Public Service of Canada

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The Public Service of Canada, known as the Civil Service of Canada prior to 1967, is the civil service, or bureaucracy, of the Government of Canada. Its function is to support the Canadian Crown, and to handle the hiring of employees for all federal ministries. The head of the Public Service is the Clerk of the Privy Council and is Canada's senior serving civil servant.

The Public Service staffs and functions all of the subsequent departments, agencies, commissions, crown corporations, and other federal organizations. Over 40% of the Public Service of Canada is located in the Ottawa-Gatineau area, although there are staff in 1,600 locations across Canada. It is also the nation's largest single employer.

PurposeEdit

The purpose of the Canadian federal civil service is to enact the will of the executive. It does this through providing impartial advice, implementing the priorities of the government of the day, supporting the various Ministers of the Crown, and delivering services that support Canadians.

StructureEdit

In 2007, there were approximately 200 departments (e.g., Health Canada), agencies, commissions (e.g., Canadian Grain Commission), boards (e.g., Veterans Review and Appeal Board), councils (e.g., Canadian Judicial Council) and crown corporations (e.g., Enterprise Cape Breton Corporation).

In a typical department, it is the minister who holds the respective portfolio who has overall responsibility for the department (i.e. the Minister of National Defence holds the Defence Portfolio, which includes many different organisations, one of which being the Department of National Defence). The deputy minister is the head of the department and is its senior serving civil servant, and therefore has responsibility for all of the department's day to day operations. However, it is always the respective minister who is held accountable to parliament.

A variety of associate and assistant deputy ministers head the various sections of responsibility within the department (i.e. policy, finance and corporate services, environment and infrastructure, etc.). Within the jurisdiction of each Assistant Deputy Minister, is usually two to five Directors-General who oversee more functional areas of each broad element of the department. Under Directors-General are Directors, who oversee various directorates, which are the core of any department. These directorates constitute the ground level in each department, and are the members of the civil service who carry out research, formulate proposals, and implement government decisions.

PersonnelEdit

HiringEdit

Hiring (or selection) of civil service employees is typically done through a selection process that is either open to employees of the Public Service only (internal) or open to the general public(external). External processes are typically done to recruit a greater number of applicants. Conversely, internal processes may be held for positions where there is considered to be an adequate internal candidates and/or to provide opportunities for advancement within the civil service.

The area of selection varies greatly depending on whether its conducted as an internal or external process. The latter are open to Canadian citizens nationally, and sometimes internationally.

Since the 2005 coming into force of the 2003 Public Service Modernization Act, selection processes focus less on a rules-based concept of best-qualified, and more on a values-based approach that enables managers to hire qualified and competent individuals whose experience, skills and knowledge are the right fit given the position's current and future needs.[1]

Federal civil service employees in Canada are not contracted by an abstraction called "the state," but rather are employed by the Crown, who personifies the state and "enjoys a general capacity to contract in accordance with the rule of ordinary law."[2] Since the Public Service Modernization Act came into force, individuals must take an oath of allegiance before they can assume their post.

Hiring in the core public administration is governed by the Public Service Employment Act, while other organizations hire independently.[3]

Size and distributionEdit

The Public Service has expanded over the years as populations have grown. The number of services provided to Canadians has increased with the introduction of new offices throughout the country. The civil service has also been reduced several times, often due to restraint programs designed to reduce the cost of the civil service, such as the reductions of the mid 1990s led by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, and most recently under the government of Prime Minister Stephen Harper in 2012.

