounts with the Registrar of Companies for public disclosure, subject to a few exceptions (unless the company was a qualified subsidiary or a parent of a limited company during the accounting period).
- Sole proprietorship/sole trader
In the United States, the individual states incorporate most businesses. Very few special types are incorporated by the federal government.
For federal tax purposes, the Internal Revenue Service has separate entity classification rules. Under the tax rules, an entity may be classified as a corporation, a partnership, a Cooperative or a disregarded entity. A corporation may be either a Subchapter S corporation or a C corporation. A disregarded entity has one owner (or a married couple as owner) that is not recognized for tax purposes as an entity separate from its owner. Types of disregarded entities include single-member LLCs; qualified subchapter S subsidiaries and qualified real estate investment trust subsidiaries. A disregarded entity’s transparent tax status does not affect its status under state law. For example, for federal tax purposes, a sole-member LLC (SMLLC) is disregarded, so that all its assets and liabilities are treated as owned by its single member. But under state law, an SMLLC can contract in its own name and its owner is generally not personally liable for the debts and obligations of the entity. To be recognized as a Cooperative for tax purposes Cooperatives must follow certain rules under Sub Chapter T of the Internal Revenue Code.
The key word for a bank is "national". A bank chartered by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) must have the word "national" in its name. A bank chartered by a state cannot have "national" in its name. For a savings bank (formerly called a savings and loan association) or credit union, the key word is "federal," and the same rules apply; a federally chartered savings bank or credit union must have the word "federal" in its name, while a state chartered savings bank or credit union cannot have "federal" in its name.
- NA (National Association), a designation used by banks chartered by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC)
- NT&SA (National Trust and Savings Association), a less common designation used by national banks
- Federal Credit Union, chartered by the National Credit Union Association (NCUA)
- Federal Savings Bank, formerly called federal savings and loan association
State, Territory or Commonwealth incorporatedEdit
- See also Corporate law in the United States.
The following are the main business designations and types (corporations and non-corporations):
- Sole proprietorship: a business consisting of a single owner (which may itself be a business entity), not in a separately recognized business form.
- General partnership is a partnership in which all the partners are jointly and separately liable for the debts of the partnership. In most U.S. states, it can be created by agreement without requiring a public filing. The partners may themselves be legal entities or individuals.
- LP (limited partnership): a partnership where at least one partner (the general partner, which may itself be an entity or an individual) has unlimited liability for the LP's debts) and one or more partners (the limited partners) have limited liability (which means that they are not responsible for the LP's debts beyond the amount they agreed to invest). Limited partners generally do not participate in the management of the entity or its business.
- LLP (limited liability partnership): a partnership where a partner's liability for the debts of the partnership is limited except in the case of liability for acts of professional negligence or malpractice. In some states, LLPs may only be formed for purposes of practicing a licensed profession, typically attorneys, accountants and architects. This is often the only form of limited partnership allowed for law firms (as opposed to general partnerships).
- LLLP (limited liability limited partnership): a combination of LP and LLP, available in some states.
- LLC, LC, Ltd. Co. (limited liability company): a form of business whose owners enjoy limited liability, but which is not a corporation. Allowable abbreviations vary by state. Note that in some states Ltd. by itself is not a valid abbreviation for an LLC, because in some states (e.g. Texas), it may denote a corporation instead. See also Series LLC. For U.S. federal tax purposes, in general, an LLC with two or more members is treated as a partnership, and an LLC with one member is treated as a sole proprietorship.
- PLLC (professional limited liability company): Some states do not allow certain professionals to form an LLC that would limit the liability that results from the services the professionals provide such as doctors, medical care; lawyers, legal advice; and accountants, accounting services; architects, architectural services; when the company formed offers the services of the professionals. Instead those states allow a PLLC or in the LLC statutes, the liability limitation only applies to the business side, such as creditors of the company, as opposed to the client/customer service side, the level of medical care, legal services, or accounting provided to clients. This is meant to maintain the higher ethical standards that these professionals have committed themselves to by becoming licensed in their profession and to prevent them from being immune (or at least limit their immunity) to malpractice suits.
