Last modified on 31 July 2014, at 08:39

Political groups of the European Parliament

This article is about groups of parties in the European Parliament. For pan-European political parties, see European political party.
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The political groups of the European Parliament are the parliamentary groups of the European Parliament. The European Parliament is unique among supranational assemblies in that its members (MEPs) organise themselves into ideological groups like in traditional national legislatures. The members of other supranational assemblies form national groups.[1] The political groups of the European Parliament are sometimes the formal representation of a European political party ("Europarty") in the Parliament. In other cases, they are political coalitions of a number of European parties, national parties, and independent politicians.

These groups are not parties, but looser coalitions. They are strictly forbidden to campaign during the European elections since this is the exclusive responsibility of the Europarties. Each political group is assumed to have a set of core principles, and political groups that cannot demonstrate this may be disbanded (see below).

Requirements and privilegesEdit

Working together in Groups benefits European political parties: for example, the European Free Alliance (5 MEPs in sixth Parliament) and the European Green Party (37 MEPs in sixth Parliament) have more power by working together in the European Greens–European Free Alliance Group (42 MEPs) than they would have as stand-alone parties, bringing their causes much-needed additional support. Further incentives for co-operating in Groups include financial subsidies from the Parliament and guaranteed seats on committees[2] which are not afforded to Independent MEPs.

For a Group to be formally recognised in the Parliament, it must fulfil the conditions laid down in the relevant European Parliament Rule of Procedure.[3][4] That Rule lays down the minimum criteria a Group must meet to qualify as a Group. Provided those criteria are met, MEPs can theoretically create any Group they like. This was put to the test when MEPs attempted to create a far-right Group called "Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty" (ITS). This generated controversy and there were concerns about public funds going towards a far-right Group.[2] Attempts to block the formation of ITS were unsuccessful, but ITS were blocked from leading positions on committees, a privilege usually afforded to all Groups.[5]

These events spurred MEPs, mainly from the largest two groups, to approve a rise in the threshold for groups for the 2009–2014 term to a minimum of 25 MEPs from at least seven states. This was opposed by many MEPs, including the Liberal group, for being detrimental to democracy and the two other smallest groups in Parliament, whilst supporters argued that the change made it harder for the far right to claim EU funds whilst still enabling 2.5% of MEPs to form a group.[6]

OrganisationEdit

Groups may be based around a single European political party (e.g. the European People's Party, the Party of European Socialists) or they can include more than one European party as well as national parties and independents[7] (e.g. the Liberal Group).

Each Group appoints a leader, referred to as a "president", "co-ordinator" or "chair", who decides which way the Group should vote in Parliament. The chairs of each Group meet in the Conference of Presidents to decide what issues will be dealt with at the plenary session of the European Parliament. Groups can table motions for resolutions and table amendments to reports.

Provisional composition of the 8th European ParliamentEdit

This is a summary of the standing of existing European Parliament groups, although these are subject to change. The first sitting of the new parliament was on 1 July 2014.

Group Sub-parties Leader(s) Est. MEPs
European People's Party (EPP) European People's Party (EPP)
+1 unaffiliated national party
Manfred Weber 2009 221
Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) Party of European Socialists (PES)
+3 unaffiliated national parties
Gianni Pittella 2009 191
European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists (AECR)
European Christian Political Movement (ECPM)
+ 1 unaffiliated national party
+ 2 independent politicians
Syed Kamall 2009 70
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE)
European Democratic Party (EDP)
+ 5 unaffiliated national parties
Guy Verhofstadt 2004 67
European United Left–Nordic Green Left (GUE-NGL) Party of the European Left (PEL)
The European Anti-Capitalist Left (EACL)
Nordic Green Left Alliance (NGLA)
+ 10 unaffiliated national parties
Gabriele Zimmer 1995 52
The Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens–EFA) European Green Party (EGP)
European Free Alliance (EFA)
+ 2 unaffiliated national parties
+ 2 independent politicians
Rebecca Harms
Philippe Lamberts
1999 50
Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy (EFDD) Movement for a Europe of Liberties and Democracy (MELD)
+ 2 unaffiliated national parties
+ 2 independent politicians
Nigel Farage
David Borrelli
2014 48
Non-Inscrits (NI) Alliance of European National Movements (AENM)
European Alliance for Freedom (EAF)
European National Front (ENF )
+14 unaffiliated national parties
+14 independent politicians
N/A 52
Source for MEPs: Seats by Member State Total 751

Composition of the 7th European ParliamentEdit

This is a summary of the composition of the 7th European Parliament, whose mandate runs from 2009 to 2014.

