|Tea Party protests|
|Part of response to government social and fiscal policies|
|Causes||Government spending and red tape, US national debt, taxation|
|Goals||Government adherence to the Constitution, reduce taxation, reduce spending and waste|
The Tea Party protests were a series of protests throughout the United States that began in early 2009. The protests were part of the larger political Tea Party movement.
Among other events, protests were held on:
- February 27, 2009, to protest the Troubled Assets Relief Program (TARP) U.S. financial system bailouts signed by President George W. Bush in October, 2008, and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 stimulus legislation signed by President Barack Obama;
- April 15, 2009, to coincide with the annual U.S. deadline for submitting tax returns, known as Tax Day;
- July 4, 2009, to coincide with Independence Day;
- September 12, 2009, to coincide with the anniversary of the day after the September 11 attacks;
- November 5, 2009, in Washington D.C. to protest health insurance reform;
- March 14–21, 2010, in D.C. during the final week of debate on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
Most Tea Party activities have since been focused on opposing efforts of the Obama Administration, and on recruiting, nominating, and supporting candidates for state and national elections. The name "Tea Party" is a reference to the Boston Tea Party, whose principal aim was to protest taxation without representation. Tea Party protests evoked images, slogans and themes from the American Revolution, such as tri-corner hats and yellow Gadsden "Don't Tread on Me" flags. The letters T-E-A have been used by some protesters to form the backronym "Taxed Enough Already".
Commentators promoted Tax Day events on various blogs, Twitter, and Facebook, while the Fox News Channel regularly featured televised programming leading into and promoting various protest activities. Reaction to the tea parties included counter-protests expressing support for the Obama administration, and dismissive or mocking media coverage of both the events and its promoters.
The theme of the Boston Tea Party, an iconic event of American history, has long been used by anti-tax protesters with libertarian and conservative viewpoints. It was part of Tax Day protests held throughout the 1990s and earlier. The libertarian theme of the "tea party" protest has also been used by Republican Congressman Ron Paul and his supporters during fundraising events in the primaries of the 2008 presidential campaign to emphasize fiscal conservatism, which they later claimed laid the groundwork for the modern-day Tea Party movement. Young Americans for Liberty, with the endorsement of Rep. Paul, organized a protest in late-2008 for January 24 the following year with participants dressing in Native American costumes and dumping soft drinks into New York's Susquehanna River in protest of former NY Governor David Paterson's proposed 18% tax increase on soda. As home mortgage foreclosures increased, and details of the 2009 stimulus legislation became known, more organized protests began to emerge.
Tea bag campaignEdit
On January 19, 2009, Graham Makohoniuk, a part-time trader and a member of Ticker Forum, posted a casual invitation on the market-ticker.org forums to "Mail a tea bag to congress and senate," a tactic that had first been attempted by the Libertarian Party in 1973. The idea quickly caught on with others on the forum, some of whom reported being attracted to the inexpensive, easy way to reach "everyone that voted for the bailout."
Forum moderator Stephanie Jasky helped organize the group and worked to "get it to go viral." Jasky is also a member of FedUpUSA - a fiscally conservative, non-partisan activist group whose members describe themselves as "a group of investors" who sprung out of the market-ticker.org forums. The group had previously held D.C. protests in 2008. On January 19, 2009, Jasky had posted a formal invitation "to a commemorative tea party." She suggested that supporters, in a coordinated effort, send tea bags on February 1, 2009.
The founder of market-ticker.org, Karl Denninger, a stock trader and former CEO, published his own write-up on the proposed protest. Titled "Tea Party February 1st?", it railed against the bailouts, the national debt and "fraud and abuse in our banking and financial system" which included the predatory lending practices currently at the center of the home mortgage foreclosure crisis. Karl Denninger, who helped form FedUpUSA in the wake of the March, 2008 Federal Reserve bail out of Bear Sterns, had been a guest on both Glenn Beck and CNBC. By February 1, the idea had spread among conservative and libertarian-oriented blogs, forums, websites and through a viral email campaign, and Denninger has since been credited as one of the founders of the movement, and the organizer for the first Tea Party event.
