Seal of Plymouth Colony
Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations
|Legislature||Plymouth General Court|
|-||King Philip's War||1675–1676|
|-||Part of the Dominion of New England||1686–1688|
Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth, or Plymouth Bay Colony) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691. The first settlement of the Plymouth Colony was at New Plimoth, a location previously surveyed and named by Captain John Smith. The settlement, which served as the capital of the colony, is today the modern town of Plymouth, Massachusetts. At its height, Plymouth Colony occupied most of the southeastern portion of the modern state of Massachusetts.
Founded by a group of Separatists and Anglicans, who together later came to be known as the Pilgrims, Plymouth Colony was, along with Jamestown and other settlements in Virginia, one of the earliest successful colonies to be founded by the English in North America, and the first sizable permanent English settlement in the New England region. Aided by Squanto, a Native American of the Patuxet people, the colony was able to establish a treaty with Chief Massasoit which helped to ensure the colony's success. It played a central role in King Philip's War, one of the earliest of the Indian Wars. Ultimately, the colony was merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony and other territories in 1691 to form the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Despite the colony's relatively short history, Plymouth holds a special role in American history. Rather than being entrepreneurs like many of the settlers of Jamestown, a significant proportion of the citizens of Plymouth were fleeing religious persecution and searching for a place to worship as they saw fit. The social and legal systems of the colony became closely tied to their religious beliefs, as well as English custom. Many of the people and events surrounding Plymouth Colony have become part of American folklore, including the North American tradition known as Thanksgiving and the monument known as Plymouth Rock.
A group of people (separatists) who later came to be known as the "Pilgrims" founded the Plymouth Colony. The core group—roughly 40% of the adults and 56% of the family groupings—was part of a congregation of religious separatists (Congregationalists) led by William Bradford. While still in the English village of Scrooby, near East Retford, Nottinghamshire, the congregation began to feel the pressures of religious persecution. In 1607 Tobias Matthew, Archbishop of York, raided homes and imprisoned several members of the congregation. The congregation then left England and emigrated to the Netherlands, first to Amsterdam and then to Leiden, in 1609.
In Leiden, the congregation gained the freedom to worship as it chose, but Dutch society was unfamiliar to these immigrants. Scrooby had been an agricultural community, whereas Leiden was a thriving industrial center, and the pace of life was hard on the Separatists. Furthermore, though the community remained close-knit, their children began adopting Dutch language and customs.Their children were also going into the Dutch Army. The Separatists were also still not free from the persecutions of the English Crown; in 1618, after William Brewster published comments highly critical of the King of England and the Anglican Church, English authorities came to Leiden to arrest him. Though Brewster escaped arrest, the events spurred the congregation to move even farther from England.
In June 1619, after declining the opportunity to settle south of Cape Cod in New Netherland, because of their desire to avoid the Dutch influence, the Congregation obtained a land patent from the London Virginia Company, allowing them to settle at the mouth of the Hudson River. They then sought financing through the Merchant Adventurers, a group of businessmen who principally viewed the colony as a means of making a profit. Upon arriving in America, the Pilgrims began working to repay their debts.
Using the financing secured from the Merchant Adventurers, the Colonists bought provisions and obtained passage on two ships, the Mayflower and the Speedwell. Though they had intended to leave early in 1620, difficulties in dealing with the Merchant Adventurers, including several changes in plans for the voyage and in financing, resulted in a delay of several months. The Congregation and the other colonists finally boarded the Speedwell in July 1620 in the Dutch port of Delfshaven.
The Mayflower arrived in Southampton, England, to rendezvous with the Speedwell and to pick up supplies and additional passengers. Among the passengers to join the group in Southampton were many Pilgrims including William Brewster, who had been in hiding for the better part of a year, and a group of passengers known to the Leiden congregation as "The Strangers". This group was largely made up of passengers recruited by the Merchant Adventurers to provide governance for the colony and additional hands to work for the colony's ventures. The term was also used for many of the indentured servants. Among the Strangers were Myles Standish, who would be the colony's military leader, Christopher Martin, who had been designated by the Merchant Adventurers to act as Governor for the duration of the trans-Atlantic trip, and Stephen Hopkins, a veteran of a failed colonial venture that may have been the inspiration for Shakespeare's The Tempest.
The departure of the Mayflower and Speedwell for America was beset by delays. Further disagreements with the Merchant Adventurers held up the departure in Southampton. A total of 120 passengers, 90 on the Mayflower and 30 on the Speedwell, finally departed on August 15. Leaving Southampton, the Speedwell experienced significant leakage, which required the ships to immediately put in at Dartmouth. After repairs were completed and a further delay ensued awaiting favorable winds, the two ships made it only two hundred miles beyond Land's End before another major leak in the Speedwell forced the expedition to return again to England, this time to the port of Plymouth. The Speedwell was determined to be unseaworthy; some passengers abandoned their attempt to emigrate, while others joined the Mayflower, crowding the already heavily burdened ship. Later, it was speculated that the crew of the Speedwell had intentionally sabotaged the ship to avoid having to make the treacherous trans-Atlantic voyage.
The Mayflower departed Plymouth, England on September 16, 1620 with 102 passengers and about 30 crew members in the small, 100 foot long ship. The first month in the Atlantic, the seas were not severe, but by the second month the ship was being hit by strong north-Atlantic winter gales causing the ship to be badly shaken with water leaks from structural damage. There were two deaths, but this was just a precursor of what happened after their Cape Cod arrival, when almost half the company would die in the first winter.
Prior exploration and settlements
The Pilgrims were not the first people in the area. Besides the indigenous tribes, there had been nearly a century of exploration, fishing, and settlement by Europeans. John Cabot's discovery of Newfoundland in 1497 had laid the foundation for the extensive English claims over the east coast of North America. One of the earliest maps of New England, produced c. 1540 by cartographer Giacomo Gastaldi, erroneously identified Cape Breton with the Narragansett Bay; the resulting map completely omits most of the New England coast. European fishermen had been plying the waters off the New England coast for much of the 16th and 17th centuries.
Frenchman Samuel de Champlain had explored the area extensively in 1605. He had specifically explored Plymouth Harbor, which he called "Port St. Louis", and made an extensive and detailed map of it and the surrounding lands. Patuxet, the native village upon which the town of Plymouth would soon be built, was shown by Champlain as a thriving settlement. However, in 1617–1619, before the arrival of the Mayflower, an epidemic wiped out up to 90% of the Native Americans along the Massachusetts coast, including Patuxet. Although generally thought to be smallpox, a recent analysis has concluded it may have been a lesser-known disease, leptospirosis. The absence of any serious native opposition to settlement by the Pilgrims may have been a pivotal event to their success and to English colonization in the Americas.
Popham Colony, also known as Fort St. George, was organized by the Plymouth Company (unrelated to Plymouth Colony) and founded in 1607. It was settled on the coast of Maine and was beset by internal political struggles, sickness, and weather problems. It was abandoned in 1608.
Captain John Smith of Jamestown fame had explored the area in 1614 and is credited with naming the region of New England. He named many locations using approximations of Native American words. The future site of the Pilgrim's first settlement was originally named "Accomack" by Smith. In consultation with Prince Charles, son of King James, Smith changed "Accomack" to New Plymouth. A map published in his 1616 work A Description of New England clearly shows the site of the future Pilgrim settlement as named "New Plimouth".
In the Mayflower settlers' first explorations of Cape Cod, they came across evidence that Europeans had previously spent extensive time there. They discovered remains of a European fort and uncovered a grave that contained the remains of both an adult European male and a Native American child.
Landings at Provincetown and Plymouth
The Mayflower anchored at Provincetown Harbor on November 11. The Pilgrims did not have a patent to settle this area, thus some passengers began to question their right to land; they complained that there was no legal authority to establish a colony. In response to this, a group of colonists, still aboard the ship as it lay off-shore, drafted and ratified the first governing document of the colony, the Mayflower Compact, the intent of which was to establish a means of governing the colony. Though it did little more than confirm that the colony would be governed like any English town, it did serve the purpose of relieving the concerns of many of the settlers. This social contract was written and signed by 41 Separatists. It was modeled on the church covenants Congregationalists used to form new congregations. It made clear that the colony should be governed by "just and equal laws", and those who signed it promised to keep these laws.