Group Sub-parties Leader(s) Est. MEPs
European People's Party (EPP) European People's Party (EPP)
+1 unaffiliated national party
Joseph Daul 2009 274
Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) Party of European Socialists (PES)
+3 unaffiliated national parties
Hannes Swoboda 2009 195
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE)
European Democratic Party (EDP)
+ 3 independent politicians
Guy Verhofstadt 2004 85
The Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens–EFA) European Green Party (EGP)
European Free Alliance (EFA)
+ 2 unaffiliated national parties
+ 2 independent politicians
Daniel Cohn-Bendit
Rebecca Harms
1999 58
European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists (AECR)
European Christian Political Movement (ECPM)
+ 1 unaffiliated national party
+ 2 independent politicians
Martin Callanan 2009 56
European United Left–Nordic Green Left (GUE-NGL) Party of the European Left (PEL)
Nordic Green Left Alliance (NGLA)
+ 10 unaffiliated national parties
Gabriele Zimmer 2009 35
Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD) Movement for a Europe of Liberties and Democracy (MELD)
+ 2 unaffiliated national parties
+ 2 independent politicians
Nigel Farage
Francesco Speroni
2009 33
Non-Inscrits (NI) Alliance of European National Movements (AENM)
+14 unaffiliated national parties
+ 3 independent politicians
N/A 30
Source for MEPs: European Parliament Total 766

Major changes compared to the period 2004–2009 are:

Composition of the 6th European ParliamentEdit

The mandate of previous European Parliament ran from 2004 and 2009. It was composed of the following political groups.

Group Sub-parties Leader(s) Est. MEPs
European People's Party–European Democrats (EPP–ED) European People's Party (EPP)
European Democrats (ED)
Joseph Daul 1999 288
Party of European Socialists (PES) Party of European Socialists (PES) Martin Schulz 1953 217
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (ELDR)
European Democratic Party (EDP)
+ 2 unaffiliated national parties
+ 2 independent politicians
Graham Watson 2004 104
Union for Europe of the Nations (UEN) Alliance for Europe of the Nations (AEN)
+ 6 unaffiliated national parties
Cristiana Muscardini 1994 40
The Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens–EFA) European Green Party (EGP)
European Free Alliance (EFA)
+ 2 unaffiliated national parties
Monica Frassoni
Daniel Cohn-Bendit
1999 43
European United Left–Nordic Green Left (GUE–NGL) Party of the European Left (PEL)
Nordic Green Left Alliance (NGLA)
+ 5 unaffiliated national parties
Francis Wurtz 1994 41
Independence/Democracy (IND/DEM) Alliance of Independent Democrats in Europe (AIDE)
EUDemocrats (EUD)
+ 2 unaffiliated national parties
Nigel Farage
Kathy Sinnott
2004 22
Non-Inscrits (NI) Euronat
+ 11 unaffiliated national parties
+ 3 independent politicians
N/A 30
Source for MEPs: European Parliament Total 785

Party relationsEdit

The Parliament does not form a government in the traditional sense and its politics have developed over consensual rather than adversarial lines.[9] No single group has ever held a majority in Parliament.[10] Historically, the two largest parliamentary formations have been the EPP Group and the PES Group, which are affiliated to their respective Europarties, the European People's Party (EPP) and the Party of European Socialists (PES). These two Groups have dominated the Parliament for much of its life, continuously holding between 50 and 70 percent of the seats together. The Socialists were the largest single party grouping up to 1999, when they were overtaken by the centre-right EPP.[11][12]

In 1987 the Single European Act came into force and, under the new cooperation procedure, the Parliament needed to obtain large majorities to make the most impact. So the EPP and PES came to an agreement to co-operate in the Parliament.[13] This agreement became known as the "grand coalition" and, aside from a break in the fifth Parliament,[14] it has dominated the Parliament for much of its life, regardless of necessity. The grand coalition is visible in the agreement between the two Groups to divide the five-year term of the President of the European Parliament equally between them, with a socialist president for half the term and a People's president for the other half, regardless of the actual election result.[9]

Position of the liberalsEdit

ELDR Group leader Graham Watson MEP denounced the grand coalition and has described the aim for the liberals in the following terms: "the challenge for us is not only to break the inherent conservatism of the grand coalition, where a failing EPP Europe is propped up by a Socialist poodle pinching the crumbs from the table" also expressing a desire to ensure that the posts of Commission President, Council President, Parliament President and High Representative are not carved up in an agreement between the two groups to the exclusion of third parties.[15]

During the fifth term it was the ELDR Group who were involved in a break in the grand coalition when they entered into an alliance with the European People's Party, to the exclusion of the Socialists.[14] This was reflected in the Presidency of the Parliament with the terms being shared between the EPP and the ELDR, rather than the EPP and PES[16] as before. In the following term the liberals grew to 88 seats becoming the "Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe". This was the largest number of seats held by any third party in Parliament.[15]

Break in the coalitionEdit

However ELDR intervention was not the only cause for a break in the grand coalition. There have been specific occasions where real left-right party politics have emerged, notably the resignation of the Santer Commission. When the initial allegations against the Commission Budget emerged, they were directed primarily against the PES Édith Cresson and Manuel Marín. PES supported the Commission and saw the issue as an attempt by the EPP to discredit their party ahead of the 1999 elections. EPP disagreed. Whilst the Parliament was considering rejecting the Community budget, President Jacques Santer argued that a "No" vote would be tantamount to a vote of no confidence. PES leader Pauline Green MEP attempted a vote of confidence and the EPP put forward counter motions. During this period the two Groups adopted a government-opposition dynamic, with PES supporting the executive and EPP renouncing its previous coalition support and voting it down.[17]