On February 11, 2009, talk radio host and Fox Business Network personality Dave Ramsey appeared on Fox and Friends, waving tea bags and saying: "It's time for a Tea Party." He was on the show criticizing the newly confirmed Secretary of the Treasury Timothy Geithner, who that morning had outlined his plan to use the $300 billion or so dollars remaining in the TARP funds.
"Porkulus" protests and "First Tea Party" claimsEdit
The dominant theme seen at some of the earliest anti-stimulus protests was "pork" rather than tea. The term "porkulus" was coined by radio talk-show host Rush Limbaugh on his January 27, 2009 broadcast, in reference to both the 2009 stimulus bill, which had been introduced to the House of Representatives the day before, as well as to pork barrel spending and earmarks. The term proved very popular with conservative politicians and commentators, who began to unify in opposition against stimulus spending after the 2008 General Election.
Competing claims have emerged over which protest was actually the first to organize. According to FreedomWorks state and federal campaigns director Brendan Steinhauser, activist Mary Rakovich was the organizer of a February 10 protest in Fort Myers, Florida, calling it the "first protest of President Obama's administration that we know of. It was the first protest of what became the tea party movement." Rakovich, along with six to ten others, protested outside a townhall meeting featuring President Obama and Florida governor Charlie Crist. Interviewed by a local reporter, Rakovich explained that she "thinks the government is wasting way too much money helping people receive high definition TV signals" and that "Obama promotes socialism, although 'he doesn't call it that'". She was invited to appear in front of a national audience on Neil Cavuto's Fox News Channel program Your World. Regarding the role Freedomworks played in the demonstration, Rakovich acknowledged they were involved "right from the start," and said that in her 21⁄2 hour training session, she was taught how to attract more supporters and was specifically advised not to focus on President Obama.
New York Times journalist Kate Zernike reports that some within the Tea Party credit Seattle blogger and conservative activist Keli Carender with organizing the first Tea Party on February 16, 2009. An article written by Chris Good of The Atlantic credits Carender as "one of the first" Tea Party organizers.
Carendar organized what she called a "Porkulus Protest" on President's Day, a few days before Rick Santelli used the phrase "Tea Party" in what has been characterized as a "rant" broadcast from the floor of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.
Carender contacted conservative author and Fox News contributor Michelle Malkin in order to gain her support and publicize the event. Malkin promoted the protest in several posts on her blog, saying that "There should be one of these in every town in America," and that she would be supplying the crowd with a meal of pulled pork. The protest was held in Seattle on Presidents Day, 2009. Malkin encouraged her readers to stage similar events in Denver on the following day where President Obama was scheduled to sign the stimulus bill into law.
A protest at the Denver Capitol Building was already scheduled to coincide with the bill signing. Malkin reported that it was organized by the conservative advocacy group Americans for Prosperity and spearheaded by the conservative activist group Independence Institute, as well as former Republican Representative and presidential candidate Tom Tancredo. Another protest organized by local conservative talk radio station KFYI was held in suburban Phoenix, Arizona, on February 18, and brought 500 protesters. KFYI organized the protest in reaction to Obama's visit to the local high school to hold his first public talk on elements of the stimulus bill. By February 20, Malkin was using her nationally syndicated column in an attempt to present these three protests as a movement to her fellow conservatives, continuing to call for more. "There's something in the air," she wrote, "It's the smell of roasted pork."
Birth of the national Tea Party movementEdit
On February 19, 2009, in a broadcast from the floor of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, CNBC Business News Network editor Rick Santelli loudly criticized the government plan to refinance mortgages as "promoting bad behavior" by "subsidizing losers' mortgages", and raised the possibility of putting together a "Chicago Tea Party in July". A number of the traders and brokers around him cheered on his proposal, to the apparent amusement of the hosts in the studio. It was called "the rant heard round the world".