The group remained on board the ship through the next day, a Sunday, for prayer and worship. The immigrants finally set foot on land at what would become Provincetown on November 13. The first task was to rebuild a shallop, a shallow draft boat that had been built in England and disassembled for transport aboard the Mayflower. It would remain with the Pilgrims while the Mayflower returned to England. On November 15, Captain Myles Standish led a party of sixteen men on an exploratory mission, during which they disturbed a Native American grave and located a buried cache of Indian corn. The following week Susanna White gave birth to a son, Peregrine White, on the Mayflower. He was the first English child born to the Pilgrims in the New World. The shallop was finished on November 27, and using it, a second expedition was undertaken, under the direction of Mayflower master Christopher Jones. Thirty-four men went, but the expedition was beset by bad weather; the only positive result, was that they found a Native burial ground and disturbed it, stealing corn that had been intended for the dead. A third expedition along Cape Cod left on December 6; it resulted in a skirmish with local Native Americans known as the "First Encounter" near modern-day Eastham, Massachusetts. Having failed to secure a proper site for their settlement, and fearing that they had angered the local Native Americans by robbing their corn stores and firing upon them, the colonists decided to look elsewhere; the Mayflower left Provincetown Harbor and set sail for Plymouth Harbor.
The Mayflower dropped anchor in Plymouth Harbor on December 17 and spent three days surveying for a settlement site. They rejected several sites, including one on Clark's Island and another at the mouth of the Jones River, in favor of the site of a recently abandoned Native American settlement named Patuxet. The location was chosen largely for its defensive position; the settlement would be centered on two hills: Cole's Hill, where the village would be built, and Fort Hill, where a defensive cannon would be stationed. Also important in choosing the site, the prior Native villagers had cleared much of the land, making agriculture relatively easy. Fresh water for the colony was provided by Town Brook and Billington Sea. Although there are no contemporary accounts to verify the legend, Plymouth Rock is often hailed as the point where the colonists first set foot on their new homeland.
The area where the colonists settled had been identified as "New Plymouth" in maps by John Smith published in 1614. The colonists elected to retain the name for their own settlement—after their final point of departure from England: Plymouth, Devon.
On December 21, 1620, the first landing party arrived at the site of what would later become the settlement of Plymouth. Plans to immediately begin building houses, however, were delayed by inclement weather until December 23. As the building progressed, twenty men always remained ashore for security purposes, while the rest of the work crews returned each night to the Mayflower. Women, children, and the infirm remained on board the Mayflower; many had not left the ship for six months. The first structure, a "common house" of wattle and daub, took two weeks to complete in the harsh New England winter. In the following weeks, the rest of the settlement slowly took shape. The living and working structures were built on the relatively flat top of Cole's Hill, and a wooden platform was constructed to support the cannon that would defend the settlement from nearby Fort Hill.
During the winter, the Mayflower colonists suffered greatly from diseases like scurvy, lack of shelter and general conditions onboard ship. Many of the able-bodied men were too infirm to work; 45 out of 102 immigrants died and were buried on Cole's Hill. Thus, only seven residences (of a planned nineteen) and four common houses were constructed during the first winter. By the end of January, enough of the settlement had been built to begin unloading provisions from the Mayflower. In mid-February, after several tense encounters with local Native Americans, the male residents of the settlement organized themselves into military orders; Myles Standish was designated as the commanding officer. By the end of the month, five cannons had been defensively positioned on Fort Hill.John Carver was elected governor to replace Governor Martin.
On March 16, 1621, the first formal contact with the Native Americans occurred. A Native American named Samoset, originally from Pemaquid Point in modern Maine, walked boldly into the midst of the settlement and proclaimed, "Welcome, Englishmen!" He had learned some English from interacting with English fishermen and trappers (most probably from Bristol) operating in the region. It was during this meeting that the Pilgrims found out that the previous residents of the Native American village, Patuxet, had died of an epidemic thought to be smallpox. They also discovered that the supreme leader of the region was a Wampanoag Native American sachem (chief) by the name of Massasoit; and they learned of the existence of Squanto—also known by his full Massachusett name of Tisquantum—a Native American originally from Patuxet. Squanto had spent time in Europe and spoke English quite well. Samoset spent the night in Plymouth and agreed to arrange a meeting with some of Massasoit's men.
Massasoit and Squanto were apprehensive about the Pilgrims. In Massasoit's first contact with the English, several men of his tribe had been killed in an unprovoked attack by English sailors. He also knew of the Pilgrims' theft of the corn stores in their landings at Provincetown. Squanto had been abducted in 1614 by the English explorer Thomas Hunt and had spent five years in Europe, first as a slave for a group of Spanish monks, then in England. He had returned to New England in 1619, acting as a guide to the explorer Capt. Robert Gorges. Massasoit and his men had massacred the crew of the ship and had taken in Squanto.
Samoset returned to Plymouth on March 22 with a delegation from Massasoit that included Squanto; Massasoit joined them shortly thereafter. After an exchange of gifts, Massasoit and Governor Martin established a formal treaty of peace. This treaty ensured that each people would not bring harm to the other, that Massasoit would send his allies to make peaceful negotiations with Plymouth, and that they would come to each other's aid in a time of war.
On April 5, 1621, after being anchored for almost four months in Plymouth Harbor, the Mayflower set sail for England. Nearly half of the original 102 passengers had died during the first winter. As William Bradford wrote, "of these one hundred persons who came over in this first ship together, the greatest half died in the general mortality, and most of them in two or three months' time". By November 1621, only 53 pilgrims were alive to celebrate the harvest feast which modern Americans know as "The First Thanksgiving." Of the 18 adult women, 13 died the first winter while another died in May. Only four adult women were left alive for the Thanksgiving.
Several of the graves on Cole's Hill were uncovered in 1855; their bodies were disinterred and moved to a site near Plymouth Rock.
The autumn celebration in late 1621 that has become known as "The First Thanksgiving" was not known as such to the Pilgrims. The Pilgrims did recognize a celebration known as a "Thanksgiving", which was a solemn ceremony of praise and thanks to God for a congregation's good fortune. The first such Thanksgiving as the Pilgrims would have called it did not occur until 1623, in response to the good news of the arrival of additional colonists and supplies. That event probably occurred in July and consisted of a full day of prayer and worship and probably very little revelry.
The event now commemorated in the United States at the end of November each year is more properly termed a "harvest festival". The original festival was probably held in early October 1621 and was celebrated by the 53 surviving Pilgrims, along with Massasoit and 90 of his men. Three contemporary accounts of the event survive: Of Plymouth Plantation by William Bradford; Mourt's Relation probably written by Edward Winslow; and New England's Memorial penned by Plymouth Colony Secretary – and Bradford's nephew – Capt. Nathaniel Morton. The celebration lasted three days and featured a feast that included numerous types of waterfowl, wild turkeys and fish procured by the colonists, and five deer brought by the Native Americans.
Early relations with the Native Americans
After the departure of Massasoit and his men, Squanto remained in Plymouth to teach the Pilgrims how to survive in New England, for example using dead fish to fertilize the soil. For the first few years of colonial life, the fur trade (buying furs from Native Americans and selling to Europeans) was the dominant source of income beyond subsistence farming. Shortly after the departure of the Mayflower, Governor Carver suddenly died. William Bradford was elected to replace him and went on to lead the colony through much of its formative years.
As promised by Massasoit, numerous Native Americans arrived at Plymouth throughout the middle of 1621 with pledges of peace. On July 2, a party of Pilgrims, led by Edward Winslow (who later became the chief diplomat of the colony), set out to continue negotiations with the chief. The delegation also included Squanto, who acted as a translator. After traveling for several days, they arrived at Massasoit's capital, the village of Sowams near Narragansett Bay. After meals and an exchange of gifts, Massasoit agreed to an exclusive trading pact with the English (and thus the French, who were also frequent traders in the area, were no longer welcome). Squanto remained behind and traveled the area to establish trading relations with several tribes in the area.
