Last modified on 24 October 2014, at 23:55

Punjabi language

Punjabi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀپنجابیपंजाबी
Punjabi example.svg
The word Punjabi in Gurmukhi, Shahmukhi (Nastaliq style), Devanagari
Native to Pakistan, India
Region Punjab region
Ethnicity Punjabis
Native speakers
102 million  (2010)[1]
Gurmukhi (Brahmic)
Shahmukhi (Extended Perso-Arabic)
Punjabi Braille (in India)
Official status
Official language in
 India (Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, & Delhi, secondary officially recognized language in the states of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan, & West Bengal)

 Pakistan (Pakistani Province of Punjab, Azad Kashmir, and Islamabad Capital Territory)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 pa
ISO 639-2 pan
ISO 639-3 Either:
pan – Indian Punjabi
pnb – Pakistani Punjabi
Glottolog panj1256  (Punjabi (Eastern?))[3]
west2386  (Western (Pakistani?))[4]
{{{mapalt}}}
Distribution of native Punjabi and Lahnda speakers in Pakistan and India
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.
Punjabi dialects

Punjabi (/pʌnˈɑːbi/;[5] Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ pañjābī; Shahmukhi: پنجابی, Devanagari: पंजाबी, paṉjābī)[6] is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 102 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 10th most widely spoken language (2010) [7][8] in the world. It is the native language of the Punjabi people who inhabit the historical Punjab region of Pakistan and India. It is the only tonal language among the Indo-Aryan languages.[9][10][11][12]

Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan[13] and the 11th most widely spoken in India[14] and the 3rd-most natively spoken language in Indian Subcontinent. Punjabi is the fourth most spoken language in England and Wales[15] and third most spoken in Canada.[16][17] The language also has a significant presence in the United Arab Emirates, United States of America, Saudi Arabia, and Australia. The influence of Punjabi as a cultural language in the Indian Subcontinent is increasing day by day due to Bollywood. Most Bollywood movies now have Punjabi vocabulary mixed in, along with a few songs fully sung in Punjabi. At any point in time, Punjabi songs in Bollywood movies now account for more than 50% of the top of the charts listings.[18][19][20]

Dialects and related languagesEdit

Main article: Punjabi dialects

The major dialects of Punjabi include Majhi, Doabi, Malwai, Powadhi, Pothohari, and Multani. The dialects in the Lahnda dialect continuum, including Saraiki and Hindko, are considered as dialects of Punjabi by many linguists but as distinct languages by others.[21]

In Indo-Aryan dialectology generally, the presence of transitional dialects creates problems in assigning some dialects to one or another "language".[22][23] However, over the last century there has usually been little disagreement when it comes to defining the core region of the Punjabi language. The British linguist George Abraham Grierson came to the conclusion that a group of dialects known collectively as "western Punjabi" spoken north and west of the Punjab heartland, in the Indus valley itself and on the lower reaches of the other four tributaries (excluding the Beas River), in fact constituted a language distinct from Punjabi. He named this group of dialects "Lahnda" in a volume of the Language Survey of India (LSI) published in 1919.[24] He grouped as "southern Lahnda" the dialects that are now recognized as Saraiki. In the National Census of Pakistan (1981) Saraiki and Hindko (previously categorized as "Western Punjabi"), got the status of separate languages,[25] which explains the decrease of the percentage of Punjabi speakers.

Standard dialectEdit

The Majhi dialect spoken around Lahore and Amritsar is Punjabi's prestige dialect because it is the standard of written Punjabi. Majhi is spoken in the heart of Punjab in the region of Majha, which spansLahore and Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Gurdaspur and Pathankot Districts of the Indian State of Punjab and Lahore, Kasur and Narowal Districts of Pakistan Punjab Province.
The Malwai and Powadhi dialects spoken around Ludhiana also influenced the standard dialect as first Punjabi Grammar and Dictionary were written here in 1851 and 1854 respectively during the British rule. The most striking feature of Malwai influence is the presence of /ɭ/ sound in the standard dialect.[26]
The Majhi (and Lahnda) spoken in Pakistan is more Persianized in vocabulary, and the usage of the sounds /z/, /x/ and /ɣ/ are more profound.

