Linklater at the 2014 Sundance Film Festival
|Born||Richard Stuart Linklater
July 30, 1960
Houston, Texas, United States
|Occupation||Director, screenwriter, producer, actor|
Richard Stuart Linklater (born July 30, 1960) is an American film director and screenwriter. He is known for the coming of age comedy Dazed and Confused (1993), the romantic drama film Before Sunrise (1995), the rotoscope animated drama film Waking Life (2001), the music-themed comedy School of Rock (2003), the sequels to Before Sunrise, Before Sunset (2004) and Before Midnight (2013), the rotoscope animated science fiction thriller A Scanner Darkly (2006), and the coming-of-age drama Boyhood (2014), for which he won the Golden Globe for Best Director and Best Motion Picture in 2014. Many of his films are noted for their loosely structured narrative; two of his projects – The Before... films and Boyhood – feature the same actors filmed over an extended period of years.
Linklater was born in Houston, Texas, the son of Diane Margaret (née Krieger), who taught at Sam Houston State University, and Charles W. Linklater, III. He attended Huntsville high school in Huntsville, Texas, during grades 9-11, and finished at Bellaire High School in Bellaire, Texas for his senior year. Linklater studied at Sam Houston State University, dropping out to work on an off-shore oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico. He frequently read novels on the rig and, upon returning to land, developed a love of film through repeated visits to a repertory theater in Houston. At this point, Linklater realized he wanted to be a filmmaker. He used his savings to buy a Super-8 camera, a projector, and editing equipment, and moved to Austin, Texas. He was influenced by Robert Bresson, Yasujiro Ozu, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Josef Von Sternberg, and Carl Theodor Dreyer. He enrolled in Austin Community College in the fall of 1984 to study film. Since his early 20s, Linklater has been a vegetarian.
Austin Film SocietyEdit
Linklater founded the Austin Film Society in 1985 together with his frequent collaborator Lee Daniel. One of the mentors for the Film Society was former New York City critic for the Soho Weekly News George Morris who had relocated to Austin and taught film there. Morris had previously written articles on Leo McCarey, Vincente Minnelli, George Sidney, and Douglas Sirk.
For several years, Linklater made many short films that were exercises and experiments in film techniques. He finally completed his first feature, the rarely seen It's Impossible to Learn to Plow by Reading Books (which is now available in the Criterion Collection edition of Slacker), a Super-8 feature that took a year to shoot and another year to edit. The film is significant in the sense that it establishes most of Linklater's preoccupations. The film has his trademark style of minimal camera movements and lack of narrative, while it examines the theme of traveling with no real particular direction in mind. These idiosyncrasies would be explored in greater detail in future projects. To this end Linklater created Detour Filmproduction (an homage to the 1945 low budget film noir by Edgar G. Ulmer), and subsequently made Slacker for only $23,000. It went on to gross more than $1.25 million. The film is an aimless day in the life of the city of Austin, Texas showcasing its more eccentric characters.
It made me see movies as a potential outlet for what I was thinking about and hoping to express. At that point I was an unformed artist. At that moment, something was simmering in me, but Raging Bull brought it to a boil.
While gaining a cult following in the independent film world, he made his second film, Dazed and Confused, based on his years at Huntsville High School and the people he encountered there. The film garnered critical praise and grossed $8 million in the United States while becoming a hit on VHS. This film was also responsible for the breakout of fellow East Texas native Matthew McConaughey. In 1995, Linklater won the Silver Bear for Best Director for the film Before Sunrise at the 45th Berlin International Film Festival. His next feature, subUrbia, had mixed reviews critically, and did very poorly at the box office. In 1996, Linklater lent his voice to the critically acclaimed animated feature Beavis and Butt-head Do America. In 1998, he took on his first Hollywood feature, The Newton Boys, which received mixed reviews while tanking at the box office.
With the rotoscope films Waking Life, and A Scanner Darkly, his mainstream comedies, School of Rock and the remake of Bad News Bears, have gained him wider recognition. In 2003, he wrote and directed a pilot for HBO with Rodney Rothman called $5.15/hr, about several minimum wage restaurant workers. The pilot deals with themes later examined in Fast Food Nation. In 2004, the British television network Channel 4 produced a major documentary about Linklater, in which the filmmaker frankly discussed the personal and philosophical ideas behind his films. "St Richard of Austin" was presented by Ben Lewis and directed by Irshad Ashraf and broadcast on Channel 4 in December 2004 in the UK. In 2005, Linklater was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay for his film Before Sunset.
Many of Linklater's films take place in one day, a narrative approach that has gained popularity in recent years. Slacker, Dazed and Confused, Tape, Before Sunrise, Before Sunset, and Before Midnight are examples of this method. Two of his films, (A Scanner Darkly and Waking Life), used rotoscoping animation techniques. Working with Bob Sabiston and Sabiston's program Rotoshop to create this effect, Linklater shot and edited both movies completely as live action features, then employed a team of artists to "trace over" individual frames. The result is a distinctive "semi-real" quality, praised by such critics as Roger Ebert (in the case of Waking Life) as being original and well-suited to the aims of the film.