In late July, a boy by the name of John Billington became lost for some time in the woods around the colony. It was reported he was found by the Nauset, the same group of Native Americans on Cape Cod from whom the Pilgrims had stolen corn seed the prior year upon their first explorations. The English organized a party to return Billington to Plymouth. The Pilgrims agreed to reimburse the Nauset for the stolen goods in return for the Billington boy. This negotiation did much to secure further peace with the Native Americans in the area.
During their dealings with the Nausets over the release of John Billington, the Pilgrims learned of troubles that Massasoit was experiencing. Massasoit, Squanto, and several other Wampanoags had been captured by Corbitant, sachem of the Narragansett tribe. A party of ten men, under the leadership of Myles Standish, set out to find and execute Corbitant. While hunting for Corbitant, they learned that Squanto had escaped and Massasoit was back in power. Several Native Americans had been injured by Standish and his men and were offered medical attention in Plymouth. Though they had failed to capture Corbitant, the show of force by Standish had garnered respect for the Pilgrims, and as a result nine of the most powerful sachems in the area, including Massasoit and Corbitant, signed a treaty in September that pledged their loyalty to King James.
In May 1622, a vessel named the Sparrow arrived carrying seven men from the Merchant Adventurers whose purpose was to seek out a site for a new settlement in the area. Two ships followed shortly thereafter carrying sixty settlers, all men. They spent July and August in Plymouth before moving north to settle in modern Weymouth, Massachusetts at a settlement they named Wessagussett. Though short-lived, the settlement of Wessagussett provided the spark for an event that would dramatically change the political landscape between the local Native American tribes and the English settlers. Responding to reports of a military threat to Wessagussett, Myles Standish organized a militia to defend Wessagussett. However, he found that there had been no attack. He therefore decided on a pre-emptive strike. In an event called "Standish's raid" by historian Nathaniel Philbrick, he lured two prominent Massachusett military leaders into a house at Wessagussett under the pretense of sharing a meal and making negotiations. Standish and his men then stabbed and killed the two unsuspecting Native Americans. The local sachem, named Obtakiest, was pursued by Standish and his men but escaped with three English prisoners from Wessagussett, whom he then executed. Within a short time, Wessagussett was disbanded, and the survivors were integrated into the town of Plymouth.
Word quickly spread among the Native American tribes of Standish's attack; many Native Americans abandoned their villages and fled the area. As noted by Philbrick: "Standish's raid had irreparably damaged the human ecology of the region...It was some time before a new equilibrium came to the region."Edward Winslow, in his 1624 memoirs Good News from New England, reports that "they forsook their houses, running to and fro like men distracted, living in swamps and other desert places, and so brought manifold diseases amongst themselves, whereof very many are dead". Lacking the trade in furs provided by the local tribes, the Pilgrims lost their main source of income for paying off their debts to the Merchant Adventurers. Rather than strengthening their position, Standish's raid had disastrous consequences for the colony, as attested William Bradford, who in a letter to the Merchant Adventurers noted "[W]e had much damaged our trade, for there where we had [the] most skins the Indians are run away from their habitations..." The only positive effect of Standish's raid seemed to be the increased power of the Massasoit-led Wampanoag, the Pilgrims' closest ally in the region.
Growth of Plymouth
In November 1621, one year after the Pilgrims first set foot in New England, a second ship sent by the Merchant Adventurers arrived. Named the Fortune, it arrived with 37 new settlers for Plymouth. However, as the ship had arrived unexpectedly, and also without many supplies, the additional settlers put a strain on the resources of the colony. Among the passengers of the Fortune were several additional people of the original Leiden congregation, including William Brewster's son Jonathan, Edward Winslow's brother John, and Philip Delano (the family name was earlier "de la Noye") whose descendants include President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The Fortune also carried a letter from the Merchant Adventurers chastising the colony for failure to return goods with the Mayflower that had been promised in return for their support. The Fortune began its return to England laden with £500 worth of goods (£82.8 thousand as of 2010, or $126 thousand at PPP), more than enough to keep the colonists on schedule for repayment of their debt, however the Fortune was captured by the French before she could deliver her cargo to England, creating an even larger deficit for the colony.
In July 1623, two more ships arrived named the Ann, under the command of Captain Anthony Dike, and the Little James  ten days later, carrying 96 new settlers, among them Leideners, including William Bradford's future wife, Alice. Some of the passengers who arrived on the Ann were either unprepared for frontier life or undesirable additions to the colony and returned to England the next year. According to Gleason Archer, (With Axe and Musket at Plymouth. New York: The American Historical Society, Inc., 1936.) "those who remained were not willing to join the colony under the terms of the agreement with the Merchand Adventureres. They had embarked for America upon an understanding with the Adventurers that they might settle in a community of their own, or at least be free from the bonds by which the Plymouth colonists were enslaved. A letter addressed to the colonists and signed by thirteen of the merchants recited these facts and urged acceptance of the new comers on the specified terms." The new arrivals were alloted land in the area of the Eel River, known as Hobs Hole, which became Wellingsley, a mile south of Plymouth Rock.
In September 1623, another ship carrying settlers destined to refound the failed colony at Weymouth arrived and temporarily stayed at Plymouth. In March 1624, a ship bearing a few additional settlers and the first cattle arrived. A 1627 division of cattle lists 156 colonists divided into twelve lots of thirteen colonists each. Another ship also named the Mayflower arrived in August 1629 with 35 additional members of the Leiden congregation. Ships arrived throughout the period between 1629 and 1630 carrying new settlers; though the exact number is unknown, contemporary documents claimed that by January 1630 the colony had almost 300 people. In 1643 the colony had an estimated 600 males fit for military service, implying a total population of about 2,000. By 1690, on the eve of the dissolution of the colony, the estimated total population of Plymouth County, the most populous, was 3,055 people. It is estimated that the entire population of the colony at the point of its dissolution was around 7,000. For comparison it is estimated that between 1630 and 1640, a period known as the Great Migration, over 20,000 settlers had arrived in Massachusetts Bay Colony alone, and by 1678 the English population of all of New England was estimated to be in the range of 60,000. Despite the fact that Plymouth was the first colony in the region, by the time of its annexation it was much smaller than Massachusetts Bay Colony.
From the beginning, Myles Standish was the military leader of Plymouth Colony. He organized and led the first party to set foot in New England, an exploratory expedition of Cape Cod upon arrival in Provincetown Harbor. On the third expedition, which he also led, Standish fired the first recorded shot by the Pilgrim settlers, in an event known as the First Encounter. When they finally arrived at Plymouth, it was Standish, with training in military engineering from the University of Leiden, who decided the defensive layout of the settlement. Standish also organized the able-bodied men into military orders in February of the first winter. During the second winter, he helped design and organize the construction of a large palisade wall surrounding the settlement. Standish led two early military raids on Indian villages: the unsuccessful raid to find and punish Corbitant for his attempted coup, and the brutal massacre at Wessagussett called "Standish's raid". The former had the desired effect of gaining the respect of the local Indians; the latter only served to frighten and scatter them, resulting in loss of trade and income.
The first major war in New England was the Pequot War of 1637. The war's roots go back to 1632, when a dispute over control of the Connecticut River Valley near modern Hartford, Connecticut arose between Dutch fur traders and Plymouth officials. Representatives from the Dutch East India Company and Plymouth Colony both had deeds that claimed they had rightfully purchased the land from the Pequot. A sort of land rush occurred as settlers from Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies tried to beat the Dutch in settling the area; the influx of English settlers also threatened the Pequot. Other confederations in the area, including the Narragansett and Mohegan, were the traditional enemies of the Pequot and sided with the English. The event that sparked the start of formal hostilities was the capture of a boat and the murder of its captain, John Oldham, in 1636, an event blamed on allies of the Pequots. In April 1637, a raid on a Pequot village by John Endicott led to a retaliatory raid by Pequot warriors on the town of Wethersfield, Connecticut where some 30 English settlers were killed. This led to a further retaliation, where a raid led by Captain John Underhill and Captain John Mason burned a Pequot village to the ground near modern Mystic, Connecticut, killing 300 Pequots. Plymouth Colony had little to do with the actual fighting in the war.