- Corp., Inc. (Corporation, Incorporated): used to denote corporations (public or otherwise). These are the only terms universally accepted by all 51 corporation chartering jurisdictions in the United States. However in some states other suffixes may be used to identify a corporation, such as Ltd., Co./Company, or the Italian term S.p.A. (in Connecticut; see under Italy). Some states that allow the use of "Company" prohibit the use of "and Company", "and Co.", "& Company" or "& Co.". In most states sole proprietorships and partnerships may register a fictitious "doing business as" name with the word "Company" in it. For a full list of allowed designations by state, see the table below. See also Delaware corporation, Nevada corporation, Massachusetts business trust.
- Professional corporations (abbreviated as PC or P.C.) are those corporate entities for which many corporation statutes make special provision, regulating the use of the corporate form by licensed professionals such as attorneys, architects, accountants, and doctors.
- Doing Business As (DBA): denotes a business name used by a person or entity that is different from the person's or entity's true name. DBAs are not separate entities and do not shield the person or entity who uses the DBA as a business name from liability for debts or lawsuits. Filing requiments vary and are not permitted for some types of businesses or professional practices. DBAs can be sole proprietorships, or can be used by corporate entities to reserve "brand names", such as those of chain stores owned and operated by a holding company or other "umbrella".
Required designations for corporations, by U.S. state, territory or commonwealth:
|State, Territory or Commonwealth||Required in Corporation name||Authority|
|Alabama||"corporation," or "incorporated," or an abbreviation of one of such words, or if a banking corporation the words "bank," "banking," or "bankers"||§ 10-2B-4.01(a)(1) Code of Alabama 1975|
|Alaska||"corporation", "company", "incorporated", or "limited", or an abbreviation of one of these words; may not contain the word "city", "borough", or "village" or otherwise imply that the corporation is a municipality.||§10.06.105 (a) and (b), Alaska Corporations Code|
|Arizona||"association", "bank", "company", "corporation", "limited" or "incorporated" or an abbreviation of one of these words or the equivalent in a foreign language. Corporation may not use "bank", "deposit", "credit union", "trust" or "trust company" unless it also has a license to operate one. May not use "limited liability company" or "limited company" or the abbreviations "L.L.C.", "L.C.", "LLC" or "LC"||§10-401 Arizona Revised Statutes|
|Arkansas||"Corporation", "Company", or "Incorporated", or shall contain an abbreviation of one of those words; but the name may not end with the word "Company" nor the abbreviation "Co." if the final word or abbreviation is immediately preceded by "and" or any symbol for "and"||§4-26-401 (1), Arkansas Code|
|California||"corporation", "incorporated" or "limited" or an abbreviation of one of such words is required and for a statutory close corporations for corporate provisions to apply. May not contain "bank," " trust," "trustee" or "credit union" unless approved by the Commissioner of Financial Institutions.||§202(a), California Corporations Code|
|Colorado||“corporation”, “incorporated”, “company”, “limited”, “corp.”, inc.”, “co.” or “ltd”; If the corporation is a professional corporation, it must contain the term or abbreviation “professional corporation”, “p.c.”, or “pc”.||§7-90-601, Colorado Revised Statutes|
|Connecticut||"corporation", "incorporated", "company", "Societa per Azioni" or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", "S.p.A." or "ltd."||§33-655 General Statutes of Connecticut|
|Delaware||"association," "company," "corporation," "club," "foundation," "fund," "incorporated," "institute," "society," "union," "syndicate," or "limited," (or abbreviations thereof, with or without punctuation), or words (or abbreviations thereof, with or without punctuation) of like import of foreign countries or jurisdictions (provided they are written in Roman characters or letters)||Title 8, §102, Delaware Code|
|District of Columbia||"corporation," "company," "incorporated," or "limited," or shall contain an abbreviation of 1 of such words||§ 29-101.08 District of Columbia Official Code|
|Florida||"corporation," "company," or "incorporated" or the abbreviation "Corp.," "Inc.," or "Co.," or the designation "Corp," "Inc," or "Co,"||§607.0401 Florida Statutes|