Year Size of Civil Service (CS)[4][5][6][7][8]

[9] [10]

national pop. [11]

[12]

CS as a % of national pop.
1918 ~ 5,000 ~ 8,500,000 0.05%
post-World War I 55,000 (1923) ~ 13,500,000 0.41%
1970 198,000 21,500,000 0.92%
1975 273,000 23,400,000 1.2%
1983 251,000 25,367,000 0.99%
1986 217,000 26,101,000 0.83%
2008 263,000 32,248,000 0.82%
2009 274,000 33,894,000 0.81%
2010 283,000 34,149,200 0.83%
2011 282,352 34,483,975 0.82%
2012 278,092 34,880,491 0.78%
2013 262,902 35,158,300 0.75%

As of September, 2006, there were approximately 454,000 members employed by the Canadian federal government,[13] divided as follows:

  • Federal departments: 180,000
  • Federal agencies: 60,000
  • Parliamentary officers and administrators: 20,000
  • Canadian Forces and Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP): 106,000
  • Federal business enterprises (including crown corporations): 88,000

Only those in the first three categories would be considered civil service employees.

There are approximately 80 distinct job classifications in the core civil service; most work in policy, operations or administrative functions. About 15% are scientists and professionals, 10% work in technical operations and 2.5% are executives.[14]

About 42% of Canadian civil servants work in the National Capital Region (NCR) (Ottawa-Hull), 24% work elsewhere in Ontario or Quebec, 21% in Western Canada, and 11% in Atlantic Canada. Since the headquarters of most agencies are located in the NCR, about 72% of executives work in this area.[14]

Canadian civil servants are also located in more than 180 countries (in the form of foreign service officers) and provide service in 1,600 locations in Canada.

Approximately 80% of federal civil service employees are represented by a bargaining agent (union). The greatest number of civil servants are members of the Public Service Alliance of Canada. They negotiate a collective bargaining agreement for blue collar workers, and most administrative staff.

Gender and ethnicityEdit

The Canadian Public Service has made significant efforts to reflect the gender balance, linguistic, and ethnic diversity in Canada.[15]

Sub-group Canadian Civil Service Available Workforce
female 53% 52%
Francophone 32% 24%
self-identified visible minorities 8.1% 10.4%
self-identified people with disabilities 5.9% 3.6%
aboriginal 4.1% 2.5%