When it appeared the war would resume, four of the New England colonies (Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, New Haven, and Plymouth) formed a defensive compact known as the United Colonies of New England. Edward Winslow, already known for his diplomatic skills, was the chief architect of the United Colonies. His experience in the United Provinces of the Netherlands during the Leiden years was key to organizing the confederation. John Adams later considered the United Colonies to be the prototype for the Articles of Confederation, which was the first attempt at a national government.
King Philip's War
Also known as Metacomet and other variations on that name, King Philip was the younger son of Massasoit, and the heir of Massasoit's position as sachem of the Pokanoket and supreme leader of the Wampanoag. He became sachem upon the sudden death of his older brother Wamsutta, also known as Alexander, in 1662.
The cause of the war stems from the increasing numbers of English colonists and their demand for land. As more land was purchased from the Native Americans, they were restricted to smaller territories for themselves. Native American leaders such as King Philip resented the loss of land and looked for a means to slow or reverse it. Of specific concern was the founding of the town of Swansea, which was located only a few miles from the Wampanoag capital at Mount Hope. The General Court of Plymouth began using military force to coerce the sale of Wampanoag land to the settlers of the town.
The proximate cause of the conflict was the death of a Praying Indian named John Sassamon in 1675. Sassamon had been an advisor and friend to King Philip; however Sassamon's conversion to Christianity had driven the two apart. Accused in the murder of Sassamon were some of Philip's most senior lieutenants. A jury of twelve Englishmen and six Praying Indians found the Native Americans guilty of murder and sentenced them to death. To this day, some debate exists whether King Philip's men actually committed the murder.
Philip had already begun war preparations at his home base near Mount Hope where he started raiding English farms and pillaging their property. In response, Governor Josiah Winslow called out the militia, and they organized and began to move on Philip's position. King Philip's men attacked unarmed women and children in order to receive a ransom. One such attack resulted in the capture of Mary Rowlandson. The memoirs of her capture provided historians with much information on Native American culture during this time period.
The war continued through the rest of 1675 and into the next year. The English were constantly frustrated by the Native Americans' refusal to meet them in pitched battle. They employed a form of guerilla warfare that confounded the English. Captain Benjamin Church continuously campaigned to enlist the help of friendly Native Americans to help learn how to fight on an even footing with Philip's troops, but he was constantly rebuffed by the Plymouth leadership who mistrusted all Native Americans, thinking them potential enemies. Eventually, Governor Winslow and Plymouth military commander Major William Bradford (son of the late Governor William Bradford) relented and gave Church permission to organize a combined force of English and Native Americans. After securing the alliance of the Sakonnet, he led his combined force in pursuit of Philip, who had thus far avoided any major battles in the war that bears his name. Throughout July 1676, Church's band would capture hundreds of Native American troops, often without much of a fight, though Philip eluded him. After Church was given permission to grant amnesty to any captured Native Americans who would agree to join the English side, his force grew immensely. Philip was killed by a Pocasset Indian; the war soon ended as an overwhelming English victory.
Eight percent of the English adult male population is estimated to have died during the war, a rather large percentage by most standards. The impact on the Native Americans was far higher, however. So many were killed, fled, or shipped off as slaves that the entire Native American population of New England fell by sixty to eighty percent.
In 1686, the entire region was reorganized under a single government known as the Dominion of New England; this included the colonies of Plymouth, Rhode Island, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New Hampshire. In 1688 New York, West Jersey, and East Jersey were added. The President of the Dominion, Edmund Andros, was highly unpopular, and the union did not last. The union was dissolved after news of the Glorious Revolution reached Boston in April 1689, and the citizens of Boston rose up and arrested Andros. When news of these events reached Plymouth, its magistrates reclaimed power.
The return of self-rule for Plymouth Colony was short-lived, however. A delegation of New Englanders, led by Increase Mather, went to England to negotiate for a return of the colonial charters that had been nullified during the Dominion years. The situation was particularly problematic for Plymouth Colony, as it had existed without a formal charter since its founding. Plymouth did not get their wish for a formal charter; instead a new charter was issued, combining Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony, and other territories. The official date of the proclamation ending the existence of Plymouth Colony was October 17, 1691, though it was not put into force until the arrival of the charter of the Province of Massachusetts Bay on May 14, 1692, carried by the new royal governor, Sir William Phips. The last official meeting of the Plymouth General Court occurred on June 8, 1692.
The most important religious figure in the colony was John Robinson, an original pastor of the Scrooby congregation and religious leader of the separatists throughout the Leiden years. Though he never actually set foot in New England, many of his theological pronouncements shaped the nature and character of the Plymouth church. For example, Robinson stated that women and men have different social roles according to the law of nature, though neither was lesser in the eyes of God. Robinson taught that men and women have distinct but complementary roles in church, home and society as a whole. He referred to women as the "weaker vessel". In matters of religious understanding, he proclaimed that it was the man's role to educate and "guide and go before" women. He also noted that women should be "subject" to their husbands. Robinson also dictated the proper methods of child rearing—he prescribed a strict upbringing with a strong emphasis on corporal punishment. He believed that a child's natural inclination towards independence was a manifestation of original sin and should thus be repressed.
The Pilgrims themselves were a subset of an English religious movement known as Puritanism, which sought to "purify" the Anglican Church of its "Catholic" trappings. The movement sought to return the church to its original state and to practice Christianity as was done in the times of the Apostles. Following Martin Luther's and John Calvin's Reformation, Puritans believed that the Bible was the only true source of religious teaching and that any additions made to Christianity, especially with regard to church traditions, e.g. the use of Latin in church services and clerical vestments, had no place in Christian practice. In particular, they were strongly opposed to the Anglicans' episcopal form of church government. They believed that the church was a community of Christians who made a covenant with God and with one another. Their congregations had a democratic structure. Ministers, teachers, and lay church elders were elected by and responsible to the entire congregation (Calvinist Federalism). Each congregation was independent of all the others and directly subject to God's (or Christ's) government (theocracy), hence the name Congregationalism. The Pilgrims distinguished themselves from the Puritans in that they sought to "separate" themselves from the Anglican Church, rather than reform it from within. It was this desire to worship from outside of the Anglican Communion that led them first to the Netherlands and ultimately to New England.
Each town in the colony was considered a single church congregation; in later years some of the larger towns split into two or three congregations. While church attendance was mandatory for all residents of the colony, church membership was restricted to those who received God's grace through personal conversion. In Plymouth Colony, it seems that a simple profession of faith was all that was required for acceptance. This was a more liberal doctrine than some other New England congregations, such as those of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, where it was common to subject those seeking formal membership to strict and detailed cross-examinations. There was no central governing body for the churches. Each individual congregation was left to determine its own standards of membership, hire its own ministers, and conduct its own business.
The church was undoubtedly the most important social institution in the colony. Not only was the Bible the primary religious document of the society, but it also served as the primary legal document as well. Church attendance was not only mandatory, but membership was socially vital. Education was carried out for almost purely religious purposes. The laws of the colony specifically asked parents to provide for the education of their children, to "at least to be able duly to read the Scriptures" and to understand "the main Grounds and Principles of Christian Religion." It was expected that the male head of the household be responsible for the religious well-being of all its members, children and servants alike.
Most churches used two acts to sanction its members: censure and excommunication. Censure was a formal reprimand for behavior that did not conform with accepted religious and social norms, while excommunication involved full removal from church membership. Many perceived social evils, from fornication to public drunkenness, were dealt with through church discipline rather than through civil punishment. Church sanctions seldom held official recognition outside church membership and seldom resulted in civil or criminal proceedings. Nevertheless, such sanctions were a powerful tool of social control.