The following day after Santelli's comments from the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, roughly 50 national conservative leaders participated in a conference call that gave birth to the national Tea Party movement. In response to Santelli, websites such as ChicagoTeaParty.com, registered in August 2008 by Chicago radio producer Zack Christenson, were live within twelve hours. About 10 hours after Santelli's remarks, reTeaParty.com was bought to coordinate Tea Parties scheduled for the 4th of July and within two weeks was reported to be receiving 11,000 visitors a day. However, on the contrary, many scholars are reluctant to label Santelli's remarks the "spark" of the Tea Party considering that a "Tea Party" protest had taken place 3 days before in Seattle, Washington In fact, this had lead many opponents of the Tea Party to define this movement as "astroturfed", but it seems as if Santelli's comments did not "fall on deaf ears" considering that, “the top 50 counties in foreclosure rates played host to over 910 Tea Party protests, about one-sixth of the total”
Also on February 19, Young Americans for Liberty NY State Chairman Trevor Leach created a Facebook page called "The Capitalist Chicago Tea Party—Rick's Revolution," in response to Santelli's call for a national Tea Party. According to The Huffington Post, a Facebook page was developed on February 20 calling for Tea Party protests across the country. Eric Odom of the conservative activist group FreedomWorks was one of the group administrators, and it was created by Phil Kerpen from the conservative advocacy organization Americans for Prosperity. Soon, the "Nationwide Chicago Tea Party" protests were coordinated across over 40 different cities for February 27, 2009, establishing the first national modern Tea Party protest.
Tax day eventsEdit
April 15, 2009 is said to have been the day that had the largest number of tea party demonstrations reportedly in more than 750 cities. Estimates of protesters and locations varied. The Christian Science Monitor reported on the difficulties of calculating a cumulative turnout and said some estimates state that over half a million Americans participated in the protests, noting, "experts say the counting itself often becomes politicized as authorities, organizers, and attendees often come up with dramatically different counts." Grover Norquist, president of Americans for Tax Reform, estimated that at least 268,000 attended in over 200 cities. Statistician Nate Silver, manager of FiveThirtyEight.com, has said that a cumulative crowd size estimate from credible sources was of 311,460 attendees in 346 cities, which accounted for all capitols and major cities little noticeable or no reliable media coverage in other protests could have contributed to a lower number of attendees and locations. The largest event, in Atlanta, Georgia, drew between an estimated 7,000 to 15,000 protestors. Some of the gatherings drew only dozens.
On April 15, 2009, a Tea Party protest outside the White House was moved after a box of tea bags was hurled over the White House fence. Police sealed off the area and evacuated some people. The Secret Service brought out a bomb-detecting robot, which determined the package was not a threat. Approximately one thousand people had demonstrated, several waved placards saying "Stop Big Government" and "Taxation is Piracy".
Spring and early summer protestsEdit
Tea Party rallies continued in various locales around the nation. Many of these events were focused on opposition to state or local taxes and spending, rather than with national issues. Late April saw Tea Parties in Annapolis, Maryland, White Plains, New York, Jackson, Tennessee, and Monroe, Washington. In May, there were six more Tea Party events in Tennessee, New York, Idaho, Ohio, Nevada, and North Carolina. During June, 2009, another dozen events were held in North Carolina, California, Rhode Island, Texas, Ohio, Michigan, Montana, Florida, New York, and Washington State. On June 29, 2009, in Nashville, Tennessee, four thousand people rallied against proposed emissions trading (cap and trade) energy in Congress and universal health care.
Independence Day ralliesEdit
A number of Tea Party protests were held the weekend of July 4, 2009, coinciding with Independence Day. "The rally followed a national effort that drew thousands of activists to Tea Party events across the country on April 15, 2009 when income taxes are due."
On July 17, 2009, there were additional Tea Party protests around the nation organized by a group called Tea Party Patriots, this time against President Obama's proposed health care overhaul that they labeled socialized medicine.
Taxpayer March on WashingtonEdit
On September 12, 2009, Tea Party protests were held in various cities around the nation. In Washington, D.C., Tea Party protests gathered to march from Freedom Plaza to the United States Capitol. Estimates of the number of attendees varied, from "tens of thousands" to "in excess of 75,000". A rally organizer asserted that one local ABC News station had reported attendance of over one million, but he retracted the statement after ABC News denied making any such report.
Using the counts of those in attendance, the march may have been the largest conservative protest ever held in Washington, D.C., as well as the largest demonstration against President Obama's administration to date.
First Tea Party conventionEdit
On February 4, 2010, the first Tea Party national convention was held in Nashville, attended by 600 people. The convention received broad media coverage as former GOP Vice Presidential Candidate Sarah Palin was the featured speaker. Some tea partiers condemned the event, questioning the main sponsor, Tea Party Nation, a for-profit group, as well as the several hundred dollar ticket price. The former Alaska governor was criticized for receiving as much as $100,000 to address the convention.