English Gurmukhi based (Indian) Shahmukhi based (Pakistan)
Article Lekh Mazmūn
Family Parivār/Tabbar Khāndān/Tabbar
Philosophy Darśan Falsafā
Capital Rājdhānī Dārul hakūmat/Rājghar
Astronomy Tāraā-vigyān Falkiyat
Viewer Darshak Nāzrīn

EtymologyEdit

The word Punjabi is derived from the word Punjab, Persian for "Five Waters". Panj is cognate with Sanskrit pañca and Greek pente "five", and "Ab" is a cognate to the Av- of Avon. This refers to five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The historical Punjab region, now divided between India and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of another, the Sutlej.

In India Punjabi is written in one of two separate standardised scripts: Gurmukhī and Devanagari. The word Gurmukhi translates into 'Guru's mouth',[27] The Muslims in the region later created the Shahmukhī, meaning "from the King's mouth", based on the Persian abjad[28]

HistoryEdit

Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language, descended from Shauraseni, which was the chief language of mediaeval northern India.[29][30][31]

Punjabi emerged as an independent language in the 12th century.[citation needed] Fariduddin Ganjshakar is generally recognised as the first major poet of the Punjabi language.[32]

Varan Gyan Ratnavali by 16th century historian Bhai Gurdas

The Sikh religion originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region and Punjabi is the predominant language spoken by Sikhs.[33] Most portions of the Guru Granth Sahib use the Punjabi language written in Gurmukhi, though Punjabi is not the only language used in Sikh scriptures. The Janamsakhis, stories on the life and legend of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), are early examples of Punjabi prose literature. Guru Nanak himself composed Punjabi verse incorporating vocabulary from Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, and other Indic languages as characteristic of the Gurbani tradition. Punjabi Sufi poetry developed under Shah Hussain (1538–1599), Sultan Bahu (1628–1691), Shah Sharaf (1640–1724), Ali Haider (1690–1785), Saleh Muhammad Safoori (son of Hazrat Mai Safoora Qadiriyya, whom Ali Haider had given great tribute) and Bulleh Shah (1680–1757).

Punjabi Sufi poetry also influenced other Punjabi literary traditions particularly the Punjabi Qissa, a genre of romantic tragedy which also derived inspiration from Indic, Persian and Quranic sources. The qissa of Heer Ranjha by Waris Shah (1706–1798) is among the most popular of Punjabi qissas. Other popular stories include Sohni Mahiwal by Fazal Shah, Mirza Sahiban by Hafiz Barkhudar (1658–1707), Sassui Punnhun by Hashim Shah (1735?–1843?), and Qissa Puran Bhagat by Qadaryar (1802–1892).

Heroic ballads known as vaar enjoy a rich oral tradition in Punjabi. Prominent examples of heroic or epic poetry include Guru Gobind Singh's in Chandi di Var (1666–1708). The semi-historical Nadir Shah Di Vaar by Najabat describes the invasion of India by Nadir Shah in 1739. The Jangnama, or 'War Chronicle,' was introduced into Punjabi literature during the Mughal period; the Punjabi Jangnama of Shah Mohammad (1780–1862) recounts the First Anglo-Sikh War of 1845–46.

Modern PunjabiEdit

Gurmukhi alphabetic excluding vowels.

Majhi-Standard Punjabi is the written standard for Punjabi in both parts of Punjab. In Pakistan, Punjabi is generally written using the Shahmukhī script, created from a modification of the Persian Nastaʿlīq script. In India, Punjabi is most often rendered in the Gurumukhī, though it is often written in the Devanagari or Latin scripts due to influence from Hindi and English, India's two primary official languages at the Union-level.

In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. It is the first official language of the Indian State of Punjab. In Pakistan, Punjabi has not been granted official status at the national level though it is the most spoken language and is the provincial language of Punjab, Pakistan, the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan.

Official recognitionEdit

Punjabi is one of the languages recognized by the Indian constitution at the state level in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Harit Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and West Bengal.[citation needed] There is no such recognition in Pakistan. According to Dr Manzur Ejaz, "In Central Punjab, Punjabi is amazingly still neither an official language of the province nor is it used as a medium of education at any level in Pakistan. There are only two daily newspapers published in Punjabi in the Central areas of Punjab. Only a few monthly literary magazines constitute Punjabi press in Pakistan".[citation needed].