Marriage was considered a civil, rather than religious ceremony. Such an arrangement may have been a habit that had developed during the Leiden years, as civil marriage was common in the Netherlands. However, the Pilgrims saw this arrangement as biblical, there being no evidence from Scripture that a minister should preside over a wedding.
Besides the theology espoused by their religious leaders, the people of Plymouth Colony had a strong belief in the supernatural. Richard Greenham, a Puritan theologian whose works were known to the Plymouth residents, counseled extensively against turning to magic or wizardry to solve problems. The Pilgrims saw Satan's work in nearly every calamity that befell them; the dark magical arts were very real and present for them. They believed in the presence of malevolent spirits who brought misfortune to people. For example, in 1660, a court inquest into the drowning death of Jeremiah Burroughs determined that a possessed canoe was to blame. While Massachusetts Bay Colony experienced an outbreak of witchcraft scares in the 17th century, there is little evidence that Plymouth was engulfed in anything similar. While witchcraft was listed as a capital crime in the 1636 codification of the laws by the Plymouth General Court, there were no actual convictions of witches in Plymouth Colony. The court records only show two formal accusations of witchcraft. The first, of Goodwife Holmes in 1661, never went to trial. The second, of Mary Ingram in 1677, resulted in trial and acquittal.
Marriage and family life
Edward Winslow and Susanna White, each of whom lost their spouses during the harsh winter of 1620–1621, became the first couple to be married in Plymouth. Governor Bradford presided over the civil ceremony.
Marriage was considered the normal state for all adult residents of the colony. Most men first married in their mid-twenties and women around age 20. Second marriages were not uncommon, and widows and widowers faced social and economic pressures to remarry. On average, most widows and widowers remarried within six months to a year. As most adults who reached marriageable age often lived into their sixties, two-thirds of a person's life was spent married.
Within the confines of marriage, women and men were not considered equal from either a legal or social standpoint. Compared to 17th century European norms, women in Plymouth Colony had more extensive legal and social rights. From the perspective of the Church, women were considered equal to men before God. The entire family worshipped together and God's grace was available equally to all professed Christians. Women were, however, expected to take traditionally feminine roles, such as child-rearing and maintaining the household, in Puritan families.
Unlike in Europe, where women had few rights, Plymouth women enjoyed extensive property and legal rights. Widows in Plymouth could not be legally "written out" of her husband's will and were guaranteed a full third of the family's property upon his death. Women were parties to contracts in Plymouth; most notably prenuptial agreements. It was common for brides-to-be (and not, notably, their fathers) to enter into contractual agreements on the consolidation of property upon marriage. In some cases, especially in second marriages, women were given exclusive right to retain control of their property separately from their husbands. Women were also known to occasionally sit on juries in Plymouth, a remarkable circumstance in seventeenth century legal practice. Historians James and Patricia Scott Deetz cite a 1678 inquest into the death of Anne Batson's child, where the jury was composed of five women and seven men.
Family size in the colony was large by modern American standards, though childbirth was often spaced out, with an average of two years between children. Most families averaged five to six children living under the same roof, though it would not be uncommon for one family to have grown children moving out before the mother had finished giving birth. Mortality rates were high for both mother and child; one birth in thirty resulted in the death of the mother, resulting in one in five women dying in childbirth.Infant mortality rates were high, with 12% of children dying before their first birthday. By comparison, the infant mortality rate for the United States in 1995 was 0.76%.
The nuclear family was the most common familial structure in the colony, and while close relatives may have lived nearby, it was expected that upon reaching the age of maturity, older children would move out and establish their own households. In addition to parents and birth children living in the same household, many families took in children from other families or hired indentured servants. Some of the more wealthy families owned slaves.
Childhood, adolescence and education
Children generally remained in the direct care of their mothers until the age of about eight years old, after which time it was not uncommon for the child to be placed in the foster care of another family. There were any number of reasons for a child to be "put-out" in this manner. Some children were placed into households to learn a trade, others to be taught to read and write. It seems that there was, as with almost every decision in the colony, a theological reason for fostering children. It was assumed that a child's own parents would love them too much and would not properly discipline them. By placing a child in the care of another family, there was little danger of a child being spoiled.
Adolescence was not a recognized phase of life in Plymouth colony, and there was not a single rite of passage that marked transition from youth to adulthood. Several important transitions occurred at various ages, but none marked a single "coming of age" event. As early as eight years old, children were expected to begin learning their adult roles in life, by taking on some of the family work or by being placed in foster homes to learn a trade. Most children experienced religious conversion around the age of eight as well, thus becoming church members. Orphaned children were given the right to choose their own guardians at age 14. At 16, males became eligible for military duty and were also considered adults for legal purposes, such as standing trial for crimes. Age 21 was the youngest at which a male could become a freeman, though for practical purposes this occurred sometime in a man's mid-twenties. Though 21 was the assumed age of inheritance as well, the law respected the rights of the deceased to name an earlier age in his will.
Actual schools were rare in Plymouth colony. The first true school was not founded until 40 years after the foundation of the colony. The General Court first authorized colony-wide funding for formal public schooling in 1673, but only one town, Plymouth, made use of these funds at that time. By 1683, though, five additional towns had received this funding.
Education of the young was never considered to be the primary domain of schools, even after they had become more common. Most education was carried out by a child's parents or foster parents. While formal apprenticeships were not the norm in Plymouth, it was expected that a foster family would teach the children whatever trades they themselves practiced. The church also played a central role in a child's education. As noted above, the primary purpose of teaching a child to read was so that they could read the Bible for themselves.
Government and laws
Plymouth Colony did not have a royal charter authorizing it to form a government. Still, some means of governance was needed; the Mayflower Compact, signed by the 41 able-bodied Separatists aboard the Mayflower upon their arrival in Provincetown Harbor on November 21, 1620, was the colony's first governing document. Formal laws were not codified until 1636. The colony's laws were based on a hybrid of English common law and religious law as laid out in the Bible. Deeply influenced by Calvinist theology, the colonial authorities were convinced that democracy was the form of government mandated by God.
The colony offered nearly all adult males potential citizenship in the colony. Full citizens, or "freemen," were accorded full rights and privileges in areas such as voting and holding office. To be considered a freeman, adult males had to be sponsored by an existing freeman and accepted by the General Court. Later restrictions established a one-year waiting period between nominating and granting of freeman status and also placed religious restrictions on the colony's citizens, specifically preventing Quakers from becoming freemen. Freeman status was also restricted by age; while the official minimum age was 21, in practice most men were elevated to freeman status between the ages of 25 and 40, averaging somewhere in their early thirties.
|Governors of Plymouth Colony|
The colony's most powerful executive was its Governor, who was originally elected by the freemen, but was later appointed by the General Court in an annual election. The General Court also elected seven "Assistants" to form a cabinet to assist the governor. The Governor and Assistants then appointed "Constables" who served as the chief administrators for the towns and "Messengers" who were the main civil servants of the colony. They were responsible for publishing announcements, performing land surveys, carrying out executions, and a host of other duties.
The General Court was both the chief legislative and judicial body of the colony. It was elected by the freemen from among their own number and met regularly in Plymouth, the capital town of the colony. As part of its judicial duties, it would periodically call a "Grand Enquest", which was a grand jury of sorts, elected from the freemen, who would hear complaints and swear out indictments for credible accusations. The General Court, and later lesser town and county courts, would preside over trials of accused criminals and over civil matters, but the ultimate decisions were made by a jury of freemen. The General Court as both the legislative and judicial body and the Governor as the chief executive of the colony constituted a political system of division of power. It followed a recommendation in John Calvin's political theory to set up several institutions which complement and control each other in a system of checks and balances in order to avoid, or at least to minimize, the misuse of political power. In 1625 the settlers had repaid their debts and thus gained complete possession of the colony. As neither an English company nor the King or Parliament exerted any influence, the colony was de facto a republic, a representative, identitary democracy governed on the principles of the Mayflower Compact ("self-rule").