The New York Times reported on August 8, 2009, that organizations opposed to the President Obama's health care legislation were urging opponents to be disruptive. It noted that the Tea Party Patriots web site circulated a memo instructing them to "Pack the hall. Yell out and challenge the Rep’s statements early. Get him off his prepared script and agenda. Stand up and shout and sit right back down." The memo continued, "The Rep [representative] should be made to feel that a majority, and if not, a significant portion of at least the audience, opposes the socialist agenda of Washington."
Some Tea Party organizers have stated that they look to leftist Saul Alinsky's Rules for Radicals for inspiration. Protesters have also appropriated left-wing imagery; the logo for the 9/12 March on Washington featured a raised fist design that was intended to resemble those used by the pro-labor, anti-war, and black power movements of the 1960s. In addition, the slogan "Keep Your Laws Off My Body", usually associated with pro-choice activists, has been seen on signs at tea parties.
On April 8, 2010, it was announced that the National Tea Party Federation had been set up to publicize the movement, and organizers said it would issue news releases, respond to critics and help get the word out about tea party rallies and initiatives. Tea Party activist Mark Skoda noted the slow response to critics who have charged the protesters with racism, stating: "It took us 72 hours to respond to John Lewis... We're not needing to meet every week. But there will now be a way to have a call to arms to respond to attacks with a crisp and clear message."
Reports of abusive behaviorEdit
On March 16, 2010, at a Tea Party protest at the Ohio offices of Rep. Mary Jo Kilroy, a counter-protester with Parkinson's disease was berated by one of the protestors and had dollar bills thrown at him with additional protesters also mocking the individual. The man initially denied the incident, but later apologized for his "shameful" actions.
On March 20, 2010, it was reported that protesters against proposed health care legislation used racial and anti-gay slurs. Gay Congressman Barney Frank was called "homo" and a "faggot several times." Several black lawmakers said demonstrators shouted "the N-word" at them. Congressman André Carson said that as he walked from the Cannon House Office Building with Representative John Lewis and his chief of staff, amid chants of "Kill the bill" he heard the "n-word" about fifteen times coming from several places in the crowd: "One guy, I remember he just rattled it off several times. Then John looks at me and says, 'You know, this reminds me of a different time.'" Congressman Emanuel Cleaver said as he walked several yards behind Lewis, he distinctly heard "nigger", and he was also spat upon by a protester while walking up the stairs of the Cannon Building, although whether the spitting was intentional has been questioned.
Conservative commentator Andrew Breitbart, who wasn't there at the protests, said the incidents reported by Cleaver, Lewis and Carson were fabricated as part of a plan to annihilate the Tea Party movement by all means necessary and that they never actually happened. He offered to donate $10,000 to the United Negro College Fund if Lewis could provide audio or video footage of the slurs, or pass a lie detector test. The amount was later raised to $100,000 for "hard evidence." In addition, the National Tea Party Federation sent a letter to the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) denouncing racism and requesting that the CBC supply any evidence of the alleged events at the protest.
Representative Heath Shuler of North Carolina, who is white, backed up his colleagues, telling the Hendersonville (N.C.) Times-News that he too heard slurs. Richard Trumka, president of the AFL-CIO, corroborated Lewis' version of events during a confrontation with Breitbart at a Harvard Institute of Politics forum by saying, "I watched them spit at people, I watched them call John Lewis the n-word. [...] I witnessed it. I saw it in person. That's real evidence." One of Representative Anthony Weiner’s staffers reported a stream of hostile encounters with tea partiers roaming the halls of Congress. In addition to mockery, protesters left a couple of notes behind. According to the New York Daily News, one letter "asked what Rahm Emanuel did with Weiner in the shower, in a reference to the mess around ex-Rep Eric Massa. It was signed with a swastika, the staffer said. The other note called the congressman "Schlomo Weiner."