|Georgia||'corporation,' 'incorporated,' 'company,' or 'limited,' or the abbreviation 'corp.,' 'inc.,' 'co.,' or 'ltd.,' or words or abbreviations of like import in another language; must not be longer than 80 characters||O.C.G.A. § 14-2-401|
|Guam||"corporation," "incorporated," "company," or "limited," or the abbreviation "corp.," "inc.," "co.," or "ltd.," or words or abbreviations of like import in another language; if the word "company" or its abbreviation is used, it shall not be immediately preceded by the word "and" or an abbreviation or symbol representing the word "and."||Title 18, § 2110, Guam Code Annotated|
|Hawaii||"corporation", "incorporated", or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", or "ltd."||§414-51 Hawaii Revised Statutes|
|Idaho||"corporation," "incorporated," "company," "limited," or the abbreviation "corp.," "inc.," "co.," or "ltd.," or words or abbreviations of like import in another language; provided however, that if the word "company" or its abbreviation is used it shall not be immediately preceded by the word "and" or by an abbreviation of or symbol representing the word "and"||§30-1-401 Idaho Statutes|
|Illinois||"corporation", "company", "incorporated", or "limited", or an abbreviation of one of such words||805 ILCS 5/4.05 Illinois Compiled Statutes|
|Indiana||"corporation", "incorporated", "company", or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd.", or words or abbreviations of like import in another language||§ 23-1-23-1 Indiana Code|
|Iowa||"corporation", "incorporated", "company", or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd.", or words or abbreviations of like import in another language.||§490.401 Iowa Acts|
|Kansas||(except for banks) "association," "church," "college," "company," "corporation," "club," "foundation," "fund," "incorporated," "institute," "society," "union," "university," "syndicate" or "limited," or one of the abbreviations "co.," "corp.," "inc.," "ltd.," or words or abbreviations of like import in other languages if they are written in Roman characters or letters||§17-6002 Kansas Statutes|
|Kentucky||"corporation", "incorporated" or the abbreviation "Inc.," or the word "company" or the abbreviation "Co."; but if the word "company" or the abbreviation "Co." is used, it may not be immediately preceded by the word "and" or the abbreviation "&."||§273.177 Kentucky Revised Statutes|
|Louisiana||(except for railroad, telegraph and telephone corporations) "Corporation", "Incorporated" or "Limited", or the abbreviation of any of those words, or may contain instead the word "Company" or the abbreviation "Co." if the latter word or abbreviation is not immediately preceded by the word "and" or the symbol "&". No corporate name shall contain the phrase "doing business as" or the abbreviation "d/b/a". Only a bank or bank holding company is allowed to use any of "bank", "banker", "banking", "savings", "safe deposit", "trust", "trustee", "building and loan", "homestead", "credit union", "insurance", "casualty", "redevelopment corporation", or "electric cooperative".||§12:23 Louisiana Revised Statutes|
|Maine||words or abbreviations of words that describe the nature of the entity, including "professional association," "corporation," "company," "incorporated," "chartered," "limited," "limited partnership," "limited liability company," "professional limited liability company," "limited liability partnership," "registered limited liability partnership," "service corporation" or "professional corporation"; beginning July 1, 2007, may also include "limited liability limited partnership"||for business corporations: Title 13-C § 401 Maine Revised Statutes; for non-profit corporations: Title 13-B § 301-A Maine Revised Statutes;|
|Maryland||For Corporations: "Company", if it is not preceded by the word "and" or a symbol for the word "and"; "Corporation", "Incorporated" or "Limited" or abbreviations; for Limited liability companies: "limited liability company", "L.L.C.", "LLC", "L.C.", or "LC"; for Limited liability partnerships: "limited liability partnership", "L.L.P." or "LLP"; for Limited partnerships: "limited partnership", "L.P.", or "LP"; for Limited liability limited partnerships: "limited liability limited partnership", "L.L.L.P.", or "LLLP"; for Professional corporations: "chartered", "chtd.", "professional association", "P.A.", "professional corporation", or "P.C."||Maryland Code CORPORATIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS § 1-502|
|Massachusetts||"any name which, in the judgment of the secretary, indicates that it is a corporation"||GENERAL LAWS OF MASSACHUSETTS Chapter 155: Section 9|