Punjabi in modern cultureEdit

Punjabi is becoming more acceptable among Punjabis in modern media and communications. Punjabi has always been an integral part of Indian Bollywood cinema. In recent years a trend of Bollywood songs written totally in Punjabi can be observed. Punjabi pop and folk songs are very popular both in India and Pakistan at the national level. A number of television dramas based on Punjabi characters are telecast by different channels. The number of students opting for Punjabi literature has increased in Pakistani Punjab. Punjabi cinema in India has also seen a revival and more and more Punjabi movies are being produced. In India, number of student opting for Punjabi Literature as optional subject in IAS examinations has increased along with success rate of the students. Punjabi music is very popular today throughout the world.[34]

Geographic distributionEdit

PakistanEdit

Administrative divisions of Punjab Pakistan

Punjabi is the most widely-spoken language in Pakistan. Punjabi is the provincial language in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Punjabi is spoken as a native language by over 44.15% of Pakistanis. About 70.0% of the people of Pakistan speak Punjabi as either their first or second language, and for some as their third language. Lahore, the capital of the Punjab Province of Pakistan, is the largest Punjabi-speaking city in the world. 86% of the total population of Lahore is native Punjabi and Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan, is 71% native Punjabis at 3rd after Faisalabad with 76% are native Punjabi speakers.

Census history of Punjabi speakers in Pakistan[35]
Year Population of Pakistan Percentage Punjabi speakers
1951 33,740,167 57.08% 22,632,905
1961 42,880,378 56.39% 28,468,282
1972 65,309,340 56.11% 43,176,004
1981 84,253,644 48.17% 40,584,980
1998 132,352,279 44.15% 58,433,431
Provinces of Pakistan by Punjabi speakers (2008)
Rank Division Punjabi speakers Percentage
Pakistan 76,335,300 44.15%
1 Punjab 70,671,704 75.23%
2 Sindh 3,592,261 6.99%
3 Islamabad Capital Territory 1,343,625 71.66%
4 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 396,085 0.97%
5 Balochistan 318,745 2.52%
6 Federally Administered Tribal Areas 0 0.0%

In the 1981 National Census of Pakistan the Saraiki, Pothohari and Hindko dialects of the Lahnda language were accorded the status of separate languages, which explains the decrease of the percentage of Punjabi speakers.

IndiaEdit

Districts of Indian Punjab along with their headquarters

Punjabi is spoken as a native language by 4% of Indians. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana and Delhi. Punjabi is also the main language in north parts of Rajasthan and western parts of Uttar Pradesh. Some of its major urban centres are Ludhiana, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, and Delhi.

Census history of Punjabi speakers in India
Year Population of India Punjabi speakers in India Percentage
1971 548,159,652 14,108,443 2.57%
1981 665,287,849 19,611,199 2.95%
1991 838,583,988 23,378,744 2.79%
2001 1,028,610,328 29,102,477 2.83%
2011 1,210,193,422 33,038,280 2.73%

The Punjabi diasporaEdit

Main article: Punjabi diaspora
Southall Station (United Kingdom) sign in Punjabi, in the Gurmukhī script

Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabi people have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, where it is the fourth-most-commonly used language,[36] and Canada, where it is the fourth-most-spoken language.[37]

There were 76 million Punjabi speakers in Pakistan in 2008,[38] 33 million in India in 2011,[39] 1.3 million in the UK in 2000,[40] 368,000 in Canada in 2006,[41] and smaller numbers in other countries.

PhonologyEdit

Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i(ː) u(ː)
Close-mid e(ː) ɪ ʊ o(ː)
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ(ː) ɔ(ː)
Open a(ː)

The long vowels (the vowels with [ː]) also have nasal analogues.

Consonants
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Stop/
Affricate
tenuis p ʈ t͡ʃ k
aspirated t̪ʰ ʈʰ t͡ʃʰ
voiced b ɖ d͡ʒ ɡ
Fricative voiceless f ਫ਼ s ʃ ਸ਼ (x ਖ਼)
voiced z ਜ਼ (ɣ ਗ਼)
Flap ɾ ɽ
Approximant ʋ l ਲ਼[42] j ɦ
Tone

Punjabi has three phonemically distinct tones that developed from the lost murmured (or "voiced aspirate") series of consonants. Phonetically the tones are rising or rising-falling contours and they can span over one syllable or two, but phonemically they can be distinguished as high, mid, and low.