Fast Food Nation (2006) is an adaptation of the best selling book that examines the local and global influence of the United States fast food industry. The film was entered into the 2006 Cannes Film Festival before being released in North America on November 17, 2006 and in Europe on March 23, 2007. After releasing Fast Food Nation to mixed reviews, Linklater returned to form as a critical darling with A Scanner Darkly (released in the same year), 2009's Me and Orson Welles garnering an 85% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, and 2012's Bernie receiving a 91% rating.
In 2014 he released a film in the making for 12 years titled Boyhood, which received overwhelming critical acclaim. It is the only film released in the 21st century to have received a perfect 100 score from review-aggregator metacritic. His daughter Lorelei Linklater co-stars in the film as the sister of the central character. For a while Linklater was attached to direct a remake of The Incredible Mr. Limpet for Warner Brothers. In 2014, however, he dropped the project in favor of working on a spiritual successor to Dazed and Confused, titled That's What I'm Talking About, with backing from Annapurna Pictures and Paramount distributing the film in North America.
Despite the popularity of many of his films and having directed multiple high-paying Hollywood productions, Linklater remains in Austin, Texas and refuses to live or work in Hollywood for any extended period of time. Linklater is known for using the same actors in many of his films including Ethan Hawke, Jack Black, Matthew McConaughey, Julie Delpy and Patricia Arquette. 21 Years: Richard Linklater, a documentary about Linklater, is scheduled to debut in 2014 November at the Denver Film Festival.
In the early 1990s, Slacker was widely considered an accurate depiction of Generation X because the film's young adult characters are more interested in quasi-intellectual pastimes and socializing than career advancement. However, Linklater has long since eschewed the role of generational spokesperson and is ironically a "Baby Boomer" himself. Moreover, the movie actually includes various generations, and many of its themes are universal rather than generation-specific.
Those of Linklater's films that have non-formulaic narratives about seemingly random occurrences, often spanning about twenty-four hours, have been hailed as alternatives to contemporary Hollywood market-driven blockbusters. In conjunction with these unorthodox narratives, the emphasis on philosophical talk over physical action in Slacker and Waking Life aligns Linklater's work with art cinema traditions, particularly those of Europe, from which much recent American cinema is estranged.
|1988||It's Impossible to Learn to Plow by Reading Books||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|1993||Dazed and Confused||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|1998||The Newton Boys||Yes||Yes|
|2003||School of Rock||Yes|
|2005||Bad News Bears||Yes||Yes|
|2006||Fast Food Nation||Yes||Yes|
|2006||A Scanner Darkly||Yes||Yes|
|2008||Me and Orson Welles||Yes||Yes|
|2015||That's What I'm Talking About||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|1991||Heads I Win/Tails You Lose||Yes||Yes||Yes||experimental video project|
|2003||Live from Shiva's Dance Floor||Yes||short|
|2008||Inning by Inning: A Portrait of a Coach||Yes||documentary|
|2012||Up to Speed||Yes||Yes||Yes||television series|
|Dazed and Confused||94%||78|
|The Newton Boys||62%||57|
|School of Rock||92%||82|
|Bad News Bears||48%||65|
|Fast Food Nation||50%||64|
|A Scanner Darkly||69%||73|
|Me and Orson Welles||85%||73|
|United States||Outside United States||Worldwide|
|Slacker||July 5, 1991||$1,228,208||N/A||$1,228,208||$23,000|||
|Dazed and Confused||September 24, 1993||$7,993,039||N/A||$7,993,039||$6.9 million|||
|Before Sunrise||January 27, 1995||$5,535,405||N/A||$5,535,405||$2.5 million|||
|SubUrbia||February 7, 1997||$656,747||N/A||$656,747||N/A|||
|The Newton Boys||March 27, 1998||$10,452,012||N/A||$10,452,012||$27 million|||
|Waking Life||October 19, 2001||$2,901,447||$275,433||$3,176,880||N/A|||
|Tape||November 2, 2001||$490,475||$25,425||$515,900||$100,000|||
|School of Rock||October 3, 2003||$81,261,177||$50,021,772||$131,282,949||$35 million|||
|Before Sunset||July 2, 2004||$5,820,649||$10,171,966||$15,992,615||$2.7 million|||
|Bad News Bears||July 22, 2005||$32,868,349||$1,384,498||$34,252,847||$35 million|||
|A Scanner Darkly||July 7, 2006||$5,501,616||$2,158,302||$7,659,918||$8.7 million|||
|Fast Food Nation||November 17, 2006||$1,005,539||$1,203,783||$2,209,322||N/A|||
|Me and Orson Welles||November 25, 2009||$1,190,003||$1,146,169||$2,336,172||$25 million|||
|Bernie||April 27, 2012||$9,206,470||$884,171||$10,090,641||$6 million|||
|Before Midnight||May 24, 2013||$8,114,627||$3,061,842||$11,176,469||$3 million|||
|Boyhood||July 11, 2014||$23,906,444||$19,143,000||$43,049,444||$4 million|||
Awards and nominationsEdit
- Slacker (1991) was nominated for Best Director at the Independent Spirit Awards.
