The Argentine railway network comprised 47,000 km (29,204 mi) of track at the end of the Second World War and was, in its time, one of the most extensive and prosperous in South America. However, with the increase in highway construction, there followed a sharp decline in railway profitability, leading to the break-up in 1993 of Ferrocarriles Argentinos (FA), the state railroad corporation. Since that time several private and provincial railway companies have been created and have resurrected some of the major passenger routes that FA once operated. The railroad network today, with its 34,059 km (21,163 mi) of track, is now far smaller than it once was.
The railways of Argentina operate over track of the following five rail gauges:
- Main line gauges:
- Indian gauge: 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) – 24,481 km (15,212 mi)
- Standard gauge: 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) – 2,765 km (1,718 mi)
- Metre gauge: 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) – 11,080 km (6,885 mi)
- Secondary gauges:
- Narrow gauge: 750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in) – 409 km (254 mi)
- Minimum gauge: 500 mm (19 3⁄4 in) – 8 km (5 mi)
|This section requires expansion. (June 2009)|
The building of the network began in 1855 at first with Argentine finance. Major development of the Argentine rail network occurred between 1870 and 1914, primarily financed by the British Empire, and to a lesser degree, French, German and Argentine investors. The Argentine rail network attained significant growth during this period which positioned the country as the tenth largest rail network in the world in 1914. Its expansion accelerated greatly due to the need for the transport of agricultural products and cattle in Buenos Aires Province. The rail network converged on the city of Buenos Aires and was a key component in the development of the Argentine economy as it rose to be a leading export country. In 1946, the Argentine government started the nationalisation process of its rail network.
|System length (kilometres)||9.8||722||2,516||9,397||16,500||29,094||47,000|
|Passengers transported (millions)||–||–||3||–||18||–||145|
|Cargo transported (x 1,000,000 tonnes)||–||–||1.0||–||11.8||–||45.5|
Following what was then a worldwide trend, the private companies were nationalised in 1948. These companies, together with those that were already state-owned, were grouped according to their track gauge and locality into the following six state-owned companies:
- Ferrocarril General Manuel Belgrano
- Ferrocarril General Bartolomé Mitre
- Ferrocarril General Roca
- Ferrocarril General San Martín
- Ferrocarril Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
- Ferrocarril General Urquiza
These would later become divisions of the state-owned holding company Ferrocarriles Argentinos.
Although at the beginning the state-owned railways were able to provide a good standard of passenger and freight service, political factors soon entered the equation and began to interfere with the economic and administrative aspects of the rail business.
Between 1992 and 1995, the government decided to privatise into segments the state-owned company Ferrocarriles Argentinos (FA), which comprised the six relatively independent divisions, Sarmiento, Mitre, Urquiza, San Martin, Belgrano and Roca, and granted concessions to private companies for their operation through competitive bidding. The decision was taken by the former President Carlos Menem and formed part of his neoliberal reforms.
At the start of the concessions, service quality greatly improved, and traffic began to grow again. However, as more locomotives and rolling stock were needed the private companies became increasingly reluctant to make the investment required to increase capacity and service quality began to decline again.
In addition, automobile industry interests seeking the demise of the railway, purchased lines for far less than their real value. As with other privatization schemes under Menem, members of Congress in both the Peronista and Radical Parties, as well as railway union officials, received monetary favors for allowing the dismantling of Ferrocariles Argentinos. The closing of most of the rail system led to the emptying of many towns of the interior, and therefore to a dismantling of the development that had taken place there since the arrival of trains. Argentine agriculture found itself in the difficult position of shipping its goods more expensively and inefficiently by individual trucks.
The economic crisis in 2001 was the final blow and neither the private companies nor the government could provide the service required. In 2003, the new administration of President Néstor Kirchner set it as a key policy objective to revive the national rail network. Although the economic upturn saw traffic grow again, the suburban rail operators are now little more than managers of government contracts rather than true entrepreneurs.
In June 2012, the government announced that it was renationalising some freight railways.