As a legislative body, the General Court could make proclamations of law as needed. In the early years of the colony, these laws were not formally compiled anywhere. In 1636 these laws were first organized and published in the 1636 Book of Laws. The book was reissued in 1658, 1672, and 1685. Among these laws included the levying of "rates", or taxes, and the distribution of colony lands. The General Court established townships as a means of providing local government over settlements, but reserved for itself the right to control specific distribution of land to individuals within those towns. When new land was granted to a freeman, it was directed that only the person to whom the land was granted was allowed to settle it. It was forbidden for individual settlers to purchase land from Native Americans without formal permission from the General Court. The government recognized the precarious peace that existed with the Wampanoag, and wished to avoid antagonizing them by buying up all of their land.
The laws also set out crimes and their associated punishment. There were several crimes that mandated the death penalty: treason, murder, witchcraft, arson, sodomy, rape, bestiality, adultery, and cursing or smiting one's parents. The actual exercise of the death penalty was fairly rare; only one sex-related crime, a 1642 incidence of bestiality by Thomas Granger, resulted in execution. One person, Edward Bumpus, was sentenced to death for "striking and abusing his parents" in 1679, but his sentence was commuted to a severe whipping by reason of insanity. Perhaps the most notable use of the death penalty was in the execution of the Native Americans convicted of the murder of John Sassamon; this helped lead to King Philip's War. Though nominally a capital crime, adultery was usually dealt with by public humiliation only. Convicted adulterers were often forced to wear the letters "A.D." sewn into their garments, much in the manner of Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel The Scarlet Letter.
Several laws dealt with indentured servitude, a legal status whereby a person would work off debts or be given training in exchange for a period of unrecompensed service. The law required that all indentured servants had to be registered by the Governor or one of the Assistants, and that no period of indenture could be less than six months. Further laws forbade a master from shortening the length of time of service required for his servant, and also confirmed that any indentured servants whose period of service began in England would still be required to complete their service while in Plymouth.
Still used by the town of Plymouth, the seal of the Plymouth Colony was designed in 1629. It depicts four figures within a shield bearing St George's Cross, apparently in Native-American style clothing, each carrying the burning heart symbol of John Calvin. The seal was also used by the County of Plymouth until 1931.
Without a clear land patent for the area, the settlers settled without a charter to form a government, and as a result, it was often unclear in the early years what land was under the colony's jurisdiction. In 1644, "The Old Colony Line"—which had been surveyed in 1639—was formally accepted as the boundary between Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth.
The situation was more complicated along the border with Rhode Island. Roger Williams in 1636 settled in the area of Rehoboth, near modern Pawtucket. He was forcibly evicted in order to maintain Plymouth's claim to the area. Williams would move to the west side of the Pawtucket River to found the settlement of Providence, the nucleus for the colony of Rhode Island, which was formally established with the "Providence Plantations Patent" of 1644. As various settlers from both Rhode Island and Plymouth began to settle along the area, the exact nature of the western boundary of Plymouth became more unclear. The issue was not fully resolved until the 1740s, long after the dissolution of Plymouth Colony itself. Rhode Island had received a patent for the area in 1693, which had been disputed by Massachusetts Bay Colony. Rhode Island successfully defended the patent, and in 1746, a royal decree transferred the land along the eastern shore of the Narragansett Bay to Rhode Island, including the mainland portion of Newport County and all of modern Bristol County, Rhode Island. The border itself would still be contested by Massachusetts, first as a colony and later as a state until as late as 1898, when the boundary was settled and ratified by both states.
Counties and towns
For most of its history, the town was the primary administrative unit and political division of the colony. Plymouth Colony was not formally divided into counties until June 2, 1685, during the reorganization that would lead to the formation of the Dominion of New England. Three counties were formed, composed of the following towns:
- Barnstable, the shire town (county seat) of the county, first settled in 1639 and incorporated 1650.
- Eastham, site of the "First Encounter", first settled 1644 and incorporated as the town of Nauset in 1646, name changed to Eastham in 1651.
- Falmouth, first settled in 1661, and incorporated as Succonesset in 1686.
- Rochester, settled 1638, incorporated 1686.
- Sandwich, first settled in 1637 and incorporated in 1639.
- Yarmouth, incorporated 1639.
- Taunton, the shire town of the county, incorporated 1639.
- Bristol, incorporated 1680 and included the former locations of Sowams and Montaup (Mount Hope), which were Massasoit's and King Philip's capitals, respectively. Ceded to Rhode Island in 1746 and is now part of Bristol County, Rhode Island.
- Dartmouth, incorporated 1664. Dartmouth was the site of a significant massacre by the Indian forces during King Philip's War. It was also the location of a surrender of a group of some 160 of Philip's forces who were later sold into slavery.
- Freetown, incorporated 1683, originally known as "Freemen's Land" by its first settlers.
- Little Compton, incorporated as Sakonnet in 1682, ceded to Rhode Island in 1746 and is now part of Newport County, Rhode Island.
- Rehoboth, first settled 1644 and incorporated 1645. Nearby to, but distinct from the Rehoboth settlement of Roger Williams, which is now the town of Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
- Swansea, founded as the township of Wannamoiset in 1667, incorporated as town of Swansea in 1668. It was here that the first English casualty of King Philip's War occurred.
- Plymouth, the shire town of the county and capital of the colony. This was the original 1620 settlement of the Mayflower Pilgrims, and continued as the largest and most significant settlement in the colony until its dissolution in 1691.
- Bridgewater, purchased from Massasoit by Myles Standish, and originally named Duxburrow New Plantation, it was incorporated as Bridgewater in 1656.
- Duxbury, founded by Myles Standish, it was incorporated in 1637. Other notable residents of Duxbury included John Alden, William Brewster, and Governor Thomas Prence.
- Marshfield, settled 1632, incorporated 1640. Home to Governor Edward Winslow. Also home to Josiah Winslow, who was governor of the colony during King Philip's War, and to Peregrine White, the first English child born in New England.
- Middleborough, incorporated 1669 as Middleberry. Named for its location as the halfway point on the journey from Plymouth to Mount Hope, the Wampanoag capital.
- Scituate, settled 1628 and incorporated 1636. The town was the site of a major attack by King Philip's forces in 1676.
The English in Plymouth Colony fit broadly into three categories: Pilgrims, Strangers, Particulars. The Pilgrims, like the Puritans that would later found Massachusetts Bay Colony to the north, were a Protestant group that closely followed the teachings of John Calvin. However, unlike the Puritans, who wished to reform the Anglican church from within, the Pilgrims saw it as a morally defunct organization, and sought to remove themselves from it.The name "Pilgrims" was actually not used by the separatists themselves. Though William Bradford used the term "pilgrims" to describe the group, he was using the term generically, to define the group as travelers on a religious mission. The term used by those we now call the Pilgrims was the "Saints", the "First Comers", "The Ancient Brethren" or "The Ancient Men". They used such terms to indicate their special place among God's elect, as they subscribed to the Calvinist belief in predestination. "The First Comers" was a term more loosely used, in their day, to refer to any of the Mayflower passengers.
There were also a number of indentured servants among the colonists. Indentured servants were mostly poor children whose families were receiving church relief and many homeless waifs from the streets of London sent as laborers.
Besides the Pilgrims, or "Saints", the rest of the Mayflower settlers were known as the "Strangers". This group included the non-Pilgrim settlers placed on the Mayflower by the Merchant Adventurers, and later settlers who would come for other reasons throughout the history of the colony and who did not necessarily adhere to the Pilgrim religious ideals. A third group, known as the "Particulars", consisted of a group of later settlers that paid their own "particular" way to America, and thus were not obliged to pay the colony's debts.
The presence of outsiders such as the Strangers and the Particulars was a considerable annoyance to the Pilgrims. As early as 1623, a conflict between the Pilgrims and the Strangers broke out over the celebration of Christmas, a day of no particular significance to the Pilgrims. Furthermore, when a group of Strangers founded the nearby settlement of Wessagussett, the Pilgrims were highly strained, both emotionally and in terms of resources, by their lack of discipline. They looked at the eventual failure of the Wessagussett settlement as Divine Providence against a sinful people.