- Before Sunrise (1995) won the Silver Bear for Best Director at the Berlin International Film Festival.
- Waking Life (2001) was nominated for Best Director and Best Screenplay at the Independent Spirit Awards.
- Before Sunset (2004) was nominated for Best Adapted Screenplay by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and Best Screenplay at the Independent Spirit Awards.
- A Scanner Darkly (2006) - Named Best Austin Film by the Austin Film Critics Association.
- Me and Orson Welles (2008) - Named Best Austin Film by the Austin Film Critics Association.
- Bernie (2011) - Named Best Austin Film by the Austin Film Critics Association.
- Before Midnight (2013) was nominated for Best Adapted Screenplay by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and Best Screenplay at the Independent Spirit Awards.
- Boyhood (2014) was nominated for Best Picture, Best Director, and Best Original Screenplay by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and won Golden Globes for Best Director and Best Motion Picture - Drama, as well as the Silver Bear for Best Director at the 64th Berlin International Film Festival. Received Best Film and Best Director honors from Los Angeles Film Critics Association, Boston Society of Film Critics, New York Film Critics Circle, Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association and New York Film Critics Online.
- According to the State of Texas. Texas Birth Index, 1903–1997. At Ancestry.com
- Alison Macor. Chainsaws, Slackers, and Spy Kids 30 Years of Filmmaking in Austin, Texas University of Texas Press: Austin, 2010.
- "The Film That Changed My Life: 30 Directors on Their Epiphanies in the Dark". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- Linklater, Richard. Interview by Robert K. Elder. The Film That Changed My Life. By Robert K. Elder. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2011. N. p197. Print.
- "Berlinale: 1995 Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
- "Festival de Cannes: Fast Food Nation". festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
- "Rotten Tomatoes: Richard Linklater". festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
- Boyhood. Metacritic.
- Fischer, Russ. "Richard Linklater Leaves 'The Incredible Mr. Limpet' to Focus on 'That's What I'm Talking About'". /Film. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
- Patches, Matt (September 30, 2014). "Megan Ellison's Annapurna to produce Richard Linklater's 'Dazed' spiritual Sequel, 'That's What I'm Talking About's". Retrieved September 30, 2014.
- 21 Years: Richard Linklater (2014) - Release Info at the IMDB. Retrieved 2014 October 7.
- Richard Linklater, Slacker, St Martins Griffin, 1992.
- Lesley Speed, "The Possibilities of Roads Not Taken", Journal of Popular Film & Television, vol. 35, no. 3, Fall 2007, p. 103.
- Speed, p. 103.
- "Slacker Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "Slacker Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.
- "Dazed and Confused Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "Dazed and Confused Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.
- "Fight Club Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "Before Sunrise Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.
- "Panic Room Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "SubUrbia Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.
- "The Newton Boys Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "The Newton Boys Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.
- "Waking Life Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "Waking Life Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.
- "Tape Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Tape. Metacritic.
- "School of Rock Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- School of Rock. Metacritic.
- "Before Sunset Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "Before Sunset Reviews - Metacritic". Metacritic.com.
- "Bad News Bears Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Bad News Bears. Metacritic.
- "Fast Food Nation Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Fast Food Nation. Metacritic.
- "A Scanner Darkly Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- A Scanner Darkly. Metacritic.
- "Me and Orson Welles Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Me and Orson Welles. Metacritic.
- "Bernie Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Bernie. Metacritic.
- "Before Midnight Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Before Midnight. Metacritic.
- "Boyhood Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Boyhood. Metacritic.
- "Slacker (1991)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Dazed and Confused (1993)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Before Sunrise (1995)". Box Office Mojo.
- "SubUrbia (1997)". Box Office Mojo.
- "The Newton Boys (1998)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Waking Life (2001)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Tape (2002)". Box Office Mojo.
- "School of Rock (2003)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Before Sunset (2004)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Bad News Bears (2005)". Box Office Mojo.
- La Franco, Robert (March 2006). "Trouble in Toontown". Wired magazine. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
- "A Scanner Darkly (2006)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Fast Food Nation (2006)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Me and Orson Welles (2009)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Bernie (2012)". Box Office Mojo.
- Borrelli, Christopher (May 24, 2013). "Richard Linklater finishes trilogy with 'Before Midnight'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- "Before Midnight (2013)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Boyhood (2014)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Richard Linklater". allmovie.com. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
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- Richard Linklater at DMOZ
- Richard Linklater at the Internet Movie Database
- Detour Films (Richard Linklater's film production company)
- Reverse Shot online interview with Linklater and career overview
- Mindjack interview with Linklater
- 'A Scanner Darkly': Reality Bites Interview with Richard Linklater, MTV Overdrive.
- Richard Linklater interview with The A.V. Club
- Richard Linklater, Directing 'Darkly'
- Linklater directing Inning by Inning: A Portrait of a Coach
- Literature on Richard Linklater