Commuter rail in Buenos AiresEdit
Buenos Aires City's metropolitan rail system is the second most extensive in the Americas after New York's commuter rail system, with about 259 stations, covering 813 kilometres (505 miles) and 7 rail lines serving more than 445 million commuters annually in the Greater Buenos Aires region. Commuter rail service from the suburbs is operated by several agencies. These rail systems converge at five rail terminals, all of them in Buenos Aires, with two, Retiro and Constitución rail terminals being the busiest train stations in Argentina.
|Line||Operator||Line length (kilometres)||Number of stations||Annual ridership (1998)||Annual ridership (2008)|
Buenos Aires City's commuter rail provides 1800 trains carrying over one million passengers each business day in the city of Buenos Aires, its suburbs in Greater Buenos Aires and several far-reaching satellite towns. Service is provided by private companies and spreads out from five central stations in Buenos Aires: Retiro (the busiest), Constitución, Once, Federico Lacroze – all serving both long-distance and local passenger services – and Buenos Aires Station which despite its name is a secondary rail terminus serving only local commuter services. The Retiro and Constitución train stations are linked by the Line C of the Buenos Aires Metro, Once is served by the Line A of the metro via its "Plaza Miserere" station and will also be served by the new Line H of the metro when construction is completed; and Federico Lacroze is served by B line. The smaller Buenos Aires Station is accessible by some city bus services and it is the only railway terminus in Buenos Aires that has no access to the Buenos Aires Metro.
Most trains leave at regular 8- to 20-minute intervals though for trains travelling a longer distance service may be less frequent. Fares are cheap and tickets can be purchased at ticket windows or through coin-operated machines at stations. Most of the lines are electric, several are diesel-powered, while some of these are currently being converted to electric, many of the lines share traffic with freight services.
Buenos Aires area commuter rail lines were privatised in the 1990s, and passengers have complained for years about poor commuter rail services on lines leading from Constitución station in downtown Buenos Aires to the capital's southern suburbs.
Other commuter rail servicesEdit
The light rail Tren de la Costa (Train of the Coast), which serves "tourist" and local commuters, runs from the northern suburbs of Buenos Aires to Tigre along the river for approximately 15 kilometres, the line connects directly to the Mitre line at Maipú–Bartolomé Mitre station in the northern suburb of Olivos for direct access to Retiro terminus in the centre of the city.
An experimental project of a short run tramway line, Tranvía del Este, has recently been inaugurated in the Puerto Madero district of Buenos Aires. The 2 km prototype line runs between the Córdoba and Independencia avenues, ridership has not been as expected, nevertheless, extensions are being planned. Another tramway line, the PreMetro E2, operates as a feeder at the end of Metro Line E and a Historic Tramway operates on weekends and holidays in the Caballito neighbourhood of the capital.
The Buenos Aires public transit system uses a ticketing system. All tickets are bought at ticket booths and ticket printing consoles at railway stations, and every once in a while, on board certain trains. Tickets can be bought either using cash or by using the SUBE card (also used for buses and metro). Ticket cost differs depending on the payment method: If the tickets are bought using SUBE, the user can benefit from a government subsidy which translates in a substantially reduced fare.
Although the first electric railway between Retiro and Tigre was inaugurated in 1916, major electrification projects were not adopted. Long distances, flat topography, and economic conditions did not merit major capital investments in this area, although some suburban networks in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area were electrified.
After several decades of the Buenos Aires rail-service being under-funded, there is presently an ongoing modernization plan so as to provide much needed improvement in services, and the trend is towards electrification of several lines. The first line to receive this improvement is the cramped Roca line network on the southern part of the city, where work is already in progress, and several new routes have recently been approved for electrification covering the rest of the line. Work is also under way on the San Martín line, and there are plans to electrify the Belgrano Norte line.
As of 2008[update], approximately 42.7%, 258KM (160 miles) from a total rail network of 604 km (375 mi) of the Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires area (excluding outer-suburban satellite cities of Capilla del Señor, Lobos, Mercedes, Luján, Zárate and Cañuelas), but including the city of La Plata, is electrified (both by locomotives and multiple units). Once the oft-mentioned Roca line (143 km) and San Martín Line (55 km) electrification projects are completed by the year 2014, 75.5% of the network would be electrified, if the Belgrano Norte is added to the equation (which is being planned); the total electrified network would work out to approximately 84.9%.
Buenos Aires UndergroundEdit
The Buenos Aires Underground (Subterráneo de Buenos Aires-locally known as Subte) is a metro system that serves the city of Buenos Aires, the network was inaugurated in 1913 by the Anglo-Argentine Tramways Company, being the first of its kind in Latin America and in the entire Southern Hemisphere.