Kate Zernike, author of Boiling Mad: Inside Tea Party America, has observed, "Rather than explain it as a fringe of the movement, which they plausibly might have, they argued that the ugliness had never happened. Wasn't it suspicious, they asked, that there was no video of spitting or slurs, in an age when everyone's cell phone has a camera? It was difficult, if not disingenuous, for the Tea Party groups to try to disown the behavior." Politicians from both political parties, black conservative activists and columnists have argued that allegations of racism do not reflect the movement as a whole.
- Katharine Shilcutt Gleave. "Houston Joins Other Cities Nationwide in Tea Party Protest". Houstonist. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
- "Anti-Obama 'tea party' protests mark US tax day". Google News - AFP. April 15, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- Oneal, Michael; Janet Hook (2009-04-16). "Anti-Obama rebellion poses risk for the GOP". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
- "Fourth of July - Independence Day Tea Party Celebrations / Protests - July 4, 2009". Retrieved 19 July 2010.
- "Tea Party Express Takes Washington By Storm". Fox News. September 12, 2009.[dead link]
- Allen, Jonathan; Meredith Shiner (November 5, 2009). "Tea partiers descend on Capitol Hill". Politico. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
- Tea Party Activists Make Last Stand Against Health Care Vote
- Brian Lockhart (2011-08-21). "GOP chair welcomes tea party". NewsTimes. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
- "Tea Party Convention Gives Boost to Newcomer Politicians". FOXNews.com. February 5, 2010.
- Thomas, Townshend Duties, 246.
- Taxpayers Strike Back With 'Tea Parties'. Special Report with Bret Baier. Published March 16, 2009
- Anne Schroeder Mullins (April 8, 2009). "T.E.A. = Taxed Enough Already". The Politico. Retrieved June 17, 2009.
- Fox teas up a tempest. By Michael Calderone. The Politico. Published April 15, 2009.
- Burgin, Aaron. "Demonstrators decry bailouts, taxes at Tax Day tea parties". Press Enterprise. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- Libertarians to plan tea party to protest tax
- State Republicans call for anti-tax 'tea party'
- Tea bag protesters would toss away state's future
- Demonstrators hurl tea bags in bid against raising taxes
- 'TEA PARTY' PROTESTS TAXATION, BUT DON'T EXPECT A REVOLUTION
- Smith refuses to defend tax proposition
- "Boston Tea Party is protest template". UPI.com. 2008-04-20. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "'The Rachel Maddow Show' for Tuesday, April 14 - Rachel Maddow show- msnbc.com". MSNBC. 2009-04-15. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "Tea Party 07 - Ron Paul for President Mass Donation Day". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
- Smith, James F. (December 16, 2007). "Ron Paul's tea party for dollars - 2008 Presidential Campaign Blog - Political Intelligence". Boston.com. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "Statement on Ron Paul and "Tax Day Tea Parties"". Businesswire.com. 2009-04-15. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Levenson, Michael (2007-12-16). "Ron Paul raises millions in today's Boston Tea Party event - The Boston Globe". Boston.com. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Press, Associated (2007-12-17). "Paul supporters hold Tea Party re-enactment in Boston". BostonHerald.com. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- The Southern Avenger, Host: Jack Hunter, Station: 1250 AM WTMA, Charleston, South Carolina, Date: 02/15/2010, Interview with Ron Paul
- Jeff Frazee, "YAL Tax Protest", Young Americans for Liberty, January 28, 2009
- Neil St. Clair, "A 'tea party' to protest Patersons taxes", Your News Now, January 24, 2009
- JEANNINE AVERSA AP Economics Writer. "Washington offers no relief for savers". Readingeagle.com. Retrieved 2010-04-27.[dead link]
- "Homebuyer Helper". Foxnews.com. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "MAIL A TEA BAG TO CONGRESS & TO SENATE! [FedUp] - MarketTicker Forums". Tickerforum.org. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Doherty, Brian. Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement, pg. 396
- "Single Post Display - MarketTicker Forums". Tickerforum.org. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "Single Post Display - MarketTicker Forums". Tickerforum.org. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- FedUpUSA (2008-11-04). "About Us". FedUpUSA. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- FedUpUSA - About Us; FedUpUSA; July, 2013
- "DC protest, THIS SATURDAY the 27th TRILLION DOLLAR MARCH [FedUp] - MarketTicker Forums". Tickerforum.org. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "Pre-Bailout - History". Fedupusa.org. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "Niet compatibele browser". Facebook. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "TEA PARTY February 1st? - The Market Ticker". Market-ticker.org. Archived from the original on 2009-01-24. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "Jane Hamsher: A Teabagger Timeline: Koch, Coors, Newt, Dick Armey There From The Start". Huffingtonpost.com. May 16, 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "What is the 'tea party' and how is it shaking up American politics?". CSMonitor.com. 2010-09-15. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
- "Karl Denninger Calls Out Tea Party | Tea Party Civil War | Video". Mediaite. 2010-10-21. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
- Solomon, Deborah (February 11, 2009). "Market Pans Bank Rescue Plan". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- "FreedomWorks' Long History Of Teabagging". 4/19/09. Archived from the original on 2009-09-15. Retrieved 3/4/10.