A historical murmured consonant (voiced aspirate consonant) in word initial position became tenuis and left a low tone on the two syllables following it: ghoṛā [kòːɽɑ̀ː] "horse". A stem-final murmured consonant became modally voiced and left a high tone on the two syllables preceding it: māgh [mɑ́ːɡ] "October". A stem-medial murmured consonant which appeared after a short vowel and before a long vowel became modally voiced and left a low tone on the two syllables following it: maghāuṇā [məɡɑ̀ːʊ̀ɳɑ̀ː] "to have something lit". Other syllables have mid tone.[43]

GrammarEdit

Main article: Punjabi grammar

The grammar of the Punjabi language concerns the word order, case marking, verb conjugation, and other morphological and syntactic structures of the Punjabi language. The main article discusses the grammar of Modern Standard Punjabi as defined by the sources cited therein.

Writing systemsEdit

There are two ways to write Punjabi: Gurmukhi and Shahmukhi. The word Gurmukhi translates into "Guru's mouth",[27] Shahmukhi means "from the King's mouth".[28]

In the Punjab province of Pakistan, the script used is Shahmukhi and differs from the Urdu alphabet in having four additional letters.[44] East Punjab, located in India, is divided into three states. In the state of Punjab, the Gurmukhī script is generally used for writing Punjabi.[44] However, some Hindus use the Devanagari script to write Punjabi.[6]

Sample textEdit

This sample text was taken from the Punjabi Wikipedia article on Lahore and transliterated into the Latin script.

Gurmukhi: ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨੀ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੀ ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ ਹੈ । ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਕਰਾਚੀ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਲਹੌਰ ਦੂਜਾ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਡਾ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਹੈ । ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਸਿਆਸੀ, ਰਹਤਲੀ ਤੇ ਪੜ੍ਹਾਈ ਦਾ ਗੜ੍ਹ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਇਸ ਲਈ ਇਹਨੂੰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਦਿਲ ਵੀ ਕਿਹਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ । ਲਹੌਰ ਦਰਿਆ-ਏ-ਰਾਵੀ ਦੇ ਕੰਢੇ ਤੇ ਵਸਦਾ ਹੈ ਤੇ ਇਸਦੀ ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਇੱਕ ਕਰੋੜ ਦੇ ਨੇੜੇ ਹੈ ।

Shahmukhi: لہور پاکستانی پنجاب دا دارالحکومت اے۔ لوک گنتی دے نال کراچی توں بعد لہور دوجا سبھ توں وڈا شہر اے۔ لہور پاکستان دا سیاسی، رہتلی تے پڑھائی دا گڑھ اے تے اس لئی ایھنوں پاکستان دا دل وی کیھا جاندا اے۔ لہور دریاۓ راوی دے کنڈھے تے وسدا اے اسدی لوک گنتی اک کروڑ دے نیڑے اے ۔

Transliteration: lahor pākistān panjāb dā dārul hakūmat ē. lōk giṇtī dē nāḷ karācī tō᷈ bāad lahor dūjā sab tō᷈ vaḍḍā shahr ē. lahor pākistān dā siāsī, rahtalī tē paṛā̀ī dā gā́ṛ ē tē is laī ihnū᷈ pākistān dā dil vī kehā jāndā ē. lahor dariāē rāvī dē kanḍē tē vasdā ē. isdī lōk giṇtī ikk karōṛ dē nēṛē ē.