Intercity passenger servicesEdit
Argentina scrapped many of its uneconomical long-distance passenger train services during the early 1990s and privatised, by concession contract, several main routes to Trenes de Buenos Aires, Ferrocentral, Ferrobaires, and Trenes Especiales Argentinos. The new services are not what passengers were used to and today, with the exception of the Buenos Aires, Rosario, Córdoba and Tucumán corridors, provide erratic and poor-quality services. Nonetheless, a strong demand in farm commodities has helped the Argentine economy bounce back over recent years. The government intends to re-establish long-distance passenger services between vital centres in the agricultural and industrial regions with a project to build a high-speed railway that would join the three largest cities in Argentina; Buenos Aires, Rosario and Córdoba. This is expected to act as an essential component in the revival of railways in Argentina. Another project in the planning stages is the refurbishing and upgrading of the Buenos Aires-Mendoza corridor to operate trains at speeds of up to 160 kilometres per hour and possibly another high-speed line to the coastal city of Mar del Plata.
- R= Restaurant car
- D= Sleeping car
- Constitución - Pinamar: twice a week – R
- Constitución - Mar del Plata: three trains daily, other added Friday – R
- Constitución - Miramar: daily – R
- Constitución - Ayacucho - Tandil: once a week
- Constitución - Azul - Olavarría: five days a week – R
- Constitución - Bahía Blanca (via Lamadrid): three times a week – R / D
- Constitución - Bahía Blanca (via Coronel Pringles): twice a week – R
- Constitución - Carmen de Patagones: once a week – R
- Constitución - Saladillo - General Alvear: twice a week
- Constitución - 25 de Mayo - Bolívar: five days a week
- Constitución - Daireaux: once a week
- Once - Chivilcoy - Bragado: daily
- Once - Los Toldos - Lincoln: once a week
- Once - 9 de Julio, Buenos Aires - Carlos Casares: four days a week
- Once - Pehuajó: three times a week
- Retiro - Junín: daily
- Retiro - Rosario - Santa Fe: once a week
- Retiro - Rosario - La Banda - Tucumán: twice a week – R / D
- Retiro - Rosario - Córdoba: twice a week – R / D
- Federico Lacroze - Concordia - Monte Caseros - Posadas: twice a week – R
Other province destinations:
- Córdoba - Villa María: twice a week
- Viedma - San Antonio Oeste - San Carlos de Bariloche: thrice weekly – R / D
- Ing. Jacobacci - San Carlos de Bariloche: thrice weekly
- Basavilbaso - Villaguay Central - Concordia: five days a week to Villaguay, twice weekly to Concordia.
- Resistencia - La Sabana - Los Amores: to La Sabana daily, to Los Amores three days a week
- Roque Sáenz Peña - Pinedo - Chorotis: daily
- Resistencia suburban service: several trains daily
- The "Tramway Histórico de Buenos Aires" is a Heritage Tramway inaugurated In 1980 in the Caballito neighborhood on existing vintage street tracks.
- Tren de las Sierras (Train of the mountain range region) is a 150 km 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge railway line between Rodriguez del Busto station in the centre of the city of Córdoba and Capilla del Monte. It's popular with tourists because of its scenic route through the "Sierras Chicas" of Córdoba Province.
- Tren a las Nubes in the province of Salta crosses canyons and cliffs before arriving to the 3,775 metres (12,385 ft) of San Antonio de los Cobres.
- A heritage railway or tourist railroad, "The Wine Train" (Tren del Vino) is being planned which will also provide transportation to locals, it will run along wine producing districts of Mendoza.
- The Rainforest Ecological Train is a small environmentally friendly train runs through the forest inside Iguazú National Park in the north of the province of Misiones in Argentina.
- The narrow-gauge Old Patagonian Express, (Viejo Expreso Patagónico) known locally as La Trochita, is a 402 km long narrow gauge 750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in) heritage railway in Patagonia, Argentina using steam locomotives. It is said to be the only narrow-gauge long-distance steam train in operation in the world.
- Tren Histórico de Bariloche is a short run to Perito Moreno, 4-6-0 steam manufactured in Scotland in 1912 by the North British Locomotive Company in Glasgow, the Cedar and Mahogany carriages were originally Made in England.
Tierra del Fuego
- The "Ferrocarril Austral Fueguino", called Tren del Fin del Mundo - "The Train at the End of the World" or Southern Fuegian Railway, is the world's southernmost railway in the province of Tierra del Fuego, operating on narrow gauge 500 mm (19 3⁄4 in), using steam locomotives. These have been improved with respect to efficiency using modern steam techniques by Eng. Shaun McMahon.