Historical timelineEdit

  • Before responsible government, Canada had no real civil service; government officials were appointed by either the Crown or its provincial representatives. These officials usually served for an unspecified period ("during the pleasure of the Crown") for as long as they were deemed fit for the position.[16]
  • 1849 - when responsible government began in 1849, there was a recognition that the roles of the political and non-political government officials needed to be defined and distinguished from one another.
  • 1868 - the Canada Civil Service Act was enacted [17]
  • The "Civil Service Act" of 1882 created a process for examining candidates for the civil service, with a Board of Civil Service Examiners
  • 1908 - the Civil Service Amendment Act created the Civil Service Commission, to oversee appointments to government positions (the "inside service").
  • The Civil Service Act 1918 brought the outside service under the domain of the Commission, along with greater oversight with regards to appointments and promotions for members of the "inside service".[18]
  • 1920s - the Commission created of a competitive system of examinations for appointment and promotion (a merit system) as a viable alternative to the patronage system.
  • 1921 - formal restrictions were placed against the employment of married women. Women already holding permanent positions who married had to resign. These restrictions were not removed until 1955.
  • 1924 - The Civil Service Superannuation Act was intended to promote and protect a career civil service.
  • 1932 - staff control regulations are established and Treasury Board is given authority over the Civil Service Commission's staffing responsibilities.
  • 1949 - the number of World War II veterans assigned to positions in the civil service under the statutory veterans preference rises to 55,000.
  • 1951 - The Financial Administration Act of 1951 provided final authority to the Treasury Board for management (administration and organization) of the public service.
  • 1957 - The CSC establishes the Pay Research Bureau to provide objective information on rates of pay and conditions of employment in government and industry, and to recommend salary rates for civil servants.
  • 1961 - The new Civil Service Act of 1961 gave civil servants the right of appeal against not only promotions, but also transfers, demotions, suspensions and dismissals.
  • 1962 - The Government adopted recommendations by the Royal Commission on Government Organization (Glassco Commission) on the management of the Public Service, including delegating authority to departments to manage their own personnel and to be held accountable for efficient performance.
  • 1966 - Bilingualism becomes an element of merit in the national capital area.
  • 1967 - Public Service Employment Act (PSEA) and Public Service Staff Relations Act (PSSRA) come into effect. The PSEA gave the renamed Public Service Commission the responsibility for all the elements of the staffing process. The PSSRA created a collective bargaining regime in the civil service.
  • early 1970s - rapid expansion of the public service.
  • Late 1970s - significant reduction of public service.
  • 1979 - The Bilingualism Bonus was introduced for public servants who met the bilingual language requirements of their positions.
  • 1984 - the Commission on Equality in Employment issued its report, which recommended that targets and not quotas are the most effective means of achieving equity in the employment of members of under-represented groups.
  • 1986 - further employment layoff programs again reduce the public service.
  • 1992 - Public Service Reform Act amends both the PSEA and the Public Service Staff Relations Act. This provides more flexibility for managers to respond quickly to changing operational needs or to allow employees to acquire new skills. The Act also enabled the PSC to prescribe standards of competence to measure merit.
  • 1995 - a restraint-focused federal budget leads to further reductions (45,000) in the size of the civil service.[19]
  • Late 1990s and early 2000s - rapid growth of the public service
  • 2003 - Public Service Modernization Act is passed and comes into effect in 2004 and 2005. The Canada School of Public Service is formed.
  • 2005 - New Public Service Employment Act is released with significant changes to the staffing system. Recruitment is now the responsibility of Deputy Heads. A new Public Service Staffing Tribunal is put in place to deal with complaints of abuse ofnauthority in internal appointments. The Public Service Labour Relations also comes into effect. The Financial Administration Act is also amended and provides for strong accountability on managers of the public service.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Government of Canada Public Service Modernization Act (2003)
  2. ^ Smith, David E.; The Invisible Crown; University of Toronto Press; 1995; p. 79
  3. ^ "Other governmental organizations". Public Service Commission of Canada. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  4. ^ "The Civil Service of Canada". 1923. p. 46. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  5. ^ http://www.psc-cfp.gc.ca/research/timeline/psc_timeline_e.htm
  6. ^ Sixteenth Annual Report to the Prime Minister on the Public Service of Canada
  7. ^ http://www.clerk.gc.ca/local_grfx/docs/reports/17rpt-eng.pdf Seventeenth Annual Report to the Prime Minister on the Public Service of Canada
  8. ^ http://www.clerk.gc.ca/local_grfx/docs/18rpt-eng.pdf Eighteenth Annual Report to the Prime Minister on the Public Service of Canada
  9. ^ http://www.clerk.gc.ca/local_grfx/docs/rpt/rpt2012-eng.pdf Nineteenth Annual Report to the Prime Minister on the Public Service of Canada
  10. ^ http://www.clerk.gc.ca/local_grfx/docs/rpt/rpt2013-eng.pdf Twentieth Annual Report to the Prime Minister on the Public Service of Canada
  11. ^ Canada's Population
  12. ^ http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/120927/t120927b002-eng.htm Annual population estimates
  13. ^ "Canada's Public Service in the 21st Century (discussion paper)". Public Policy Forum. April 2007. p. 6. Archived from the original on 2007-07-31. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  14. ^ a b "Canada's Public Service in the 21st Century (discussion paper)". Public Policy Forum. April 2007. p. 7. Archived from the original on 2007-07-31. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  15. ^ "Canada's Public Service in the 21st Century (discussion paper)". Public Policy Forum. April 2007. p. 8. Archived from the original on 2007-07-31. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  16. ^ "Civil Service in Canada". Marionopolis College. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  17. ^ "A Timeline of the Public Service Commission of Canada". Public Service Commission of Canada. Archived from the original on 2007-07-03. Retrieved 2007-07-23. 
  18. ^ Roberts, Alasdair. So-Called Experts: How American Consultants Remade the Canadian Civil Service, 1918-1921. Institute of Public Administration of Canada, 1996
  19. ^ http://www.psc-cfp.gc.ca/abt-aps/tpsc-hcfp/index-eng.htm

External linksEdit

Last modified on 3 April 2014, at 17:14