For Wikipedia's meaning of separatism, see Separatism.
Separatism is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. While it often refers to full political secession, separatist groups may seek nothing more than greater autonomy. While some critics may equate separatism with religious segregation, racist segregation, or sexist segregation, some separatists argue that separation by choice is not the same as government-enforced segregation and may serve useful purposes.
Groups may have one or more motivations for separation, including:
- emotional resentment and hatred of rival communities.
- protection from ethnic cleansing and genocide.
- resistance by victims of oppression, including denigration of their language, culture or religion.
- propaganda by those who hope to gain politically from intergroup conflict and hatred.
- economic and political dominance of one group that does not share power and privilege in an egalitarian fashion.
- detaching from generally accepted stereotypes and sacrificing more time to create happiness mote sustainability than the current flow of things.
- economic motivations: seeking to end economic exploitation by more powerful group or, conversely, to escape economic redistribution from a richer to a poorer group.
- preservation of threatened religious, language or other cultural tradition.
- destabilization from one separatist movement giving rise to others.
- geopolitical power vacuum from breakup of larger states or empires.
- continuing fragmentation as more and more states break up.
- feeling that the perceived nation was added to the larger state by illegitimate means.
- the perception that the state can no longer support one's own group or has betrayed their interests.
- opposition to political decisions.
- wish to have a more practical political structure and not rely on people who are located far away to govern them or otherwise impractical solutions.
How far separatist demands will go toward full independence, and whether groups pursue constitutional and nonviolent or armed violence, depend on a variety of economic, political, social and cultural factors, including movement leadership and the government's response. Governments may respond in a number of ways, some of which are mutually exclusive. Some include:
- accede to separatist demands
- improve the circumstances of disadvantaged minorities, be they religious, linguistic, territorial, economic or political
- adopt "asymmetric federalism" where different states have different relations to the central government depending on separatist demands or considerations
- allow minorities to win in political disputes about which they feel strongly, through parliamentary voting, referendum, etc.
- settle for a confederation or a commonwealth relationship where there are only limited ties among states.
Some governments suppress any separatist movement in their own country, but support separatism in other countries.
Types of separatist groupsEdit
Separatist groups practice a form of identity politics - "political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice of members of certain social groups." Such groups believe attempts at integration with dominant groups compromise their identity and ability to pursue greater self-determination. However, economic and political factors usually are critical in creating strong separatist movements as opposed to less ambitious identity movements.
See more complete lists of historical and active autonomist and secessionist movements, as well as a list of unrecognized countries.
Religious separatist groups and sects want to withdraw from some larger religious groups and/or believe they should interact primarily with co-religionists.
- English Christians in the 16th and 17th centuries who wished to separate from the Church of England and form independent local churches were influential politically under Oliver Cromwell, who was himself a separatist. They were eventually called Congregationalists. The Pilgrims who established the first successful colony in New England were separatists.
- Christian separatist groups in Indonesia, India and South Carolina (United States).
- Zionism sought the creation of the State of Israel as a Jewish homeland, with separation from gentile Palestinians. Simon Dubnow, who had mixed feelings toward Zionism, formulated Jewish Autonomism, which was adopted in eastern Europe by Jewish political parties such as the Bund and his own Folkspartei before World War II. Zionism can also be seen as somewhat ethnic too, however, as its definition of who is Jewish has often included people of Jewish background who do not practice the Jewish religion. This is further complicated as some who had ancestors who converted to Judaism, such as some Ethiopian Jews, may not share ethnic history with the Jews however are considered to be so although not without debate.
- The Partition of India and (later Pakistan and Bangladesh) arose as a result of separatism on the part of Muslims.
