Last modified on 25 May 2015, at 06:09

Queen Anne's Revenge

Queen Anne's Revenge.JPG
Career Pirate Flag of Blackbeard (Edward Teach).svg
Name: Queen Anne's Revenge
Launched: 1710
Renamed: Launched as Concord
[1]La Concorde de Nantes (La Concorde) in 1711, Queen Anne's Revenge in 1717
Captured: By France in 1711
By Benjamin Hornigold and Blackbeard in 1717
Fate: Run aground in 1718 near Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina (34°41′44″N 76°41′20″W)
General characteristics
Class and type: Frigate
Tons burthen: 300 bm
Length: 31.4 m (103 ft)
Beam: 7.1 m (24.6 ft)
Complement: 125
Armament: 40 cannon
Queen Anne's Revenge
Nearest city Atlantic Beach, North Carolina
Area less than one acre
Built 1710
Governing body State
NRHP Reference # 04000148[2]
Added to NRHP March 9, 2004

Queen Anne's Revenge was the name of the flagship of the pirate known as Blackbeard. He used her for less than a year,[3] but was an effective tool in his prize-taking.

In 1718, Blackbeard ran the ship aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in the present-day Carteret County.[3] In late 1996, Intersal,[4] a private firm working under a permit with the state of North Carolina, discovered the remains of a vessel likely to be Queen Anne's Revenge.

HistoryEdit

The 300-ton vessel, originally named Concord, was a frigate built in England in 1710.[1] She was captured by the French one year later. The ship was modified to hold more cargo, including slaves, and renamed La Concorde de Nantes. Sailing as a slave ship, she was captured by the pirate Captain Benjamin Hornigold on November 28, 1717, near the island of Martinique. Hornigold turned her over to one of his men, Edward Teach (later known as Blackbeard), and made him her captain. Teach's first mate, Christopher Blackwood (known as "Blackbeard's Claw"), was feared as a ferocious fighter and led many of Blackbeard's boarding parties.

Blackbeard made La Concorde into his flagship, adding cannons and renaming her Queen Anne's Revenge. The name may come from the War of the Spanish Succession, known in the Americas as Queen Anne's War, in which Blackbeard had served in the Royal Navy, or possibly from sympathy for Queen Anne, the last Stuart monarch.[5] Blackbeard sailed this ship from the west coast of Africa to the Caribbean, attacking British, Dutch, and Portuguese merchant ships along the way.

Shortly after blockading Charleston harbor in May 1718, and refusing to accept the Governor's offer of a pardon, Blackbeard ran Queen Anne's Revenge aground while entering Beaufort Inlet. He disbanded his flotilla and escaped by transferring supplies onto a smaller ship, Adventure. He stranded several crew members on a small island nearby, where they were later rescued by Captain Stede Bonnet. Some[6] suggest Blackbeard deliberately grounded the ship as an excuse to disperse the crew. Shortly afterward, Blackbeard did surrender and accepted a royal pardon for himself and his remaining crewmen from Governor Charles Eden at Bath, North Carolina. However, he eventually returned to piracy and was killed in combat in November 1718.[1]

Recognizing the significance of the Queen Anne's Revenge, the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources (NCDCR), Intersal, and Maritime Research Institute (“MRI”) entered into a memorandum of agreement in 1998.[7] Intersal agreed to forego entitlement to any coins and precious metals recovered from QAR in order that all QAR artifacts remain as one intact collection, and in order for NCDCR to determine the ultimate disposition of the artifacts. In return, Intersal was granted media, replica, and other rights related to Blackbeard’s Queen Anne's Revenge Shipwreck Project;[8] MRI was granted joint QAR artifact touring rights with NCDCR. That agreement expired in 2013. NCDCR, Intersal, and Rick Allen of Nautilus Productions signed a new collaborative agreement on October 24, 2013 connected to QAR commercial, replica, and promotional opportunities for the benefit of QAR.[9] The State of North Carolina owns QAR since the wreck lies in state waters (within the 3 mile limit).

Discovery and archaeological excavation of shipwreckEdit

Intersal Inc.,[10] a private research firm, discovered the wreck believed to be Queen Anne’s Revenge (QAR) on November 21, 1996. It was located by Intersal's director of operations, Mike Daniel, who used historical research provided by Intersal's president, Phil Masters[11][12] and archaeologist David Moore.[13] The vessel is in the Atlantic Ocean in shallow water offshore from Fort Macon State Park (34°41′44″N 76°41′20″W), Atlantic Beach, North Carolina. Thirty one cannon have been identified and more than 250,000 artifacts have been recovered.[14] The cannon are of different origins such as; Swedish, English and possibly French, and of different sizes as would be expected with a colonial pirate crew.[1]

For one week in 2000 and 2001, live underwater video of the project was webcast to the Internet as a part of the QAR DiveLive[15] educational program that reached thousands of children around the world.[16] Created and co-produced by Nautilus Productions and Marine Grafics, this project enabled students to talk to scientists and learn about methods and technologies utilized by the underwater archaeology team.[17][18]