The residents of Plymouth used terms to distinguish between the earliest settlers of the colony and those that came later. The first generation of settlers, generally thought to be those that arrived before 1627, called themselves the "Old Comers" or "Planters". Later generations of Plymouth residents would refer to this group as the "Forefathers".
A fairly comprehensive demographic study was done by historian John Demos for his seminal 1970 work on the Pilgrims, A Little Commonwealth. He reports that the colony's average household grew from 7.8 children per family for first-generation families, to 8.6 children for second-generation families, and to 9.3 for third-generation families. Child mortality also decreased over this time, with 7.2 children born to first-generation families living until their 21st birthday. That number increased to 7.9 children by the third generation. Life expectancy was higher for men than for women. Of the men who survived until the age of 21, the average life expectancy was 69.2 years. Over 55 percent of these men lived past 70, less than 15 percent died before the age of 50. For women, the numbers are much lower, owing to the difficulties inherent in childbearing. The average life expectancy of women at the age of 21 was only 62.4 years. Of these women, less than 45 percent lived past 70, and about 30 percent died before the age of 50.
During King Philip's War; Plymouth Colony alone lost eight percent of its adult male population. By the end of the war, one-third of New England's approximately 100 towns had been burned and abandoned. This represented a sizable demographic effect on the English population of New England.
The Native Americans in New England were organized into loose tribal confederations, sometimes called "nations". Among these confederations were the Nipmucks, the Massachusett, the Narragansett, the Niantics, the Mohegan, and the Wampanoag. Several significant events would dramatically alter the demographics of the Native American population in the region. The first was "Standish's raid" on Wessagussett, which frightened Native American leaders to the extent that many abandoned their settlements, resulting in many deaths through starvation and disease. The second, the Pequot War, resulted in the dissolution of its namesake tribe and a major shift in the local power structure. The third, King Philip's War, had the most dramatic effect on local populations, resulting in the death or displacement of as much as 80% of the total number of Native Americans of southern New England and the enslavement and removal of thousands of Native Americans to the Caribbean and other locales.
Some of the wealthier families in Plymouth Colony owned black slaves, which unlike the white indentured servants, were considered the property of their owners and passed on to heirs like any other property. Slave ownership was not widespread and very few families possessed the wealth necessary to own slaves. In 1674, the inventory of Capt. Thomas Willet of Marshfield includes "8 Negroes" at a value of £200. Other inventories of the time also valued slaves at £24–25 each (£2.83 thousand as of 2010, or $4,300 at PPP), well out of the financial ability of most families. A 1689 census of the town of Bristol shows that of the 70 families that lived there, only one had a black slave. So few were black slaves in the colony that the General Court never saw fit to pass any laws dealing with them.
The largest source of wealth for Plymouth Colony was the fur trade. The disruption of this trade caused by Myles Standish's raid at Wessagussett created great hardship for the colonists for many years to come, and was directly cited by William Bradford as a contributing factor to the colonists' economic difficulties in their early years. The colonists attempted to supplement their income by fishing; the waters in Cape Cod bay were known to be excellent fisheries. However, they lacked any skill in this area, and it did little to relieve their economic hardship. The colony traded throughout the region, establishing trading posts as far away as Penobscot, Maine. They were also frequent trading partners with the Dutch at New Amsterdam.
The economic situation improved with the arrival of cattle in the colony. It is unknown when the first cattle arrived, but the division of land for the grazing of cattle in 1627 represented one of the first moves towards private land ownership in the colony. Cattle became an important source of wealth in the colony; the average cow could sell for £28 in 1638 (£3,000 as of 2010, or $4,600 at PPP). However, the flood of immigrants during the Great Migration drove the price of cattle down. The same cows sold at £28 in 1638 were valued in 1640 at only £5 (£700.00 as of 2010, or $1,060 at PPP). Besides cattle, there were also pigs, sheep, and goats raised in the colony.
Agriculture also made up an important part of the Plymouth economy. The colonists adopted Native American agricultural practices and crops. They planted maize, squash, pumpkins, beans, and potatoes. Besides the crops themselves, the Pilgrims learned productive farming techniques from the Native Americans, such as proper crop rotation and the use of dead fish to fertilize the soil. In addition to these native crops, the colonists also successfully planted Old World crops such as turnips, carrots, peas, wheat, barley, and oats.
Overall, there was very little cash in Plymouth Colony, so most wealth was accumulated in the form of possessions. Since trade goods such as furs, fish, and livestock were subject to fluctuations in price, they were unreliable repositories of wealth. Durable goods such as fine wares, clothes, and furnishings represented an important source of economic stability for the residents.
Despite its short history, fewer than 72 years, the events surrounding the founding and history of Plymouth Colony have had a lasting effect on the art, traditions, mythology, and politics of the United States of America.
Art, literature and film
The earliest artistic depiction of the Pilgrims was actually done before their arrival in America—Dutch painter Adam Willaerts painted a portrait of their departure from Delfshaven in 1620. The same scene was repainted by Robert Walter Weir in 1844, and hangs in the Rotunda of the United States Capitol building. Numerous other paintings have been created memorializing various scenes from the life of Plymouth Colony, including their landing and the "First Thanksgiving", many of which have been collected by Pilgrim Hall, a museum and historical society founded in 1824 to preserve the history of the Colony.
Several contemporary accounts of life in Plymouth Colony have become both vital primary historical documents and literary classics. Of Plimoth Plantation by William Bradford and Mourt's Relation by Bradford, Edward Winslow, and others are both accounts written by Mayflower passengers, accounts that provide much of the information we have today regarding the trans-Atlantic voyage and early years of the settlement. Benjamin Church wrote several accounts of King Philip's War, including Entertaining Passages Relating to Philip's War, which remained popular throughout the 18th century. An edition of the work was illustrated by Paul Revere in 1772. Another work, The Sovereignty and Goodness of God, provides an account of King Philip's War from the perspective of Mary Rowlandson, an Englishwoman who was captured and spent some time in the company of Native Americans during the war. Later works, such as "The Courtship of Miles Standish" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, have provided a romantic and partially fictionalized account of life in Plymouth Colony.
There are also numerous films about the Pilgrims, including the several versions of "The Courtship of Miles Standish", the 1952 film Plymouth Adventure starring Spencer Tracy, and the 2006 TV documentary, produced by the History Channel, "Desperate Crossings: The True Story of the Mayflower".
Each year the United States celebrates a holiday known as Thanksgiving on the fourth Thursday of November. It is a recognized federal holiday, and frequently involves family gathering with a large feast, traditionally featuring a turkey. Civic recognition of the holiday typically include parades and football games. The holiday is meant to honor the "First Thanksgiving", which was a harvest feast held in Plymouth in 1621, first recorded in the book New England's Memorial, written by Nathaniel Morton, secretary of Plymouth Colony and nephew of Governor William Bradford.
The annual Thanksgiving holiday is a fairly recent creation. Throughout the early 19th century, the U.S. government had declared a particular day as a national day of Thanksgiving, but these were one-time declarations meant to celebrate a significant event, such as victory in a battle. Shortly after the end of the War of 1812, the northeastern states began adopting an annual day of Thanksgiving in November. Beginning in 1827, Sarah Josepha Hale, editor of Boston's Ladies' Magazine, wrote editorials calling for the nationwide expansion of this annual day of thanksgiving to commemorate the Pilgrim's first harvest feast. After nearly 40 years, in 1863, Abraham Lincoln declared the first modern Thanksgiving to fall on the last Thursday in November. Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Congress ultimately moved it to the fourth Thursday in November. After some sparring as to the date, the holiday was recognized by Congress as an official federal holiday in 1941.
Among the modern traditions to develop alongside of the Thanksgiving holiday include the National Football League's Thanksgiving Classic games and the annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City.