- Bolivia - 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) gauge both countries. Between Villazón, Bolivia and La Quiaca, Argentina
- Brazil - break of gauge, 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge (Argentina)/1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) gauge (Brazil).
- Chile - IRJ of March 2005 reports construction started to build/restore South Trans-Andean Railway link between Zapala, Argentina and Lonquimay, Chile. 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) gauge both countries.
- Chile - Transandine Railway between Mendoza and Santa Rosa de Los Andes, now defunct, under reconstruction. This mountain railway of 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) gauge with rack railway sections had a break of gauge 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm)/1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) at either end.
- Chile - Huaytiquina railway, single 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) gauge linking Salta to Antofagasta. The Tren a las Nubes is a touristic service running for 217 km in the Argentinian side.
- Paraguay - 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge both countries.
- Uruguay - 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge both countries.
A passenger train slammed into a bus at a rural Argentine level crossing, near Dolores, some 125 miles (201 km) south of Buenos Aires, before dawn on 9 March 2008, killing 18 people and leaving at least 47 others injured. The bus driver ignored the warning lights and lowered crossing gates.
A passenger train operated by Trenes de Buenos Aires hit a bus on a level crossing at Flores in Buenos Aires during the morning rush hour on 13 September 2011, killing 11 people and injuring 265. The train derailed, and crashed into a train standing at the platform in the adjacent station. The bus driver had ignored warning lights and a partly lowered barrier.
On 22 February 2012 a passenger train operated by TBA crashed into the solid buffers at the Once station near downtown Buenos Aires, killing 51 people and injuring over 700 others. President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner called for two days of national mourning following what was the second deadliest train accident in Argentina's history.
- Historia del Ferrocarril argentina.gov.ar Retrieved on 26 May 2008 (Spanish)
- The British and the Argentine railways Retrieved on 24 June 2008
- JSTOR: The Economic Journal, Vol. 68, No. 271 (Sept., 1958), pp.589-593 - Retrieved on 14 June 2008
- Argentina sets a new course. Railway Gazette International, Retrieved on 19 May 2008
- "ALL concessions revoked". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Secretaria de Transporte de la Nacion Facts and Figures / TABLE No. 6 (Spanish) Retrieved on 19 February 2011
- Secretaria de Transporte de la Nacion Facts and Figures / TABLE No. 2 (Spanish) Retrieved on 19 February 2011
- Reshaping Argentina's Railways, Japan Railway & Transport Review No. 2 (pp.23–29) Retrieved on 24 June 2008
- Electrificarán todos los ramales del Ferrocarril Roca Retrieved on 23 June 2008 (Spanish)
- Comprarán 160 coches y 24 locomotoras chinas para la línea San Martín Retrieved on 23 June 2008 (Spanish)
- Diario La Voz Del Interior Retrieved on 10 July 2009 (Spanish)
- www.wired.com: Argentina Says '¡Si!' to High Speed Rail, Retrieved on 23 June 2008
- www.greengauge21.net High Speed Trains and the Development and Regeneration of Cities, Retrieved on 23 June 2008
- Mendoza Wine Train Retrieved on 26 May 2008
- Initiative for Regional Infrastructure Integration in South America, Retrieved on 26 May 2008
- En julio se licitará tren Los Andes - Mendoza Retrieved on 26 May 2008 (Spanish)
- Argentina train bus collision
- "Al Menos Once Muertos y 228 Heridos en la Mayor Tragedia con Trenes en la Ciudad en Casi 50 Años". Clarín (in Spanish) (Buenos Aires). 13 September 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
- "Argentina Bus and Trains Crash Killing at Least 11". British Broadcasting Corporation. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- Latin Tracks (Latin-American railway magazine )
- Mario J. López and Jorge A. Waddell, Nueva Historia del Ferrocarril en la Argentina – 150 años de Politica Ferroviaria (A New History of Railways in Argentina – 150 Years of Railway Policies) – Text: Spanish – Ediciones Lumiere SA www.edicioneslumiere.com & Fundación Museo Ferroviario – (2007) - ISBN 978-987-603-032-8
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rail transport in Argentina.|
- Temática Ferroviaria: Photos, Videos, Maps, Articles and History of the Railroads in Argentina.
- Old Patagonian express official site
- Asociación Amigos del Tranvía official site (Spanish)
- Tren Histórico a Vapor - Historical Steam Train official site
- Tren del Fin del Mundo official site
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