Then project Director Mark Wilde-Ramsing of the North Carolina Underwater Archaeology Branch supervised recovery of artifacts from the site through the 2007 field season. In November 2006 and 2007, more artifacts were discovered at the site and brought to the surface. The additional artifacts appear to support the claim that the wreck is that of Queen Anne's Revenge. Among current evidence to support this theory is that the cannon were found loaded. In addition, there were more cannon than would be expected for a ship of this size, and the cannon were of different makes. Depth markings on the part of the stern that was recovered point to it having been made according to the French foot measurements.[19]

By the end of 2007, approximately 1/3 of the wreck was fully excavated. Artifacts are undergoing conservation. The North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources set up the website[20] Queen Anne's Revenge to build on intense public interest in the finds.

In 2011, the 1.4-tonne (3,100 lb) anchor from the ship was brought to the surface along with a range of makeshift weaponry.[21][22]

On August 29, 2011, the National Geographic Society reported that the State of North Carolina had confirmed the shipwreck as the Queen Anne's Revenge.[23]

On June 21, 2013, the National Geographic Society reported recovery of cannon from Queen Anne's Revenge.[24]

On October 28, 2013, archaeologists recovered five more cannon from the wreck.[25] Three of these guns have been identified as 6-pounder iron cannon manufactured at Ehrendals works in Södermanland, Sweden, in 1713. Thomas Roth, the Head of Sweden's Armament Museum Research Department, derived the origin of the iron cannon by a mark on the cannon tubes.[26]

National Register of Historic PlacesEdit

Queen Anne's Revenge was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. The reference number is 04000148. It is listed as owned by the state of North Carolina and near Morehead City.[27]

In popular cultureEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d D. Moore. (1997) "A General History of Blackbeard the Pirate, the Queen Anne's Revenge and the Adventure". In Tributaries, Volume VII, 1997. pp. 31–35. (North Carolina Maritime History Council)
  2. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09. 
  3. ^ a b Brian Handwerk (2005-07-12). ""Blackbeard's Ship" Yields New Clues to Pirate Mystery". National Geographic. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  4. ^ "Intersal". Intersal, Inc. 
  5. ^ republicofpirates.net
  6. ^ [David Cordingly, Life Among The Pirates, Abacus, London 1996.]
  7. ^ "Queen Anne's Revenge Fact Sheet" (PDF). qaronline.org. 
  8. ^ "Blackbeard's Queen Anne's Revenge Shipwreck Project". Nautilus Productions. 
  9. ^ "Mediated Settlement Agreement". Scribd.com. 
  10. ^ "Intersal, Inc". Intersal, Inc. 
  11. ^ "In Shipwreck Linked to Pirate, State Sees a Tourism Treasure". New York Times. 
  12. ^ http://www.history.ncdcr.gov/centennial/features/qar.htm
  13. ^ Gray, Nancy (February 1998). "Maps and microfilm: tools of a Blackbeard sleuth". The ECU Report. Retrieved November 22, 2011. 
  14. ^ http://www.islandgazette.net/news-server1/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9534:250000-pieces-
  15. ^ http://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/ref/collection/p249901coll22/id/695248
  16. ^ C Southerly and J Gillman-Bryan. (2003). "Diving on the Queen Anne's Revenge". In: SF Norton (ed). Diving for Science...2003. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences (22nd Annual Scientific Diving Symposium). Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  17. ^ "Apple, QuickTime help with underwater diving trip". Macworld. 
  18. ^ "Blackbeard's Glowing Shipwreck". P3 Update. 
  19. ^ "Secrets of the Dead: Blackbeard's Lost Ship". pbs.org. 
  20. ^ qaronline.org: The Queen Anne's Revenge Shipwreck Project - Archaeological Investigations of Blackbeard's Flagship.
  21. ^ "Blackbeard's Queen Anne's Revenge wreck reveals secrets of the real Pirate of the Caribbean". The Daily Telegraph, UK. May 29, 2011. Retrieved May 29, 2011. 
  22. ^ BBC news report
  23. ^ Drye, Willie (August 29, 2011). "Blackbeard's Ship Confirmed off North Carolina". Daily News. National Geographic. Retrieved August 29, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Archaeologists Recover Two More Cannons From Blackbeard’s Ship". National Geographic. June 21, 2013. Retrieved June 21, 2013. 
  25. ^ "Archaeologists recover 5 cannons from wreck of Blackbeard's ship". Fox News. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  26. ^ "Kapten Svartskägg sköt svenskt". NyTeknik. November 4, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2015. 
  27. ^ "National Register of Historical Places - NORTH CAROLINA (NC), Carteret County". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-02-07. 
  28. ^ [1] Queen Anne's Revenge CD
  29. ^ PIRATES OF THE CARIBBEAN
    ON STRANGER TIDES - Production Notes...CinemaReview.com Movie Reviews, Movie Contents, Moviegoer Opinions and Much More!
  30. ^ [2] The Queen Anne’s Revenge Sets Sail!

External linksEdit