In 2004 there was another notable break in the grand coalition. It occurred over the nomination of Rocco Buttiglione as European Commissioner for Justice, Freedom and Security. The EPP supported the appointment of Buttiglione, while the PES, who were also critics of the President-designate Jose Manuel Barroso, led the parties seeking Buttiglione's removal following his rejection (the first in EU history) by a Parliamentary committee. Barroso initially stood by his team and offered only small concessions, which were rejected by the PES. The EPP demanded that if Buttiglione were to go, then a PES commissioner must also be sacrificed for balance.[18] In the end, Italy withdrew Buttiglione and put forward Franco Frattini instead. Frattini won the support of the PES and the Barroso Commission was finally approved, albeit behind schedule.[19] Politicisation such as the above has been increasing, with Simon Hix of the London School of Economics noting in 2007 that[20]

Academic analysesEdit

The political groups of the European Parliament have been around in one form or another since September 1952 and the first meeting of the Parliament's predecessor, the Common Assembly. The groups are coalitions of MEPs and the European political party and national parties that those MEPs belong to. The groups have coalesced into representations of the dominant schools of European political thought and are the primary actors in the Parliament.

Some of the groups (such as PES and S&D Group) have become homogeneous units coterminous with their European political party, some (such as IND/DEM) have not. But they are still coalitions, not parties in their own right, and do not issue manifestos of their own. It may therefore be difficult to discern how the groups intend to vote without first inspecting the party platforms of their constituent parties, and then with limited certainty.

Additionally, national media focus on the MEPs and national parties of their own member state, neglecting the group's activities and poorly understanding their structure or even existence. Transnational media coverage of the groups per se is limited to those organs such as the Parliament itself, or those news media (e.g. EUObserver or theParliament.com) that specialise in the Parliament. These organs cover the groups in detail but with little overarching analysis. So although such organs make it easy to find out how a group acted on a specific vote, they provide little information on the voting patterns of a specific group.

As a result, the only bodies providing analysis of the voting patterns and Weltanschauung of the groups are academics.[citation needed]

HistoryEdit

EP political groups, 1979 to 2009.
  Conservative/Christian Democrat (CD,EPP (79–92),EPP (92–99),FE,EPP-ED)
  Conservatives only (C,ED,ECR)
  Social Democrats (S,SOC,PES,S&D)
  Communist/Far-Left (COM,LU,EUL,EUL/NGL)
  Liberal/Centrist (L,LD,LDR,ERA,ELDR,ALDE)
  National Conservatives (UDE,EPD,EDA,UFE,UEN)
  Greens only (G)
  Green/Regionalist (RBW (84–89),RBW (89–94),G/EFA)
  Heterogeneous (CDI,TGI)
  Independents (NI)
  Eurosceptics (EN,I-EN,EDD,IND/DEM,EFD)
  Far-Right Nationalist (ER,DR,ITS)

OverviewEdit

The first three Groups were established in the earliest days of the Parliament. They were the "Socialist Group" (which eventually became PES/S&D), the "Christian Democrat Group" (later EPP) and the "Liberals and Allies Group" (later ALDE).

As the Parliament developed, other Groups emerged. Gaullists from France founded the European Democratic Union Group.[21] When Conservatives from Denmark and the United Kingdom joined, they created the European Conservatives Group, which (after some name changes) eventually merged with the Group of the European People's Party.[22]

The 1979 first direct election established further groups and the establishment of European political parties such as the European People's Party.[23] A full breakdown of Groups by complexion and timeline is given below.

Conservatives/Christian DemocratsEdit

In European politics, the centre-right is usually occupied by Christian democrats and conservatives. These two ideological strands have had a tangled relationship in the Parliament. The first Christian Democrat Group was founded in 1953[24] and stayed with that name for a quarter of a century. Meanwhile outside the Parliament, local Christian-democratic parties were organising and eventually formed the pan-national political party called the "European People's Party" on 29 April 1976. Since all the Christian-democratic MEPs were members of this pan-European party, the Group's name was changed to indicate this: first to the "Christian-Democratic Group (Group of the European People's Party)"[23][25] on 14 March 1978,[23] then to "Group of the European People's Party (Christian Democrats)"[23][25][26] on 17 July 1979.[23] Meanwhile, on 16 January 1973,[22] the "European Conservative Group"[24] was formed by the British and Danish Conservative parties, which had recently joined the EEC. This group was renamed to the "European Democratic Group"[21][27] on 17 July 1979.[22] The EPP Group grew during the '80s, with parties such as the New Democracy of Greece and People's Party of Spain that were not explicitly Christian-democratic joining the Group. In contrast, the number of MEPs in the European Democratic Group fell over the same period and it eventually merged with the EPP Group on 1 May 1992.[22] This consolidation of the centre-right continued during the 1990s, with MEPs from the highly heterogeneous Italian centre-right party Forza Italia eventually settling down into the EPP Group on 15 June 1998,[28] after spending nearly a year (19 July 1994[28] to 6 July 1995[28]) in their own Group, self-referentially called "Forza Europa", and nearly three years (6 July 1995[28] to 15 June 1998[28]) in the national-conservative Group called "Union for Europe". But the Conservatives were growing restless and on 20 July 1999[24] the EPP Group was renamed[24] to the "Group of the European People's Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats"[29] (EPP-ED) to identify the Conservative parties within the Group. The Group remained under that name until after the 2009 European elections, when it reverted to the title "Group of the European People's Party (Christian Democrats)" upon the exit of the European Democrats subgroup and its formation of the separate "European Conservatives and Reformists" , a more Eurosceptic group established in 2009.