but they didn't have an explicitly tea-based theme. If they had a theme of any kind it was "pork" and government waste.Check date values in:
- Tom Kuntz (2009-02-08). "Idea of the Day: ‘Porkulus’". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-08.
- Ronald D. Utt, Ph.D. (2004-11-10). "Is Pork Barrel Spending Ready to Explode? The Anatomy of an Earmark". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 2004-11-10.
- Ben McGrath (February 1, 2010). "The Movement - The Rise of Tea Party Activism". The New Yorker.
- "FreedomWorks' Long History Of Teabagging". 4/19/09. Retrieved 3/4/10.
but they didn't have an explicitly tea-based theme. If they had a theme of any kind it was "pork" and government waste.Check date values in:
- "Members Protest President Obama in Fort Myers". FreedomWorks. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- Steinhauser, Brendan (2009-03-29). "Cape Coral Tea Party is ON!". FreedomWorks. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- Steinhauser, Brendan (2009-02-09). "plans to protest Obama in Fort Myers, Florida Tuesday!". FreedomWorks. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- George Bennett (February 10, 2010). "One year later: Crist-Obama Fort Myers stimulus rally fueled Rubio campaign, pre-Santelli tea party protest". Palm Beach Post.
- "Those outside Harborside in Fort Myers had plenty to see, say". The News-Press. 2009-02-11. Retrieved 2009-04-26.
- "You can't keep a good Tea Party down!". Wnd.com. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- Beutler, Brian (2009-04-14). "FreedomWorks' Long History Of Teabagging | TPMDC". Tpmdc.talkingpointsmemo.com. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "Woman's year-ago protest launched tea party movement in Florida". Palmbeachpost.com. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Zernike, Kate (2010-02-27). "Unlikely Activist Who Got to the Tea Party Early". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Zernike, Kate (2010-02-27). "Unlikely Activist Who Got to the Tea Party Early". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "Meet Keli Carender, Tea Party organizer in Seattle, Washington « Tax Day Tea Party". Taxdayteaparty.com. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- KIRO Tv (2009-02-16). "VIDEO: Dozens Gather At "Porkulus" Protest". Retrieved 2009-03-29.
- Malkin, Michelle (2009-02-17). ""Yes, we care!" Porkulus protesters holler back Updated". Michelle Malkin. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Malkin, Michelle (2009-02-16). "From the Boston Tea Party to your neighborhood pork protest". Michelle Malkin. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "President Signs Massive Stimulus In Denver". 2009-03-17. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
- Gary Grado, Sonu Munshi, Hayley Ringle (2009-02-18). "More than 500 protest Obama's arrival". Retrieved 2009-04-02.[dead link]
- Wong, Scott (2009-02-15). "Obama to visit Mesa high school on Wed". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "Articles - Rebel Yell: Taxpayers Revolt Against Gimme-Mania". RealClearPolitics. 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Rick Santelli: I Want to Set the Record Straight.CNBC. March 2, 2009
- "CNBC: Rick Santelli goes off". Chicago Tribune. 2009-02-23. Retrieved 2009-03-02.
- "Answer Desk: Housing relief backlash - Answer Desk- msnbc.com". MSNBC. 2009-02-23. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "Tea Party: Palin's pet, or is there more to it underneath," U.S. Money Talk, October 5, 2010.
- A Growing "Tea Party" Movement?, Jonathan V. Last, Weekly Standard, March 4, 2009
- Tam Cho, Wendy K., James G. Gimpel, and Daron R. Shaw. "The Tea Party Movement and the Geography of Collective Action." Quarterly Journal of Political Science 7.2 (2012): 105- 33.
