|Spinach in flower|
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family of Amaranthaceae. It is native to central and southwestern Asia. It is an annual plant (rarely biennial), which grows to a height of up to 30 cm. Spinach may survive over winter in temperate regions. The leaves are alternate, simple, ovate to triangular-based, very variable in size from about 2–30 cm long and 1–15 cm broad, with larger leaves at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellow-green, 3–4 mm diameter, maturing into a small, hard, dry, lumpy fruit cluster 5–10 mm across containing several seeds.
Common spinach, Spinacia oleracea, was long considered to be in the Chenopodiaceae family, but in 2003, the Chenopodiaceae family was combined with the Amaranthaceae family under the family name 'Amaranthaceae' in the order Caryophyllales. Within the Amaranthaceae family, Amaranthoideae and Chenopodioideae are now subfamilies, for the amaranths and the chenopods, respectively.
The English word "spinach" dates to the late 14th century, and is from espinache (Fr. épinard), of uncertain origin. The traditional view derives it from O.Prov. espinarc, which perhaps is via Catalan espinac, from Andalusian Arabic asbinakh (اسبيناخ), from Arabic es-sabaanikh (السبانخ), from Persian اسپاناخ aspanakh, meaning roughly "green hand", but the multiplicity of forms makes the theory doubtful.
Spinach is thought to have originated in ancient Persia (modern Iran and neighboring countries). Arab traders carried spinach into India, and then the plant was introduced into ancient China, where it was known as "Persian vegetable" (bōsī cài; 波斯菜; present:菠菜). The earliest available record of the spinach plant was recorded in Chinese, stating it was introduced into China via Nepal (probably in 647 AD).
In AD 827, the Saracens introduced spinach to Sicily. The first written evidence of spinach in the Mediterranean was recorded in three 10th-century works: the medical work by al-Razi (known as Rhazes in the West) and in two agricultural treatises, one by Ibn Wahshiya and the other by Qustus al-Rumi. Spinach became a popular vegetable in the Arab Mediterranean and arrived in Spain by the latter part of the 12th century, where the great Arab agronomist Ibn al-'Awwam called it the "captain of leafy greens". Spinach was also the subject of a special treatise in the 11th century by Ibn Hajjaj.
The prickly-seeded form of spinach was known in Germany by no later than the 13th century, though the smooth-seeded form was not described until 1552. (The smooth-seeded form is used in modern commercial production.)
Spinach first appeared in England and France in the 14th century, probably via Spain, and it gained quick popularity because it appeared in early spring, when other vegetables were scarce and when Lenten dietary restrictions discouraged consumption of other foods. Spinach is mentioned in the first known English cookbook, The Forme of Cury (1390), where it is referred to as spinnedge and/or spynoches. Smooth-seeded spinach was described in 1552.
In 1533, Catherine de' Medici became queen of France; she so fancied spinach, she insisted it be served at every meal. To this day, dishes made with spinach are known as "Florentine", reflecting Catherine's birth in Florence.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||97 kJ (23 kcal)|
|- Sugars||0.4 g|
|- Dietary fiber||2.2 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.||469 μg (59%)|
|Vitamin A||9377 IU|
|- beta-carotene||5626 μg (52%)|
|- lutein and zeaxanthin||12198 μg|
|Thiamine (vit. B1)||0.078 mg (7%)|
|Riboflavin (vit. B2)||0.189 mg (16%)|
|Niacin (vit. B3)||0.724 mg (5%)|
|Vitamin B6||0.195 mg (15%)|
|Folate (vit. B9)||194 μg (49%)|
|Vitamin C||28 mg (34%)|
|Vitamin E||2 mg (13%)|
|Vitamin K||483 μg (460%)|
|Calcium||99 mg (10%)|
|Iron||2.71 mg (21%)|
|Magnesium||79 mg (22%)|
|Manganese||0.897 mg (43%)|
|Phosphorus||49 mg (7%)|
|Potassium||558 mg (12%)|
|Sodium||79 mg (5%)|
|Zinc||0.53 mg (6%)|
|Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Spinach has a high nutritional value and is extremely rich in antioxidants, especially when fresh, steamed, or quickly boiled. It is a rich source of vitamin A (and especially high in lutein), vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, magnesium, manganese, folate, betaine, iron, vitamin B2, calcium, potassium, vitamin B6, folic acid, copper, protein, phosphorus, zinc, niacin, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. Recently, opioid peptides called rubiscolins have also been found in spinach.
Polyglutamyl folate (vitamin B9 or folic acid) is a vital constituent of cells, and spinach is a good source of folic acid. Boiling spinach can more than halve the level of folate left in the spinach, but microwaving does not affect folate content. Vitamin B9 was first isolated from spinach in 1941.