|Michigan||"corporation", "company", "incorporated", or "limited" or shall contain 1 of the following abbreviations, corp., co., inc., or ltd.||Act 284 of 1972 Section 450.1211 MICHIGAN BUSINESS CORPORATION ACT|
|Minnesota||nonprofit corporations are not required to use any of these words; for business corporations, they must use "corporation," "incorporated," or "limited," or shall contain an abbreviation of one or more of these words, or the word "company" or the abbreviation "Co." if that word or abbreviation is not immediately preceded by the word "and" or the character "&"||Chapter 302A, Section 302A.115 Minnesota Statutes (for Business Corporations); Chapter 317A, Section 317A.115 Minnesota Statutes (for non-profit corporations)|
|Mississippi||"corporation," "incorporated," "company" or "limited," or the abbreviation "corp.," "inc.," "co." or "ltd." or words or abbreviations of like import in another language||§ 79-4-4.01 Mississippi code|
|Missouri||"corporation", "company", "incorporated", or "limited", or shall end with an abbreviation of one of said words||
Chapter 351 Section 351.110 Missouri Revised Statutes
|Montana||"corporation", "incorporated", "company", or "limited"; the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd."; or words or abbreviations of similar meaning in another language||35-1-308 Montana Code Annotated|
|Nebraska||corporation, incorporated, company, or limited, or the abbreviation corp., inc., co., or ltd., or words or abbreviations of like import in another language, except that a corporation organized to conduct a banking business under the Nebraska Banking Act may use a name which includes the word bank without using any such words or abbreviations||Section 21-2028 State of Nebraska Statutes|
|Nevada||No specific requirements stated except that a name appearing to be that of a natural person and containing a given name or initials must not be used as a corporate name except with an additional word or words such as “Incorporated,” “Limited,” “Inc.,” “Ltd.,” “Company,” “Co.,” “Corporation,” “Corp.,” or other word which identifies it as not being a natural person||78.035 Nevada Revised Statutes|
|New Hampshire||Contain the word "corporation," "incorporated," or "limited" or the abbreviation "corp." ""inc.", or "ltd."||New Hampshire Revised Statutes TITLE XXVII; Section 293-A:4.01 for business corporations|
|New Jersey||Shall contain the word "corporation," "company," "incorporated," or shall contain an abbreviation of one of those words, or shall include the abbreviation Ltd.||New Jersey Statutes 14A:2-2|
|New Mexico||contain the separate word "corporation," "company," "incorporated" or "limited" or shall contain a separate abbreviation of one of these words||New Mexico Statutes Unannotated 53-11-7|
|New York||Shall contain the word "corporation", "incorporated" or "limited", or an abbreviation of one of such words; there is also a long list of words a business corporation is not allowed to use without additional approval from other agencies including "board of trade", "state police", "urban development", "chamber of commerce", "state trooper", "urban relocation", "community renewal", "tenant relocation", "acceptance", "endowment", "loan", "annuity", "fidelity", "mortgage", "assurance", "finance", "savings" and many others||New York State Consolidated Laws, Business Corporations Law §301; Not-For-Profit Corporations Law, §301|
|North Carolina||a corporation must contain the word "corporation", "incorporated", "company", or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd."; a limited liability company must contain the words "limited liability company" or the abbreviation "L.L.C." or "LLC", or the combination "ltd. liability co.", "limited liability co.", or "ltd. liability company"; a limited partnership that is not a limited liability limited partnership must contain the words "limited partnership", the abbreviation "L.P." or "LP", or the combination "ltd. partnership"; a limited liability limited partnership must contain the words "registered limited liability limited partnership" or "limited liability limited partnership" or the abbreviation "L.L.L.P.", "R.L.L.L.P.", "LLLP", or "RLLLP"; a registered limited liability partnership's name must contain the words "registered limited liability partnership" or "limited liability partnership" or the abbreviation "L.L.P.", "R.L.L.P.", "LLP" or "RLLP".||North Carolina General Statutes § 55D‑20|