- Sikhs in India sought an independent nation of Khalistan after an agitation in 70's and 80's for implementation of the Anandpur Sahib Resolution (which amongst other things demanded greater share of river water and autonomy for Punjab) resulted in the storming of the Harimandir Sahib (Golden Temple) by the Government of India troops in 1984. The storming of the temple to flush out Sikh Militants who were gaining momentum in their agitation for greater autonomy for Punjab resulted in Sikhs demanding an independent state for the Sikhs situated in Punjab Khalistan movement. The conflict escalated and led to an assassination of the then Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi as a retaliation of an Indian military operation called 'Operation Blue Star' directed against the Sikhs' holiest shrine, the Golden Temple, in which many innocent Sikh civilians too lost their lives. The revenge murder of Mrs. Indira Gandhi evoked a Congress Party led backlash in the form of the Sikh Genocide which started in New Delhi and swept India in November 1984, which only further strengthened the Khalistan Movement, but it was largely subdued owing to the efforts of the police in Punjab. The controversial response by the Punjab state reportedly involved the use of human rights violations in the form of unexplained disappearances, faked encounters killings, rape and torture. However, many in the Sikh diaspora in the West and even Sikhs in India, still support the idea of Khalistan, although support is dying and generally the Indian Sikh population is patriotic towards India, or at least not supportive of the idea of Khalistan.
Mural for Catalan independence in Belfast
rebels in Kenya armed with AK-47 rifles.
Ethnic separatism is based more on cultural and linguistic differences than religious or racial differences, which also may exist. Notable ethnic separatist movements include:
- Independence movement in Puerto Rico with the goal of obtaining complete independence from the United States.
- The population from the state of São Paulo in Brazil. The independence movement became stronger after the elections of 2014.
- The Tuareg separatists in Niger and Mali.
- Brazilian's separatist movements in South Region of Brazil, includes the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, inspired by Ragamuffin War, that generated the extinct Riograndense Republic and Juliana Republic, between 1835 and 1845. Represented by O Sul é o Meu País, in English: The South is My Country.
- The Soviet Union's dissolution into its original ethnic groupings which formed their own nations of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.
- Chechen separatism in the Caucasus, currently the Republic of Chechnya is part of the Russian Federation (Russian rule).
- South Ossetia and Abkhazia separatism in Georgia.
- Armenian separatists of Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan.
- Azeri separatists in Iran want to unite the provinces of East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Zanjan and Ardabil with Azerbaijan.
- The Kurdish people whose lands and peoples were divided between Turkey, Syria, Iraq after World War I. Also the Kurdish region in Iran.
- Silesian separatism in Poland and Czech Republic.
- Spain's Basque, Galician and Catalan separatists. Minor separatist movements in Andalusia, Asturias, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Castile (almost non-existent), León, Navarre and Valencia (see nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain).
- "Celtic nations" in the British Isles have created various separatist movements from the United Kingdom described as Scottish independence, Welsh Nationalism, Irish Republicanism and Cornish Nationalism. In addition to the Celtic nationalisms, there are also English nationalist and independence movements.
- France's Basque, Catalan, Corsican, Breton, Occitan and Savoyan separatists.
- Italy's separatist movements in Sardinia, South Tyrol and Veneto.
- Bavarian separatism in Germany, despite the Bavarian Land being referred to as the Bavarian Free State.
- Czechoslovakia's split into ethnic Czech and Slovakian republics in 1993.
- The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia dissolution into ethnic (and religious) based Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia, Montenegro and Serbia.
- Belgium granting Dutch-speaking Flanders and French-speaking Wallonia greater autonomy.
- In the Netherlands some Frisians covet an autonomous country or area (see Fryske Beweging on the Frisian Wikipedia).
- Switzerland's division into cantons along geographical, religious and linguistic lines.
- French-speaking Quebec debating and voting on separation from Canada over several decades. It is unclear if this is a matter of ethnic, linguistic or territorial nationalism.
- Africa's hundreds of ethnic groups are subsumed into 53 nation states, often leading to ethnic conflict and separatism, including in Angola, Algeria, Burundi, the Caprivi Strip in Namibia, Congo and The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Darfur in Sudan, Ethiopia, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, Western Sahara and Zimbabwe.
- The Nigerian civil war (also known as the Biafran war) during the 1960s among Igbos, Hausa-Fulani and Yoruba; today's ethnic and oil-related conflict in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.
- Conflicts in Liberia between African-Liberians and Americo-Liberians, Africans who immigrated from the Americas after being freed from slavery.
- Conflicts between Zulus and Xhosa in South Africa during and after apartheid.