- Jeff Frazee, "Traders Revolt", Young Americans for Liberty, February 19, 2009
- Facebook Group
- Berger, Judson (April 9, 2009). "Modern-Day Tea Parties Give Taxpayers Chance to Scream for Better Representation". FOXNews.com. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Roesgen, Andy (2009-02-27). "Protestors Gather for Self-Styled Tea Party". myfoxchicago.com. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- "Tax Day Is Met With Tea Parties". Janie Lorber and Liz Robbins. The New York Times. April 15, 2009.
- "Arguing the size of the 'tea party' protest". Patrik Jonsson. The Christian Science Monitor. April 18, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- "Nationwide 'Tea Party' Protests". CNN. April 15, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- "Tea Party Attendance 268,000+". MSNBC. April 16, 2009.
- "Tea Party Nonpartisan Attendance Estimates: Now 300,000+". FiveThirtyEight. April 16, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- "The myth of the 15,000". Jim Galloway. Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 'April 27, 2009.
- "Thousands Attend Atlanta Tea Party". April 16, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- "'Tea parties' take place across US against tax increases". Alex Spillius. The Daily Telegraph (London). April 15, 2009.
- Tax protest draws crowd in White Plains, The Journal News, April 24, 2009
- Tea Party draws hundreds, The Sun, April 25, 2009
- Tea Party supporters protest taxes in Monroe, April 26, 2009, Everett Herald
- Knoxville Tea Party, Instapundit, May 5, 2009
- "Hundreds attend rally downtown". WIVB-TV. May 9, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
- "Crapo meets with Tea Party organizers". Associated Press. May 26, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-29.[dead link]
- "Tea Party 'grass-roots politics at its best'". Dayton Daily News. May 29, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
- "Gov. Gibbons joins tax opponents at rally". Reno Gazette-Journal. May 29, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-29.[dead link]
- "Kernersville Taxpayers Hold Tea Party Protest". WFMY News 2. May 31, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
- "Hundreds turn out for local "Tea Party" rally". Associated Press. June 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-29.[dead link]
- "‘An amazing, patriotic event'". The Union. June 8, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
- "Protesters prepare to parade through State House". The Providence Journal. June 10, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
- "600 protest Pelosi in Houston". Politico. June 15, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-30.
- "Flag Day Attracts Patriotism, Political Activism". WLWT-TV. June 14, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
- "Fair Tax plan wins big at convention". Detroit Free Press. June 14, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-29.[dead link]
- "Ravalli Co. 'Tea Party' organizers deliver petitions". KPAX. June 16, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
- "Tea Party: ‘Give me liberty, not debt’". Bradenton Herald. June 29, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
- "Tea Party part II". Troy Record. June 16, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
- TEA Party steeped in messages, The Olympian, June 28, 2009
- "Thousands Protest Obama Policies In Nashville". WTVF. June 29, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
- Teachout, Woden. ""The Tea Party in Politics: Why the Event in Boston Harbor Keeps on Appealing to Conservatives," History News Network, June 29, 2009". Hnn.us. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- "Time for a Tea Party," The Washington Times, July 3, 2009.
- "TEA Party activists rally at Capitol - CNN.com". CNN. July 4, 2009. Retrieved May 24, 2010.
- "Tea Parties Protest Health Care Bill". WXIA-TV. July 17, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
- Sherman, Jake (September 13, 2009). "Protesters March on Washington". The Wall Street Journal (online.wsj.com). Retrieved September 13, 2009.[dead link]
- Keefe, Bob (September 12, 2009). "Georgians lead protest at Taxpayer March on Washington". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution (ajc.com). Retrieved September 13, 2009.
- "ABC News Was Misquoted on Crowd Size". ABC News. September 12, 2009.
- Zeleny, Jeff (September 12, 2009). "Thousands Rally in Capital to Protest Big Government". The New York Times (nytimes.com). Retrieved September 17, 2009.
- Weigel, David (September 14, 2009). "Beltway Conservatives Comb Tea Party Movement for Converts". The Washington Independent (washingtonindependent.com). Retrieved September 17, 2009.