Group
name
English
abbr.
French
abbr.
Formal European
Parliament name
From To
Christian Democratic Group CD[24] DC[23] Christian Democratic Group[24][25] 23 June 1953[23] 14 March 1978[23]
Christian Democratic Group CD[24] DC[23] Christian Democratic Group (Group of the European People's Party)[23][25] 14 March 1978[23] 17 July 1979[23]
European Conservatives C[24] n/a European Conservative Group[24][27] 16 January 1973[22] 17 July 1979[22]
European Democrats ED[21][24][30] DE[22] European Democratic Group[21][27] 17 July 1979[22] 1 May 1992[22]
European People's Party EPP[30] PPE[23] Group of the European People's Party (Christian Democrats)[23][25][26] 17 July 1979[23] 1 May 1999[23]
Forza Europa FE[21][30][31] n/a Forza Europa 19 July 1994[28] 6 July 1995[28]
European People's Party–European Democrats EPP-ED[30] PPE-DE[29] Group of the European People's Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats[29][32] 20 July 1999[24] 22 June 2009
European People's Party EPP PPE Group of the European People's Party (Christian Democrats) 22 June 2009 present

Social DemocratsEdit

In western Europe, social-democratic parties have been the dominant centre-left force since the dawn of modern European cooperation. The Socialist Group was one of the first Groups to be founded when it was created on 23 June 1953[33] in the European Parliament's predecessor, the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community, and continued through the creation of the appointed Parliament in 1958 and the elected Parliament in 1979. Meanwhile, the national parties making up the Group were also organising themselves on a European level outside the Parliament, with the parties creating the "Confederation of Socialist Parties of the European Community" in 1974[24][34][35] and its successor, the "Party of European Socialists", in 1992.[34][35] As a result, the Group (which had kept its "Socialist Group" name all along) was renamed to the "Group of the Party of European Socialists" on 21 April 1993[33] and it became difficult to distinguish between the Party of European Socialists party and the parliamentary group. The Group reverted to (approximately) its former name of the "Socialist Group in the European Parliament"[29] on 20 July 2004[33] and was given a different logo, making it easier to distinguish the Group from the party. Despite all this, the Group was still universally referred to as "PES", notwithstanding the 2009 name change to the "Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats", a name chosen to accommodate the Democratic Party of Italy.[36]

Group
name
English
abbr.
French
abbr.
Formal European
Parliament name
From To
Socialist Group S[24] n/a Group of the Socialists[24] 23 June 1953[33] 1958[34]
Socialist Group SOC[30] n/a Socialist Group[34][37] 1958[34] 21 April 1993[33]
Party of European Socialists PES[30] PSE[29] "Group of the Party of European Socialists"[24][38] (until 20 July 2004)[33]
"Socialist Group in the European Parliament"[29][39] (since 20 July 2004[33])
21 April 1993[33] 23 June 2009
Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats S&D S&D Group of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament 23 June 2009 present

Liberals/centristsEdit

In European politics, liberalism tends to be associated with ideas inspired by classical liberalism, which advocates limited government intervention in society in general. However, the Liberal Group contains diverse parties, including social-liberal and Nordic agrarian parties. It has previously been home to parties such as the minor French Gaullist party Union for the New Republic and the Social Democratic Party of Portugal, which were not explicitly liberal parties, but who were not aligned with either the Socialist or the Christian Democratic Groups. The Liberal Group was founded on 23 June 1953[40] under the name of the "Group of Liberals and Allies".[40] As the Parliament grew, it changed its name to the "Liberal and Democratic Group"[24][40] (1976[40]), then to the "Liberal and Democratic Reformist Group"[41] (13 December 1985[40]), then to the "Group of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party"[24][26][40] (19 July 1994[40]) before settling on its present name of the "Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe"[40] on 20 July 2004,[40] when the Group was joined by the centrist and social-liberal parties that formed the European Democratic Party.