- Boere-Afrikaners separatists.
- Anjouan's separatism in the Union of Comoros as the island is a separate community from that of Comoros.
- Separatist movements of Pakistan including Balochistan movement, Sindhudesh movement and Pashtunistan movement.
- Separatist movements of India including Separate Statehood movement of Telangana, Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir and Insurgent groups in Northeast India
- Sri Lanka's ethnic Tamil minority separatism in Tamil Eelam.
- Burma (Union of Myanmar)'s ethnic Arakan, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Shan, Wa separatism.
- Ethnic Malay separatism in Thailand.
- Free Papua Movement in West Papua, Indonesia.
- China's Tibet has a separatist government in exile.
- Ethnic-based separatism among Turkic groups in Xinjiang (Uighurs).
- Māori separatism in New Zealand.
- The breakup of the Habsburg Empire into ethnic-based states.
- The breakup of the Ottoman Empire into ethnic based states.
- Hispanic (mostly Chicano) separatism, as embodied in the Chicano Movement (or Chicano nation) in the United States sought to recreate Aztlán, the mythical homeland of the Uto-Aztecs comprising the Southwestern United States which is home to the majority of Mexican Americans. They drew on the Latin American concepts of racial identity such as the bronze race and La Raza Cósmica. Today a small Raza Unida Party continues with similar goals.
||The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (August 2011)
Some separatist groups seek to separate from others along racial lines. They oppose interracial marriage and integration with other races and seek separate schools, businesses, churches and other institutions; and often separate societies, territories, countries, and governments.
Territories considered for "Aztlán"
Geographic and socioeconomic separatismEdit
Gender and sexist separatismEdit
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- ^ Leo, John (June 13, 2007). "Let the Segregation Commence, Separatist graduations proliferate at UCLA". City Journal.
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- ^ Arenson, Karen W. (April 19, 2006). "CUNY Program to Help Black Men Is Called Discriminatory". New York Times.
- ^ Dobratz, Betty A.; Shanks-Meile, Stephanie L. (Summer 2006). "Strategy of White Separatism". Journal of Political and Military Sociology.
- ^ Howell, Nancy B. "Radical Relatedness and Feminist Separatism".
- ^ Spencer, Metta (1998). Separatism: Democracy and Disintegration. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 2–4. ISBN 9780847685851.
- ^ Link to: Chima, Jugdep. "Effects of Political Leadership on Ethnic Separatist Movements in India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, April 12, 2007 (PDF); Chima, Jugdep. "How Does Political Leadership Affect the Trajectories of Ethnic Separatist Insurgencies?: Comparative Evidence from Movements in India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, D.C., September 01, 2005 (PDF).
- ^ a b See D.L. Horowitz's "Patterns of Ethnic Separatism", originally published in Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1981, vol 23, 165-95. Republished in John A. Hall, The State: Critical Concepts, Routledge, 1994.
- ^ Metta Spencer, 5-6.
- ^ Identity Politics. Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Stanford University). November 2, 2007.
- ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica on religious separatists".
- ^ Goodwin, John Abbot (1888). The Pilgrim republic: an historical review of the colony of New Plymouth. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 1.
- ^ "Christian separatist on trial in Indonesia". BBC. British Broadcasting Corporation. August 19, 2002.
- ^ Brummitt, Chris (April 5, 2002). "Christian separatist leader threatens to raise independence flags in Maluku". Associated Press.
- ^ Hussain, Syed Zarir (December 31, 2002). "Christian separatist group in Tripura target tribal Hindus". Indo-Asian News Service.
- ^ "Christian separatist ready for new home". Ventura County Star. June 9, 2007.
- ^ "Colorado Rep. disavows ties to SC Christian separatist group". Associated Press. October 9, 2005.
- ^ Pinson, Koppel S. (1958). Simon Dubnow. pp. 13–69.
- ^ Lucotte G, Smets P; Smets (December 1999). "Origins of Falasha Jews studied by haplotypes of the Y chromosome". Human Biology 71 (6): 989–993. PMID 10592688.
- ^ Punj, Blbir (June 16, 2006). "The Ghost of Khalistan". Sikh Times.