Spinach, along with other green leafy vegetables, is considered to be rich in iron. For example, the United States Department of Agriculture states that a 180-g serving of boiled spinach contains 6.43 mg of iron, whereas a 170-g ground hamburger patty contains at most 4.42 mg. However, spinach contains iron absorption-inhibiting substances, including high levels of oxalate, which can bind to the iron to form ferrous oxalate and render much of the iron in spinach unusable by the body. In addition to preventing absorption and use, high levels of oxalates remove iron from the body. But some studies have found that the addition of oxalic acid to the diet may improve iron absorption in rats over a diet with spinach without additional oxalic acid.
Spinach also has a high calcium content. However, the oxalate content in spinach also binds with calcium, decreasing its absorption. Calcium and zinc also limit iron absorption. The calcium in spinach is the least bioavailable of calcium sources. By way of comparison, the human body can absorb about half of the calcium present in broccoli, yet only around 5% of the calcium in spinach.
Types of spinachEdit
A distinction can be made between older varieties of spinach and more modern ones. Older varieties tend to bolt too early in warm conditions. Newer varieties tend to grow more rapidly, but have less of an inclination to run up to seed. The older varieties have narrower leaves and tend to have a stronger and more bitter taste. Most newer varieties have broader leaves and round seeds.
The three basic types of spinach are:
- Savoy has dark green, crinkly and curly leaves. It is the type sold in fresh bunches in most supermarkets in the United States. One heirloom variety of savoy is Bloomsdale, which is somewhat resistant to bolting. Other common heirloom varieties are Merlo Nero (a mild variety from Italy) and Viroflay (a very large spinach with great yields).
- Flat- or smooth-leaf spinach has broad, smooth leaves that are easier to clean than Savoy. This type is often grown for canned and frozen spinach, as well as soups, baby foods, and processed foods. Giant Noble is an example variety.
- Semi-savoy is a hybrid variety with slightly crinkled leaves. It has the same texture as Savoy, but it is not as difficult to clean. It is grown for both fresh market and processing. Tyee Hybrid is a common semi-savoy.
Production, marketing and storageEdit
Spinach is sold loose, bunched, packaged fresh in bags, canned, or frozen. Fresh spinach loses much of its nutritional value with storage of more than a few days. While refrigeration slows this effect to about eight days, spinach will lose most of its folate and carotenoid content, so for longer storage, it is blanched and frozen, cooked and frozen, or canned. Storage in the freezer can be for up to eight months.
|Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization |
The Environmental Working Group reported spinach is one of the dozen most heavily pesticide-contaminated produce products. The most common pesticides found on spinach are permethrin, dimethoate, and DDT. Spinach is high in cadmium contamination. An FDA study found more in boiled spinach in the early 90's (0.125 mg/kg) than in the 320 other foods studied.
Spinach is packaged in air, or in nitrogen gas to extend shelf life. Some packaged spinach is exposed to radiation to kill any harmful bacteria that may be on the leaves. The Food and Drug Administration approves of irradiation of spinach leaves up to 4.0 kilograys; however, using radiation to sanitize spinach is of concern because it may deplete the leaves of their nutritional value. Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service experimentally tested the concentrations of vitamins C, E, K, B9, and four other carotenoids in packaged spinach following irradiation. They found with increasing level of irradiation, four nutrients showed little or no change. Those nutrients include vitamins B9, E, K, and the carotenoid neoxanthin. This study showed the irradiation of packaged spinach to have little or no change to the nutritional value of the crop, and the health benefits of irradiating packed spinach to reduce harmful bacteria seem to outweigh the loss of nutrients.
In popular cultureEdit
The cartoon character Popeye the Sailor Man is portrayed as having a strong affinity for spinach, becoming physically stronger after consuming it. The commonly accepted version of events states this portrayal was based on faulty calculations of the iron content. In the version, German scientist Emil von Wolff misplaced a decimal point in an 1870 measurement of spinach's iron content, leading to an iron value ten times higher than it should have been, and this faulty measurement was not noticed until the 1930s. This caused the popular misconception that spinach is high in iron that makes the body stronger.
Criminologist Mike Sutton wrote an article in the Internet Journal of Criminology, claiming the Popeye and iron link is just another long-standing myth, and spinach was chosen and promoted in Popeye for its vitamin A content alone. In the cited article, he also disputes the above — what he calls the Spinach Popeye Iron Decimal Error Story (SPIDES) — due to lack of verifiable sources, although he found a different reference from 1934 reporting twenty times the actual iron content. Further research by Sutton presents more evidence for the SPIDES being a myth which is cited as veracious evidence in the official errata pages for Samuel Arbesman's book, The Half-life of Facts.
Spinach, along with Brussels sprouts and other green vegetables, is often portrayed in the media, including children's shows, as being undesirable. For example, early Popeye movies played on the gag that Popeye's nephews never liked spinach but ate it anyway to grow up big and strong. The same theme is depicted in an even earlier classic cartoon from the New Yorker magazine, which also led to "I say it's spinach" becoming a 20th century American idiom for "nonsense".