|North Dakota||must contain the word "company", "corporation", "incorporated", "limited", or an abbreviation of one or more of these words; may not contain the words "limited liability company", "limited partnership", "limited liability partnership", "limited liability limited partnership", or any abbreviation of these words.||North Dakota century Code 10-19.1-13|
|Ohio||It shall end with or include the word or abbreviation "company," "co.," "corporation," "corp.," "incorporated," or "inc."||Ohio Revised Code §1701.05|
|Oklahoma||The name of the corporation which shall contain one of the words “association”, “company”, “corporation”, “club”, “foundation”, “fund”, “incorporated”, “institute”, “society”, “union”, “syndicate”, or “limited” or abbreviations thereof, with or without punctuation||Oklahoma Statutes §18-1006|
|Oregon||For private corporations it shall contain one or more of the words “corporation,” “incorporated,” “company” or “limited” or an abbreviation of one or more of those words; shall not contain the word “cooperative.” For non-profit corporations there is no specific requirement except the name cannot imply a purpose not dictated in its articles of incorporation and cannot contain the word "cooperative" or the phrase "limited partnership."||Oregon Revised Statutes 60.094 for Private Corporations; ORS 65.094 for Non-Profit corporations|
|Pennsylvania||Corporation, Corp., Company, Co., Incorporated, Inc., Limited, Ltd., Association., Fund., Syndicate or words or abbreviations of like import in languages other than English.||Pennsylvania Code, Chapter 19, §23.3|
|Puerto Rico||Corporation, Corp. or Inc., or words or abbreviations of like import in other languages, provided they are written in roman letters or characters.||Title 14, Subtitle 4, §2602, Laws of Puerto Rico.|
|Rhode Island||"corporation," "company," "incorporated," or "limited," or an abbreviation of one of these words||Rhode Island General Laws § 7-1.2-401|
|South Carolina||"corporation", "incorporated", "company", or "limited", the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co.", or "ltd.", or words or abbreviations of like import in another language||South Carolina Code of Laws Section 33-4-101|
|South Dakota||corporation, incorporated, company, or limited, or the abbreviation, corp., inc., co., or ltd., or terms or abbreviations of like import in another language||South Dakota Codified Laws 47-1A-401|
|Tennessee||"corporation," "incorporated," "company," or the abbreviation "corp.," "inc.," "co.," or words or abbreviations of like import in another language (provided they are written in Roman characters or letters); existing corporations which were formed using only "limited" or "ltd" are not required to change their name||§ 48-14-101 Tennessee Code|
|Texas||"company," "corporation," "incorporated," or "limited," or an abbreviation of one of those words.||Texas Business Organizations Code § 5.054|
|U.S. Virgin Islands||name shall be such as to indicate that it is a corporation as distinguished from a natural person or partnership.||Title Thirteen, § 2, Virgin Islands Code|
|Utah||"corporation", "incorporated", "company"; the abbreviation: "corp.", "inc." or "co." or words or abbreviations of like import to the words or abbreviations listed in another language; without the written consent of the United States Olympic Committee, may not contain the words "Olympic", "Olympiad", or "Citius Altius Fortius"; without the written consent of the Division of Consumer Protection may not contain the words "university", "college" or "institute"||§ 16-10a-401 Utah Code|
|Vermont||"corporation," "incorporated," "company," or "limited," or the abbreviation "corp.," "inc.," "co.," or "ltd.," or words or abbreviations of like import in another language; shall not have the word "cooperative" or any abbreviation thereof as part of its name unless the corporation is a worker cooperative corporation;||Title 11A, § 4.01 Vermont Statutes|
|Virginia||"corporation," "incorporated," "company," or "limited," or the abbreviation "corp.," "inc.," "co.," or "ltd."||§ 13.1-630. Code of Virginia|
|Washington||"corporation," "incorporated," "company," or "limited," or the abbreviation "corp.," "inc.," "co.," or "ltd."; must not include "Bank," "banking," "banker," "trust," "cooperative," or any combination of the words "industrial" and "loan," or any combination of any two or more of the words "building," "savings," "loan," "home," "association," and "society,"||§ 23B.04.010 Revised Code of Washington|