- Weigel, David. "Media at the Tea Party Convention « The Washington Independent". Washingtonindependent.com. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Kenneth Vogel (January 29, 2010). "Latest tea party target: Its own convention". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "Palin's tea party raises eyebrows - Kenneth P. Vogel". Politico.Com. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "Whose Tea Party Is It? Nashville Convention Stirs Debate - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. 2010-02-04. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Debates Turns Hostile, New York Times, August 8, 2009
- "Conservatives use liberal playbook". Retrieved September 18, 2009.
- Kathleen Hennessey (April 8, 2010). "Tea parties form a federation, but don't call them organized". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- Letter to the Congressional Black Caucus from Tea Party Federation: Please Provide Evidence of Cannon N-Word Incident, National Tea Party Federation, April 24, 2010
- Bob Cesca (2010-03-03). "The Tea Party is all about race". Huffington Post.
- David Weigel (2010-01-04). "‘N-Word’ Sign Dogs Would-Be Tea Party Leader". Washington Independent.
- Michael Tomasky (2010-03-21). "Cat Slithers Out of Bag". London: Guardian News.
- McAuliff, Michael & Bazinet, Kenneth R. (March 20, 2010), "Make That the Nas-Tea Party", Daily News (New York), archived from the original on 2010-03-24, retrieved June 5, 2010
- Tea Party Protestor Sorry for Mocking Man With Parkinson's Disease; CBS News; March 25, 2010
- Health-reform rally heckler says he's sorry and scared The Columbus Dispatch; March 24, 2010
- "Racist epithets fly at tea party health protest". HeraldNet.com. McClatchy News. March 20, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
- Alexander, Andrew (April 11, 2010). "Allegations of spitting and slurs at Capitol protest merit more reporting". Washington Post. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
- Protesters hurl slurs and spit at Democrats; CNN; March 20, 2010
- "Tea Party Protesters Dispute Reports of Slurs, Spitting Against Dem Lawmakers". Fox News. March 22, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
- "AUDIO: Origin of Rep. Carson's racism accusation toward health care protesters". Washington Times. April 6, 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2013.
- Tea Party, Dems Row Over N-Word Video "Evidence"; CBS News; April 13, 2010
- Andrew Breitbart, Big Journalism, April 2, 2010
- "Political Insider" by Jim Galloway, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, March 26, 2010
- AFL-CIO's Trumka knocks down Breitbart's denials of racism at Tea Party protest; MMfA; April 8, 2010
- AFL-CIO President Stresses Important of Labor Movement; The Harvard Crimson; April 8, 2010
- AFL-CIO Head vs. Andrew Breitbart On Tea Party Racism, Alleged Labor Attacks; Huffington Post; June 8, 2010
- Boiling Mad: Inside Tea Party America; Kate Zernike; Macmillan Publishers; November, 2010; Pgs. 138-139
- "Tea party not a racist movement, Biden says". MSNBC. Associated Press. July 19, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- Montopoli, Brian (May 31, 2011). "Herman Cain: I prove Tea Party isn't racist". CBS News. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- Gibson, Jake (August 4, 2010). "Black Political Activists: Tea Party 'Not Racist'". Fox News. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- McCartney, Robert. "Tea Party: Not racist, just wary of government's reach". The Herald Sun. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- Flanders, Laura (2010). At the Tea Party. New York, New York: OR Press. ISBN 978-1-935928-23-2.
- Lepore, Jill (2010). The Whites of Their Eyes: The Tea Party's Revolution and the Battle over American History. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-3696-3.
- Gladney, Henry M. No Taxation without Representation: 1768 Petition, Memorial, and Remonstrance, 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Demonstrations and protests by the Tea Party movement.|
- "Katie Couric interviews Tea Party Leaders", CBS News, January 25, 2010.
- Video coverage, the Taxpayer March on Washington, by C-SPAN
- Signs of Discontent: 9-12-09 in DC, slide show by Life magazine
- Signs of the Tea-Party Protests, photo essay by Time magazine
- "12 Tea Party leaders to watch", National Journal, February 4, 2010.
- Tea Party Express Comes To A Head On Tax Day by NPR
- "The Tea Party and the Economy", About.com, September 30, 2011.
- "A definition of the tea party", About.com.