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Världens 100 största språk 2010" [The world's 100 largest languages in 2010]. Nationalencyklopedin. 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2014.  (Swedish)
  2. ^ Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Punjabi (Eastern?)". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Western (Pakistani?)". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  5. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  6. ^ a b Kachru, Braj B.; Kachru, Yamuna; Sridhar, S. N. (27 March 2008). Language in South Asia (in English). Cambridge University Press. p. 128. ISBN 9781139465502. Retrieved 24 October 2014. "Sikhs often write Punjabi in Gurmukhi, Hindus in Devanagari, and Muslims in Perso-Arabic." 
  7. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2010" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2010
  8. ^ "What Are The Top 10 Most Spoken Languages In The World?". Retrieved 2012-2013.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  9. ^ Barbara Lust, James Gair. Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages. Page 637. Walter de Gruyter, 1999. ISBN 978-3-11-014388-1.
  10. ^ "Punjabi language and the Gurmukhi and Shahmuhi scripts and pronunciation". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  11. ^ Phonemic Inventory of Punjabi[dead link]
  12. ^ Geeti Sen. Crossing Boundaries. Orient Blackswan, 1997. ISBN 978-81-250-1341-9. Page 132. Quote: "Possibly, Punjabi is the only major South Asian language that has this kind of tonal character. There does seem to have been some speculation among scholars about the possible origin of Punjabi's tone-language character but without any final and convincing answer..."
  13. ^ "Pakistan Census". Census.gov.pk. Retrieved 2014-01-04. 
  14. ^ Census of India, 2001: population of Punjab by religion. Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved on 2012-01-18.
  15. ^ "2011 Census: Main language (detailed), local authorities in England and Wales" (XLS). ONS. Retrieved 27 April 2013. 
  16. ^ [1], Census Profile - Province/Territory
  17. ^ [2], 2006 Census of Canada: Topic-based tabulations|Detailed Mother Tongue (103), Knowledge of Official Languages
  18. ^ ‘Punjabification’ of Bollywood music - Fiji Times Online. Fijitimes.com (2013-01-08). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  19. ^ Punjabi culture a part of Bollywood, says Suniel Shetty - Times Of India. Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com (2012-07-20). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  20. ^ Punjab gatecrashes Bollywood | Culture. Times Crest (2012-05-05). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  21. ^ Farina Mir (2010). The Social Space of Language: Vernacular Culture in British Colonial Punjab. University of California Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-520-26269-0. 
  22. ^ Masica 1991:25
  23. ^ Burling 1970:chapter on India
  24. ^ Shackle 1970:240
  25. ^ Michael Edward Brown; Sumit Ganguly (2003). Fighting Words: Language Policy and Ethnic Relations in Asia. MIT Press. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-0-262-52333-2. 
  26. ^ Linguistic Survey of India, vol 9, part-1, page 609, 646
  27. ^ a b Khalsa, Sukhmandir. "Introduction to Gurmukhi". About.com. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  28. ^ a b Saini, Tejinder, Lehal Gurpreet, and Kalra Virinder (2008). Shahmukhi to Gurmukhi Transliteration System. p. 177.
  29. ^ India's culture through the ages by Mohan Lal Vidyarthi. Published by Tapeshwari Sahitya Mandir, 1952. Page 148: "From the apabhramsha of Sauraseni are derived Punjabi, Western Hindi, Rajasthani and Gujerati [sic]..."
  30. ^ National Communication and Language Policy in India By Baldev Raj Nayar. Published by F. A. Praeger, 1969. Page 35. "...Sauraseni Aprabhramsa from which have emerged the modern Western Hindi and Punjabi."
  31. ^ The Sauraseni Prākrit Language. "This Middle Indic language originated in Mathura, and was the main language used in drama in Northern India in the mediaeval era. Two of its descendants are Hindi and Punjabi."
  32. ^ Shiv Kumar Batalvi sikh-heritage.co.uk.
  33. ^ Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember, Ian A. Skoggard, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Springer. p. 1077. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9. 
  34. ^ "Balle balle! Punjabi music is flavour of Bollywood". 9 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  35. ^ http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/pco/index.html
  36. ^ name=2011 Census
  37. ^ "Punjabi is 4th most spoken language in Canada". The Times of India. 14 February 2008. 
  38. ^ Pakistan 1998 census – Population by mother tongue
  39. ^ "Indian Census". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2014-01-04. 
  40. ^ McDonnell, John (7 March 2000). "Punjabi Community". Parliamentary Business: Commons Debates. UK Parliament. p. Column 142WH. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  41. ^ "Population by mother tongue in Canada". 0.statcan.gc.ca. 2013-02-13. Retrieved 2014-01-04. 
  42. ^ Masica (1991:97)
  43. ^ Harjeet Singh Gill, "The Gurmukhi Script", p. 397. In Daniels and Bright, The World's Writing Systems. 1996.
  44. ^ a b "Punjabi". University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 2013-07-30. 

ReferencesEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Bhatia, Tej. 1993 and 2010. Punjabi : a cognitive-descriptive grammar. London: Routledge. Series: Descriptive grammars.
  • Gill H.S. [Harjit Singh] and Gleason, H.A. 1969. A reference grammar of Punjabi. Revised edition. Patiala, Punjab, India: Languages Deparmtent, Punjab University.
  • Shackle, C. 1972. Punjabi. London: English Universities Press.
  • Chopra, R. M., Perso-Arabic Words in Panjabi, in: Indo-Iranica Vol.53 (1–4).
  • Chopra, R. M.., The Legacy of The Punjab, 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta.

External linksEdit