- Douglas Harper, Online Etymological Dictionary s.v. spinach. (WWW: Accessed 03/07/2010). 
- "spinach". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.
- Victor R. Boswell, "Garden Peas and Spinach from the Middle East". Reprint of "Our Vegetable Travelers" National Geographic Magazine, Vol 96:2 (Aug 1949). (WWW: Aggie Horticulture. Accessed 03/07/2010). Aggie Horticulture
- Clifford A. Wright. Mediterranean Vegetables: A Cook's ABC of Vegetables and their Preparation in Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, the Middle East, and North Africa, with More than 200 Authentic Recipes for the Home Cook. (Boston: Harvard Common Press, 2001). pp. 300-301.
- Jacques Rolland and Carol Sherman, "Spinach". The Food Encyclopedia: Over 8,000 Ingredients, Tools, Techniques and People . Toronto: Robert Rose. 2006. (WWW: Canadian Living. Accessed 03/07/2010). 
- Spinach, The George Mateljan Foundation
- Margaret Grieve; Maud Grieve (1 June 1971). A modern herbal: the medicinal, culinary, cosmetic and economic properties, cultivation and folk-lore of herbs, grasses, fungi, shrubs, & trees with all their modern scientific uses. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 761–. ISBN 978-0-486-22799-3. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- G. F. M. Ball (2006). Vitamins in foods: analysis, bioavailability, and stability. CRC Press. pp. 236–. ISBN 978-1-57444-804-7. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- Gideon Koren (2007). Medication safety in pregnancy and breastfeeding. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 279–. ISBN 978-0-07-144828-4. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2005. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp
- Williams, Sue Rodwell; Long, Sara (1997). Nutrition and diet therapy. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-8151-9273-2.
- Insel, By Paul M.; Elaine Turner, R.; Ross, Don (2003). Nutrition. p. 474. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/978076370765|978076370765[[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check
|isbn=value (help). Retrieved 2009-04-15.
- Heaney, Robert Proulx (2006). Calcium in human health. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-59259-961-5. Retrieved 2009-04-15.
- "Storage Time And Temperature Effects Nutrients In Spinach". Retrieved 2008-07-05.
- "Production of Spinach by countries". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. 2011. Retrieved 2013-08-26.
- EWG's Shopper's Guide to Pesticides hello
- http://www.yogurtforever.org/download/tds1byel.pdf (Previously at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~acrobat/ tds1byel.pdf ?)
- Nutrient Retention of Safer Salads Explored | Environmental Working Group
- Gabbatt, Adam (8 December 2009). "E.C. Segar, Popeye's creator, celebrated with a Google doodle". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- Fullerton-Smith, Jill (2007). The Truth about Food. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 224. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
- "SPINACH, IRON and POPEYE: Ironic lessons from biochemistry and history on the importance of healthy eating, healthy scepticism and adequate citation". Internet Journal of Criminology.
- Karl Kruszelnicki (6 December 2011). "Popeye's spinach story rich in irony". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- Sherman, W.C; Elvehjem, Hart (1934). "Further studies on the availability of iron in biological materials". J.Biol.Chem. 107: 383–394. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- errata page of Samuel Arbesman's book The Half-life of Facts
- D. Maue, S. Walia, S. Sahore, M. Parkash, S. K. Walia, S. K. Walia (2005). "Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Ready-to-Eat Bagged Salads". American Society for Microbiology meeting. June 5–9. pp. Atlanta. Abstract
- Rogers, Jo. What Food is That?: and how healthy is it?. The Rocks, Sydney, NSW: Lansdowne Publishing Pty Ltd, 1990. ISBN 1-86302-823-4.
- Cardwell, Glenn. Spinach is a Good Source of What?. The Skeptic. Volume 25, No 2, Winter 2005. Pp 31–33. ISSN 0726-9897
- Blazey, Clive. The Australian Vegetable Garden: What's new is old. Sydney, NSW: New Holland Publishers, 1999. ISBN 1-86436-538-2
- Stanton, Rosemary. Complete Book of Food and Nutrition. Australia, Simon & Schuster, Revised Edition, 1995. ISBN 0-7318-0538-
- Sutton, M. (2010) The Spinach Popeye Iron Decimal Error Myth is Finally Busted. Best Thinking.Com: http://www.bestthinking.com/articles/science/chemistry/biochemistry/the-spinach-popeye-iron-decimal-error-myth-is-finally-busted
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spinacia oleracea.|
- FAO spinach data sheet
- Statistics about the worldwide spinach production
- Powell, D. and Chapman "Fresh and Risky" Food Safety Network, September 15, 2006
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "spinach". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
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