Between 1994 and 1999 there was a separate "European Radical Alliance", which consisted out of MEPs of the French Energie Radicale, the Italian Bonino List, and regionalists aligned with the European Free Alliance.[42]

Group
name
English
abbr.
French
abbr.
Formal European
Parliament name
From To
Liberal Group L[40] n/a Group of Liberals and Allies[40] 23 June 1953[40] 1976[40]
Liberal and Democratic Group LD[40] n/a Liberal and Democratic Group[24][40][43] 1976[40] 13 December 1985[40]
Liberal and Democratic Reformist Group LDR[21][40] n/a Liberal and Democratic Reformist Group[41] 13 December 1985[40] 19 July 1994[40]
European Liberal Democratic and Reform Party ELDR[30][40] n/a Group of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party[24][26][40][44] 19 July 1994[40] 20 July 2004[40]
European Radical Alliance ERA[30] ARE[45] Group of the European Radical Alliance[26][46] 1994[21] 1999[45]
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe ALDE[30] ADLE[47] Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe[40][48] 20 July 2004[40] present

National conservativesEdit

Parties from certain European countries have been unwilling to join the centre-right European People's Party group. These parties generally have a national conservative[citation needed] agenda. The first such Group was formed when the French Gaullists split from the Liberal Group on 21 January 1965[28] and created a new Group called the "European Democratic Union"[21][24] (not to be confused with the association of conservative and Christian-democratic parties founded in 1978 called the European Democrat Union nor the Conservative Group called the "European Democratic Group" founded in 1979). The Group was renamed on 16 January 1973[28] to the "Group of European Progressive Democrats"[49][50] when the Gaullists were joined by the Irish Fianna Fáil and by the nationalist and social-democratic Scottish National Party, and renamed itself again on 24 July 1984[28] to the "Group of the European Democratic Alliance".[21][50] The European Democratic Alliance joined with MEPs from Forza Italia to became the "Union for Europe"[26][51] on 6 July 1995,[28] but it didn't last and the Forza Italia MEPs left on 15 June 1998 to join the EPP,[28] leaving Union for Europe to struggle on until it split on 20 July 1999.[28] The French Rally for the Republic members joined the EPP,[28] but Fianna Fáil and the Portuguese CDS–PP members joined a new group called the "Union for Europe of the Nations Group".[52] After the 2009 Parliament elections the Union for Europe of Nations group was disbanded due to a lack of members, with the remaining members splitting into factions, with some joining with the remaining members of Independence/Democracy to form Europe of Freedom and Democracy, a new Eurosceptic group, and the remaining members joining with the European Democrat former members of the EPP-ED to form the European Conservatives and Reformists group.

Group
name
English
abbr.
French
abbr.
Formal European
Parliament name
From To
European Democratic Union[21][24] n/a UDE[28] European Democratic Union Group[50] 21 January 1965[28] 16 January 1973[28]
European Progressive Democrats[21][24] EPD[53] DEP[28] Group of European Progressive Democrats[49][50] 16 January 1973[28] 24 July 1984[28]
European Democratic Alliance[30] EDA[21][30] RDE[28] Group of the European Democratic Alliance[21][50][51] 24 July 1984[28] 6 July 1995[28]
Group Union for Europe UFE[30] UPE[28] "Group Union for Europe"[26][51] 6 July 1995[28] 20 July 1999[28]
Union for Europe of the Nations UEN[21][30] n/a Union for Europe of the Nations Group[52] 20 July 1999[28][54] 11 June 2009
European Conservatives and Reformists ECR CRE European Conservatives and Reformists Group 24 June 2009 present

Greens/regionalistsEdit

In European politics, there has been a coalition between the greens and the stateless nationalists or regionalists (who also support devolution). In 1984[45] Greens and regionalists gathered into the "Rainbow Group",[21] a coalition of Greens, regionalists and other parties of the left unaffiliated with any of the international organisations. In 1989[21][45] Rainbow split. The Greens went off to form the "Green Group", whilst the regionalists stayed in Rainbow. Rainbow collapsed in 1994[45] and its members joined the "European Radical Alliance" under the French Energie Radicale. The Greens and regionalists stayed separate until 1999,[24][45] when they reunited under the "Greens/European Free Alliance"[24][29] banner.

Group
name
English
abbr.
French
abbr.
Formal European
Parliament name
From To
Rainbow Group RBW[30] ARC[45] Rainbow Group: Federation of the Green Alternative European Left, Agalev-Ecolo, the Danish People's Movement against Membership of the European Community and the European Free Alliance in the European Parliament[46][55] 1984[45] 1989[21][45]
Rainbow Group RBW[30] ARC[45] Rainbow Group in the European Parliament[45][46] 1989[21][45] 1994[45]
The Green Group G[30] V[56] The Green Group in the European Parliament[26][57] 1989[21][24][45] 1999[24][45]
The Greens–European Free Alliance G/EFA,[30] Verts/ALE[29] Group of the Greens–European Free Alliance[24][29][58] 1999[24] present

Communists/SocialistsEdit

The first communist group in the European Parliament was the "Communist and Allies Group"[21] founded on 16 October 1973.[59] It stayed together until 25 July 1989[59] when it split into two groups, the "Left Unity" Group[21] with 14[21] members and the "Group of the European United Left"[59] (EUL) with 28[21] members. EUL collapsed in January 1993[60] after the Italian Communist Party became the Democratic Party of the Left and its MEPs joined the Socialist Group, leaving Left Unity as the only leftist group before the 1994 elections.[60] The name was resurrected immediately after the elections when the "Confederal Group of the European United Left"[59] was formed on 19 July 1994.[59] On 6 January 1995,[59] when parties from Sweden and Finland joined, the Group was further renamed to the "Confederal Group of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left" and it has stayed that way to the present.