|West Virginia||"corporation", "incorporated", "company" or "limited", or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co." or "ltd.", or words or abbreviations of like import in another language||§31D-4-401 West Virginia Code|
|Wisconsin||"corporation", "incorporated", "company" or "limited" or the abbreviation "corp.", "inc.", "co." or "ltd." or words or abbreviations of like import in another language||§180.0401 Wisconsin Statutes (for Stock corporations) and §181.0401 Wisconsin Statutes (for non-stock corporations)|
|Wyoming||Unclear; apparently any of "corporation," "company," "incorporated," and probably the usual abbreviations of "Corp." "Co." and "Inc."||§ 17-16-401. Wyoming Statutes|
- MChJ (Mas'uliyati Cheklangan Jamiyat/Масъулияти Чекланган Жамият): limited liability company
- QMJ (Qo'shimcha ma'suliyatli jamiyat/Қўшимча масъулиятли жамият): additional liability company
- AJ (Aksiyadorlik jamiyati/Акциядорлик жамияти): joint-stock company
- OAJ (Ochiq aksiyadorlik jamiyati/Очиқ акциядорлик жамияти): public joint-stock company
- YoAJ (Yopiq aksiyadorlik jamiyati/Ёпиқ акциядорлик жамияти): closed joint-stock company
- XK (Xususiy korxona/Хусусий корхона): private company
- XT (Xususiy tadbirkorlik/Хусусий тадбиркорлик): sole proprietorship
- OK (Oilaviy korxona/Оилавий корхона): family company
- UK (Unitar korxona/Унитар корхона): unitary enterprise
- QK (Qo'shma korxona/Қўшма корхона): joint venture
- Cty TNHH (Cong ty trach nhiem huu han / "Company with Limited Liablity"): Limited Liability Company
- Cty CP (Cong ty co phan / "Company with Joint Stock"): Joint Stock Company
- Cty HP (Cong ty hop danh / "Company of Partners"): Partnership
- DNHP (Doanh nghiep hop danh / "Enterprise Partnership"): Partnership
- DNNN (Doanh nghiep nha nuoc / "Enterprise of the State"): State-Owned Enterprise
- DNTN (Doanh nghiep tu nhan / "Enterprise Private"): Proprietorship
- DTNN (Doanh nghiep co von dau tu nuoc ngoai "Enterprise with Foreign Investment"): Foreign Investment Enterprise
- TNHH (Doanh nghiep trach nhiem huu han / "Enterprise Limited"): Corporation
- Chi Nhanh : Branch Company
- Nhom Cty (Cong Ty / "Group Company"): Holding Company
- "Choose a legal structure for a new business". GOV.UK. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Limited liability company
- "Sociedades de Garantía Reciproca".
- "Sociedades de Garantía Reciproca". Argentina Ministry of Industry. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "NS vs. Alberta ULCs". Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- Castllo Silverio, YuniorAndrés. "Constitución de Compañía CXA, y un Analisis de la Ley 479-08". Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- Religious Freedom Act (453/2003), Chapter 2
- Laki Suomen Punaisesta Rististä (453/2003). Retrieved 31-05-2012.
- The decision of the Ministry of Justice to approve the bylaws of the general bar association (191/1959). Retrieved 31-05-2012
- Asunto-osakeyhtiölaki (1599/2009). Retrieved 31-05-2012.
- Vakuutusyhtiölaki, Article 10. Retrieved 31-05-2012
- Asunto-osakeyhtiölaki (1599/2009), Chapter 28. Retrieved 31-05-2012.
- Finnish Sea Act (674/1994), Chapter 5 "Laivaisännistöyhtiö". Retrieved 31-5-2012.
- Säästöpankkilaki (1502/2001). Retrieved 31-05-2012.
- Vesilaki (587/2011), Chapter 6. Retrieved 31-05-2012
- Vesilaki (587/2011), Chapter 7. Retrieved 31-05-2012
- Laki yksityisistä teistä (358/1962), §50. Retrieved 31-5-2012
- Vesilaki (587/2011), Chapter 9. Retrieved 31-05-2012
- Vesilaki (587/2011), Chapter 12. Retrieved 31-05-2012
- Yhteisaluelaki (758/1989). Retrieved 31-05-2012
- Yhtesimetsälaki (109/2003). Retrieved 31-05-2012
- (in Italian) Libro Quinto - Titolo V: Delle società: Capo V: Della società per azioni. Wikisource.
- "Inschrijven bij de Kamer van Koophandel". Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- "Register a Joint Stock Company". Sultanate of Oman, Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
The commercial name should bear Omani Joint Stock Company (S.A.O.G)
- "Require to obtain pre approval to carry on business of the companies operating in the field of securities". Sultanate of Oman, Capital Market Authority.
- "Sociedad Anonima Cerrada y Abierta". 27 July 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- Singapore Business Types
- (The new companies’ act that was always spoken about is now a reality)
- "Gábilos - Sociedad Anónima Laboral", www.gabilos.com (in Spanish)
- "SOCIETAT COOPERATIVA CATALANA LIMITADA (SCCL)", www.elclubdelemprenedor.org (in Spanish)
- Presti and Naegele Newsletter, 4 April 2012.
- "IRS Sub Chapter T". Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- "Doanh nghiệp". Retrieved 15 October 2014.