Telecommunications in the Republic of Macedonia include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet.
Radio and televisionEdit
- Radio stations: the public radio broadcaster operates over multiple stations; 3 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationally; there are about 70 local commercial radio stations (2012).
- Radios: 410,000 in use (2008).
- Television stations:
- the public TV broadcaster operates 3 national channels and a satellite network; 5 privately owned TV channels broadcast nationally using terrestrial transmitters and about 15 broadcast nationally via satellite; there are roughly 75 local commercial TV stations; and a large number of cable operators offering domestic and international programming (2012);
- 136 stations (1997).
- Television sets: 1.9 million sets in use (2008).
Television is Macedonia's most popular news medium. Most private media are tied to political or business interests and state media tend to support the government. Public broadcast networks face stiff competition from commercial stations, which dominate the ratings. A European Union sponsored report says that with scores of TV and radio networks, the market is overcrowded and many local broadcasters are struggling to survive financially.
The combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership was about 130 per 100 persons in 2012. Competition from mobile-cellular phones has led to a drop in fixed-line telephone subscriptions.
- Top-level domains: .mk and .мкд (Cyrillic).
- Internet users:
- 1.3 million users, 109th in the world; 63.1% of the population, 58th in the world (2012);
- 1.1 million users, 97th in the world, 52% of the population (2009).
- Fixed broadband: 304,547 subscriptions, 79th in the world; 14.6% of the population, 58th in the world (2012).
- Wireless broadband: 449,646 subscriptions, 93rd in the world; 21.6% of the population, 68th in the world (2012).
- Internet hosts: 62,826 hosts, 92nd in the world (2012).
- IPv4: 657,664 addresses allocated, less than 0.05% of the world total, 315.8 addresses per 1000 people (2012).
- Internet service providers: 20 ISPs (2005).
- Wi-Fi coverage: 95% of the population (2006).
The United States Agency for International Development sponsored a project called "Macedonia Connects" which in 2006 helped to make Macedonia the first all-broadband wireless country in the world, where Internet access is available to virtually anyone with a wireless-enabled computer. Wireless access is available to about 95 percent of Macedonians, even those living in remote sheepherding mountain villages where people don't have phones. The Ministry of Education and Sciences reported that all 461 primary and secondary schools were connected to the Internet. An Internet Service Provider (On.net), created a MESH Network to provide WIFI services in the 11 largest cities/towns in the country.
Internet censorship and surveillanceEdit
There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or credible reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without judicial oversight. Individuals and groups engage in the peaceful expression of views via the Internet, including by e-mail.
The constitution provides for freedom of speech and press; however, the government does not always respect these rights in practice. The law prohibits speech that incites national, religious, or ethnic hatred, and provides penalties for violations. In November 2012 the defamation, libel and slander laws were decriminalized. Editors and media owners expressed concerns that steep fines under the revised law would cause self-censorship. The law prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home, or correspondence, and the government generally respects these prohibitions in practice.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i "Communications: Macedonia", World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 28 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- ^ "Macedonia profile: Media", BBC News, 22 August 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- ^ Dialing Procedures (International Prefix, National (Trunk) Prefix and National (Significant) Number) (in Accordance with ITY-T Recommendation E.164 (11/2010)), Annex to ITU Operational Bulletin No. 994-15.XII.2011, International Telecommunication Union (ITU, Geneva), 15 December 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- ^ a b Calculated using penetration rate and population data from "Countries and Areas Ranked by Population: 2012", Population data, International Programs, U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved 26 June 2013
- ^ "Percentage of Individuals using the Internet 2000-2012", International Telecommunications Union (Geneva), June 2013, retrieved 22 June 2013
- ^ "Internet usage in Macedonia in 2009", GfK, November 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- ^ "Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
- ^ "Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
- ^ Select Formats, Country IP Blocks. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Site is said to be updated daily.
- ^ Population, The World Factbook, United States Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Data are mostly for 1 July 2012.
- ^ "Broadband network is envy of the west", Geoff Naim, Financial Times, 28 March 2006. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- ^ "", Beth Kampschor, The Christian Science Monitor, 28 March 2006.
- ^ "Macedonia Connects" (PDF). Education for a Modern Society. Macedonia: U.S. Agency for International Development. April 2006. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- ^ a b "Macedonia", Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 22 March 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2014.