Group
name
English
abbr.
French
abbr.
Formal European
Parliament name
From To
Communists and Allies COM[30] n/a Communist and Allies Group[21][61] 16 October 1973[59] 25 July 1989[59]
European United Left EUL[30] GUE[21][24] Group for the European United Left[62] 25 July 1989[59] January 1993[60]
Left Unity LU[30] CG[21][59] Left Unity[21][63] 25 July 1989[59] 19 July 1994[59]
European United Left EUL[30] GUE[21][24] Confederal Group of the European United Left[59][64] 19 July 1994[59] 6 January 1995[59]
European United Left–Nordic Green Left EUL/NGL[30] GUE/NGL[24][29] Confederal Group of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left[26][29][64] 6 January 1995[59][64] present

NationalistsEdit

In European politics, a grouping of nationalist has thus far found it difficult to cohere in a continuous Group. The first nationalist Group was founded by the French National Front and the Italian Social Movement in 1984[21][65] under the name of the "Group of the European Right",[21][65] and it lasted until 1989.[65][66] Its successor, the "Technical Group of the European Right",[65][67] existed from 1989[65] to 1994.[65] There was then a gap of thirteen years until "Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty"[68] was founded on 15 January 2007,[68] which lasted for nearly eleven months until it fell apart on 14 November 2007 due to in-fighting.[69]

In January 2008, leaders of nationalist parties across four countries announced another attempt at a pan-European nationalist European political party, provisionally called the "European Patriotic Party".[70][71] Should they be successful and elect sufficient MEPs under that banner, then another nationalist Group may be formed.

In October 2009, a loose grouping of nationalists under the label "Alliance of European Nationalist Movements" was confirmed with membership including Jobbik of Hungary, and the British National Party.[72] Under the group membership rules in place at the European Parliament the AENM has no formal status.


Group
name
English
abbr.
French
abbr.
Formal European
Parliament name
From To
European Right ER[21][30] n/a Group of the European Right[21][65][73] 24 July 1984[73] 24 July 1989[73]
European Right DR[67] n/a Technical Group of the European Right[65][67][73] 25 July 1989[73] 18 July 1994[73]
Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty ITS[68] n/a Identity, Tradition and Sovereignty Group[74] 15 January 2007[68] 14 November 2007[69]

EuroscepticsEdit

The specifically European school of political thought that states that the competences of the European Union should be reduced or prevented from expanding further, is represented in the European Parliament by the eurosceptics. The first Eurosceptic group in the European Parliament was founded on 19 July 1994.[75] It was called the "European Nations Group"[75] and it lasted until 10 November 1996.[75] Its successor was the "Group of Independents for a Europe of Nations",[26][76] founded on 20 December 1996.[75] Following the 1999 election, the Group was reorganised into the "Group for a Europe of Democracies and Diversities"[24][29] on 20 July 1999,[75] and similarly reorganised after the 2004 election into the "Independence/Democracy Group"[77] on 20 July 2004.[75] The IND/DEM Group comprised 22 Members coming from 9 different countries, as follows: Czech Republic (1), Denmark (1), Greece (1), France (3), Ireland (1), The Netherlands (2), Sweden (2), UK (8), Poland (3). The group's leaders were Nigel Farage (UK Independence Party) and Kathy Sinnott (Independent, Ireland). After the 2009 European elections a significant proportion of the IND/DEM members joined the "Europe of Freedom and Democracy" Group, which included parties formerly part of the Union for a Europe of Nations. The EFD group's leaders were Nigel Farage and Francesco Speroni of the Lega Nord (Italy). With significant changes in membership after the 2014 European elections, the group was re-formed as "Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy", led by Nigel Farage and David Borrelli (Five Star Movement, Italy).

Group
name
English
abbr.
French
abbr.
Formal European
Parliament name
From To
Europe of Nations EN[30] EDN[56] Europe of Nations Group (Coordination Group)[78] 19 July 1994[75][78] 10 November 1996[75][78]
Independents for a Europe of Nations I-EN[76] I-EDN[75] Group of Independents for a Europe of Nations[26][76][78][79] 20 December 1996[75] 20 July 1999[75]
Europe of Democracies and Diversities EDD[24][29] n/a Group for a Europe of Democracies and Diversities[24][29][79] 20 July 1999[75] 20 July 2004[75]
Independence/Democracy IND/DEM[30] n/a Independence/Democracy Group[77][79] 20 July 2004[75] 11 June 2009
Europe of Freedom and Democracy EFD ELD Europe of Freedom and Democracy Group[80] 1 July 2009 24 June 2014
Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy EFDD ELDD Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy Group 24 June 2014 present