- ^ "Niger, hit by Tuareg revolt, adopts anti-terror law". Reuters. April 20, 2008.
- ^ Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb. 2012. Spain. Steven L. Denver (ed.), Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures, and Contemporary Issues, Vol. 3. Armonk, NY: M .E. Sharpe, pp. 674-675.
- ^ "Who were the Celts? ... Rhagor". Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales website. Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales. 2007-05-04. Retrieved 2009-12-10.
- ^ The Bavaria's right to separate itself from the Federal Republic of Germany 
- ^ Harold E. Glass, Ethnic Diversity, Elite Accommodation and Federalism in Switzerland, Publius, Vol. 7, No. 4, Federalism and Ethnicity (Autumn, 1977), 31-48. Oxford University Press.
- ^ African Ethnicities University of Florida online library.
- ^ Excerpt from book Ethnic Conflicts in Africa, Okwudiba Nnoli, Distributed by African Books Collective, 1998, 417, University of Florida online library.
- ^ Emmy Godwin Irobi, Ethnic Conflict Management in Africa: A Comparative Case Study of Nigeria and South Africa, May, 2005, Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder.
- ^ a b Reviews of Katharine Adeney Federalism and Ethnic Conflict Regulation in India and Pakistan, Palgrame MacMillan, 2007.
- ^ Telangana
- ^ Muini, S.D.; Rupesinghe, Kumar; Tishkov, Valery A. (1996). "Ethnic conflict, federalism, and democracy in India". Ethnicity and Power in the Contemporary World. United Nations University Press. ISBN 92-808-0908-3.
- ^ "China issues call to crush Tibetan 'separatists'". Agence France-Presse. 2009-02-19. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- ^ a b Professor Predicts 'Hispanic Homeland', Associated Press, 2000
- ^ Foer, Franklin (November 23, 1997). "Racial Integration". Slate.
- ^ Barlow, Rich (April 26, 2008). "Topic turns to Wright case". Boston Globe.
- ^ Dobratz, Betty A.; Shanks-Meile, Stephanie L. (2000). The White Separatist Movement in the United States: "White Power, White Pride!". The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1–3, 10. ISBN 9780801865374.
- ^ Frye, Marilyn; Meyers, Diana Tietjens (1997). Some Reflections on Separatism and Power. Feminist Social Thought: A Reader (Routledge). pp. 406–414.
- ^ Joyce Cheney, Lesbian Land, Word Weavers Press, 1976.
- ^ Mark K. Bloodsworth-Lugo, In-Between Bodies: Sexual Difference, Race, and Sexuality, SUNY Press, 2007, ISBN 0-7914-7221-3
- ^ Richard D. Mohr, Gays/Justice: A Study of Ethics, Society, and Law, Columbia University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-231-06735-6
||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Separatism.
- Boniface, Pascal (January 1999). "Ideals or Interest: 'Pandora’s box’". Le Monde Diplomatique.
- Brown, Graham K. "Horizontal Inequalities, Ethnic Separatism and Violent Conflict: The Case of Aceh, Indonesia" (PDF). United Nations Human Development Report 2005.
- Griffiths, Ryan (March 26, 2008). "Globalization, Development and Separatism: The Influence of External and Internal Economic Factors on the Strategy of Separatism".
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th AAnnual Convention, Bridging Multiple Divides, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
- Cabestan, Jean-Pierre; Pavković, Aleksandar, eds. (2013). Secessionism and Separatism in Europe and Asia: To have a state of one’s own. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-66774-6.
- Cordesman, Anthony (October 9, 2007). "Pandora's Box: Iraqi Federalism, Separatism, "Hard" Partitioning, and US Policy" (PDF). Working Draft. Center for Strategic and International Studies.
- Millard, James (2004). "Violent Separatism in Xinjiang: A Critical Assessment" (PDF). East-West Center.
- Miller, Michelle Ann (2004). The Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam law: a serious response to Acehnese separatism?. Asian Ethnicity. pp. 333–351.
- Miller, Michelle Ann (2012). Autonomy and Armed Separatism in South and Southeast Asia. Singapore: ISEAS.