HeterogeneousEdit

A Group is assumed to have a set of core principles ("affinities" or "complexion") to which the full members are expected to adhere. This throws up an anomaly: Groups get money and seats on Committees which Independent members do not get, but the total amount of Independent members may be greater than the members of the smaller Groups. In 1979, MEPs got round this by forming a Technical Group (formally called the "Group for the Technical Coordination and Defence of Independent Groups and Members",[81] or "CDI"[42] for short) as a coalition of parties ranging from centre-left to far-left, which were not aligned with any of the major international organizations.[82] CDI lasted until 1984.[45] On 20 July 1999,[83] another Technical Group was formed, (formally called the "Technical Group of Independent Members – mixed group"[84] or "TGI"[30][83] for short). Since it contained far-right MEPs and centre-left MEPs, it could not possibly be depicted as having a common outlook. The Committee on Constitutional Affairs ruled[85] that TGI did not have a coherent political complexion, Parliament upheld (412 to 56 with 36 abstentions) the ruling,[86] and TGI was thus disbanded on 13 September 1999,[86] the first Group to be forcibly dissolved. However, the ruling was appealed to the European Court of First Instance[86] and the Group was temporarily resurrected on 1 December 1999[87] until the Court came to a decision.[87] On 3 October 2001, president Fontaine announced that the Court of First Instance had declared against the appeal[88] and that the disbandment was back in effect from 2 October 2001, the date of the declaration.[89] TGI appeared on the list of Political Groups in the European Parliament for the last time on 4 October 2001.[90] Since then the requirement that Groups have a coherent political complexion has been enforced (as ITS later found out), and "mixed" Groups are not expected to appear again.

Group
name
English
abbr.
French
abbr.
Formal European
Parliament name
From To
Technical Group of Independents n/a CDI[42] "Group for the Technical Coordination and Defence of Independent Groups and Members"[81] 20 July 1979[83] 24 July 1984[86]
Technical Group of Independents TGI[30][83] TDI[24][29] "Technical Group of Independent Members – mixed group"[84] 20 July 1999[83] 4 October 2001[90]

IndependentsEdit

Independent MEPs that are not in a Group are categorised as "Non-Inscrits" (the French term is universally used, even in English translations). This null-Group has no Group privileges or funding, and is included here solely for completeness.

[1][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][37][38][39][40][41][42][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][81][83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Hines, Eric (2003). "The European Parliament and the Europeanization of Green Parties" (PDF). University of Iowa. Archived from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-01. 
  2. ^ a b Brunwasser, Matthew (14 January 2007). "Bulgaria and Romania bolster far right profile in EU Parliament". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  3. ^ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament, 7th parliamentary term – July 2009, Rule 30: Formation of political groups" 1 July 2009, from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/
  4. ^ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament, 16th edition – March 2009, Rule 29: Formation of political groups" 6 April 2009, from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/
  5. ^ "Far-Right Wing Group Sidelined in European Parliament". Deutsche Welle. 2 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  6. ^ Mahony, Honor (9 July 2008). "New rules to make it harder for MEPs to form political groups". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  7. ^ "Party Politics in the EU" (PDF). civitas.org.uk. Retrieved 2007-06-12. 
  8. ^ Conservative MEPs form new group
  9. ^ a b Settembri, Pierpaolo (2 February 2007). "Is the European Parliament competitive or consensual ... "and why bother"?" (PDF). Federal Trust. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  10. ^ Kreppel, Amie (2002). "The European Parliament and Supranational Party System" (PDF). Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2007-06-12. 
  11. ^ "History". Socialist Group website. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 
  12. ^ "EPP-ED Chronology – 1991–2000". EPP-ED Group website. Retrieved 2007-11-07. 
  13. ^ "EPP-ED Chronology – 1981–1990". EPP-ED Group website. Retrieved 2007-11-07. 
  14. ^ a b "Interview: Graham Watson, leader of group of Liberal Democrat MEPs". Euractiv. 15 June 2004. Retrieved 2007-11-01. 
  15. ^ a b "Speech by G. Watson to the ELDR Congress in Berlin". ELDR website. 26 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-01. [dead link]
  16. ^ "European Parliament elects new president". BBC News. 20 July 1999. Retrieved 2007-11-01. 
  17. ^ Ringer, Nils F. (February 2003). "The Santer Commission Resignation Crisis" (PDF). University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  18. ^ Bowley, Graham (26 October 2004). "Socialists vow to oppose incoming team: Barroso optimistic on commission vote". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2007-11-23. 
  19. ^ Bowley, Graham (17 November 2004). "SEU Parliament likely to accept commission: Barroso set to win with new team". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2007-11-23. 
  20. ^ "Professor Farrell: "The EP is now one of the most powerful legislatures in the world"". European Parliament. 18 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-05. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Development of Political Groups in the European Parliament
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j ED on Europe Politique
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q EPP-ED on Europe Politique
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Political Groups of the European Parliament
  25. ^ a b c d e f European Parliament profile of Egon Klepsch
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Group names 1999
  27. ^ a b c d European Parliament profile of James Scott-Hopkins
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab UFE on Europe Politique
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Political Groups Annual Accounts 2001–2006
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Democracy in the European Parliament
  31. ^ a b Composition of the European Parliament 1996-11-11, 1996-01-01, 1995-12-31 and 1994-07-19 (first session of 1994 Parliament?)
  32. ^ a b European Parliament profile of Hans-Gert Pöttering
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i PES on Europe Politique
  34. ^ a b c d e f Confederation of the Socialist Parties of the European Community Collection
  35. ^ a b c How does the PES work?
  36. ^ European socialists change name to accommodate Italian lawmakers. Monsters and Critics (2009-06-23). Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  37. ^ a b European Parliament profile of Ernest Glinne
  38. ^ a b European Parliament profile of Pauline Green
  39. ^ a b European Parliament profile of Martin Schulz
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ALDE on Europe Politique
  41. ^ a b c European Parliament profile of Simone Veil
  42. ^ a b c d e Political groups in the European Parliament (1979)
  43. ^ a b European Parliament profile of Martin Bangemann
  44. ^ a b European Parliament profile of Gijs De Vries
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q G/EFA on Europe Politique
  46. ^ a b c d European Parliament profile of Jaak Vandemeulebroucke
  47. ^ a b Brochure du Groupe de l'ADLE
  48. ^ a b European Parliament profile of Graham Watson
  49. ^ a b c Types of International Organization
  50. ^ a b c d e f European Parliament profile of Christian de La Malène
  51. ^ a b c d European Parliament profile of Jean-Claude Pasty
  52. ^ a b c European Parliament profile of Charles Pasqua
  53. ^ a b Lane, Jan-Erik; David McKay; Kenneth Newton (1997). Political Data Handbook: OECD Countries. Oxford University Press. p. 191. ISBN 0-19-828053-X. 
  54. ^ a b UEN on Europe Politique
  55. ^ a b European Parliament profile of Else Hammerich
  56. ^ a b c "The European Parliament And Enlargement: From 1973 To 2000" by Karlheinz Neunreither
  57. ^ a b European Parliament profile of Alexander Langer
  58. ^ a b European Parliament profile of Heidi Hautala
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q EUL/NGL on Europe Politique
  60. ^ a b c d "European Union: Power and Policy-Making" second edition, ISBN 0-415-22164-1 Published 2001 by Routledge, edited by Jeremy John Richardson, Chapter 6 "Parliaments and policy-making in the European Union", esp. page 125, "Table 6.2 Party Groups in the European Parliament, 1979–2000"
  61. ^ a b European Parliament profile of Giorgio Amendola
  62. ^ a b European Parliament profile of Luigi Alberto Colajanni
  63. ^ a b European Parliament profile of René-Emile Piquet
  64. ^ a b c d European Parliament profile of Alonso José Puerta
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i Who's who in EU's new far-right group
  66. ^ a b Searchlight article on collapse of ER
  67. ^ a b c d Party Switching in the European Parliament: why bother?
  68. ^ a b c d e Opening of the January plenary session – Welcome of Bulgarian and Romanian MEPs / Formation of a new political group
  69. ^ a b c End of the Identity, Tradition and Sovereignty political group as Romanian MEPs leave
  70. ^ BBC News – EU far-right groups to form party
  71. ^ Wiener Zeitung
  72. ^ Jobbik, BNP move to form pan-European far-right alliance EUObserver
  73. ^ a b c d e f g European Parliament profile of Jean-Marie Le Pen
  74. ^ a b European Parliament profile of Bruno Gollnisch
  75. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o IND/DEM on Europe Politique
  76. ^ a b c d European Parliament Elections 1999 on the BBC
  77. ^ a b c Ind/Dem accounts 2006/7
  78. ^ a b c d e European Parliament profile of James Goldsmith
  79. ^ a b c d European Parliament profile of Jens-Peter Bonde
  80. ^ http://www.efdgroup.eu/members.html
  81. ^ a b c European Parliament profile of Neil Blaney
  82. ^ On 17 July 1979, CDI consisted of 11 MEPs: specifically Maurits P.-A. Coppieters of the Flemish People's Union, Else Hammerich, Jens-Peter Bonde, Sven Skovmand, and Jørgen Bøgh of the Danish Eurosceptic list People's Movement against the EEC, the Irish independent MEP Neil Blaney, Luciana Castellina from the Italian Proletarian Unity Party, Mario Capanna from the Italian Proletarian Democracy, and Marco Pannella, Emma Bonino and Leonardo Sciascia of the libertarian Radical Party
  83. ^ a b c d e f The Week: 20-07-99(s)
  84. ^ a b c European Parliament profile of Francesco Speroni
  85. ^ a b Formation of Technical Group of Independent Members rejected
  86. ^ a b c d e Technical group disbanded
  87. ^ a b c Reinstatement of Independents' Group
  88. ^ a b Court rules on TGI
  89. ^ a b Debates Wednesday, 3 October 2001 – Strasbourg
  90. ^ a b c Daily Notebook 04-10-2001

External linksEdit