One of the enduring symbols of the landing of the Pilgrims is Plymouth Rock, a large granodiorite boulder that was near their landing site at Plymouth. However, none of the contemporary accounts of the actual landing makes any mention that the Rock was the specific place of landing. The Pilgrims chose the site for their landing not for the rock, but for a small brook nearby that was a source of fresh water and fish.
The first identification of Plymouth Rock as the actual landing site was in 1741 by 90-year-old Thomas Faunce, whose father had arrived in Plymouth in 1623, three years after the supposed event. The rock was later covered by a solid-fill pier. In 1774, an attempt was made to excavate the rock, but it broke in two. The severed piece was placed in the Town Square at the center of Plymouth. In 1880, the intact half of the rock was excavated from the pier, and the broken piece was reattached to it. Over the years, souvenir hunters have removed chunks from the rock, but the remains are now protected as part of the complex of living museums. These include the Mayflower II, a recreation of the original ship, Plimoth Plantation, a historical recreation of the original 1620 settlement, and the Wampanoag Homesite, which recreates a 17th-century Indian village.
The democratic setup of Plymouth Colony had strong influences on the shaping of democracy in both England and America. William Bradford's History of Plimoth Plantation was widely read in the motherland. It influenced the political thought of Presbyterian politician and poet John Milton, assistant to Oliver Cromwell, and philosopher John Locke. For example, Locke referred to the Mayflower Compact in his Letters Concerning Toleration. In America, Plymouth Colony initiated a democratic tradition that was soon followed by Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628), Connecticut (1636), Rhode Island (1636), New Jersey, and Pennsylvania (1681). In the latter four colonies, founded by Thomas Hooker, Roger Williams, and William Penn, respectively, religious freedom was added to democratic constitutions. These territories became safe havens for persecuted religious minorities. There were strong links between 17th-century Puritanism and the political ideas of the 18th century. On the one hand, there was the congregational democracy practiced now by all Protestant churches, including to a large extent the Anglicans. On the other hand, most of the political concepts of the generation that carried out the Revolution were taken over from the radical Whig party in England (Commonwealthmen), which fed on the liberal political theories of Milton, Locke, and other writers. As children the Revolutionaries had experienced the Great Awakening (c. 1740). In the words of Historian Robert Middlekauff: "The Awakening recalled a generation to the standards of reformed Protestantism, which had prevailed at the time of the founding of America. (...) Radical Whig perceptions of politics attracted widespread support in America because they revived the traditional concerns of a Protestant culture that had always verged on Puritanism. That moral decay threatened free government could not come as a surprise to a people whose fathers had fled England to escape sin. The importance of virtue, frugality, industry, and calling was at the heart of their moral code. (...) Radical Whiggery of the eighteenth century convinced Americans because it had been pervasive in their culture since the seventeenth."
The Mayflower Society
The General Society of Mayflower Descendants, or The Mayflower Society, is a genealogical organization of individuals who have documented their descents from one or more of the 102 passengers who arrived on the Mayflower in 1620. The Society, founded at Plymouth in 1897, claims that tens of millions of Americans descend from these passengers, and it offers research services to people seeking to document such descents.
- English colonial empire
- European colonization of the Americas
- British colonization of the Americas
- Colonial America
- Plantation (settlement or colony)
- List of colonial governors of Massachusetts (includes Plymouth)
- Alexander Standish House
- Burial Hill, site of the first fort at New Plymouth, originally known as Fort Hill
- Cole's Hill, contained the original cemetery at New Plymouth, later moved to Burial Hill
- First Parish Church in Plymouth, the modern descendant of the Scrooby congregation that founded Plymouth Colony
- First Parish Church (Duxbury, Massachusetts), another early congregation founded by the Pilgrims
- Harlow Old Fort House, a private house built in 1677 in Plymouth, partially out of timbers of the original fort built in 1621
- Jabez Howland House
- Jenney Grist Mill
- John and Priscilla Alden Family Sites
- Leyden Street, claimed to be the first street in Plymouth Colony
- Myles Standish Burial Ground contains remains of several important Pilgrims, including Myles Standish
- Plymouth Village Historic District
- Town Brook Historic and Archeological District
Monuments and other commemorations
- Patricia Scott Deetz; James F. Deetz (2000). "Passengers on the Mayflower: Ages & Occupations, Origins & Connections". The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 7–13
- Addison (1911), foreword "From a Pilgrim Cell", pp. xiii–xiv
- Addison (1911), p. 51
- Philbrick (2006), pp. 16–18
- Rothbard, Murray Rothbard (1975). ""The Founding of Plymouth Colony"". Conceived in Liberty 1. Arlington House Publishers.
- The debts were paid off by working 6 days a week for the sponsors.Because of hardships experienced during the early years of the settlement, as well as corruption and mismanagement by their representatives, the debt was not paid off until 1648. Philbrick (2006), pp. 19–20, 169
- Philbrick (2006), pp. 20–23
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 24–25
- Addison (1911), p. 63
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 27–28
- Allison Lassieur Peter McDonnall The voyage of the Mayflower (Pub. Capstone Press, ©2006 Mankato, Minnesota)
- Croxton, Derek (1991). "The Cabot Dilemma: John Cabot's 1497 Voyage & the Limits of Historiography". Essays in History. Corcoran Department of History at the University of Virginia. Retrieved 2007-05-03.
- Edney, Matthew H. "The Cartographic Creation of New England". Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education, University of Southern Maine. Archived from the original on April 28, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-03.
- Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp. 55–56
- Koplow, David A. (2003). "Smallpox The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge". University of California Press. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- Marr JS, Cathey JT. New hypothesis for cause of an epidemic among Native Americans, New England, 1616–1619. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2010 Feb. http://www.cdc.gov/EID/content/16/2/281.htm doi:10.3201/edi1602.090276
- "Popham Colony: The First English Colony in New England". www.pophamcolony.org. Retrieved 2007-05-03.
- Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp. 69–71
- Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp. 46–48
- Philbrick (2006) p. 41
- Allen Weinstein and David Rubel (2002), The Story of America: Freedom and Crisis from Settlement to Superpower. DK Publishing Inc., New York, N.Y., ISBN 0-7894-8903-1, p. 61
- Philbrick (2006), pp. 55–77
- Philbrick (2006), pp. 78–80
- Johnson (1997), p. 37
- See the editorial footnotes in: Bradford, William (1856). History of Plymouth Plantation. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown, and Company. p. 96.
- Philbrick (2006), pp. 80–84
- Philbrick (2006), pp. 88–91
- Massasoit was specifically the sachem of a single tribe of Wampanoag Indians known as the Pokanoket, though he was recognized as the founder and leader of the entire confederation. Philbrick (2006), pp. 93, 155
- Philbrick (2006), pp. 93–94
- Philbrick (2006), pp. 94–96
- Philbrick (2006), pp. 52–53
- West, Elliot. Squanto in Weinstein and Rubel (2002), pp. 50–51
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 97–99
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 100–101
- Addison (1911), pp. 83–85
- Patricia Scott Deetz; James F. Deetz (2000). "Mayflower Passenger Deaths, 1620–1621". The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- "Primary Sources for "The First Thanksgiving" at Plymouth". Pilgrim Hall Museum. 1998. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- Dorothy, the servant of John Carver, and Priscilla Mullins were both old enough to be married within a year or two of that first winter; although their exact ages are unknown. So the number of adult women surviving to the first Thanksgiving may be as many as 6 (out of 20).
- Addison (1911), p. 83
- Travers, Carolyn Freeman. "Fast and Thanksgiving Days of Plymouth Colony". Plimoth Plantation: Living, Breathing History. Plimoth Plantation. Retrieved 2007-05-02.
- The Desolate Wilderness, The Wall Street Journal, 22 November 2007
- "Primary Sources for "The First Thanksgiving" at Plymouth". Pilgrim Hall Museum. 1998. Retrieved 2008-11-12. Note: this reference contains partial transcriptions of two documents, Winslow's Mourt's Relations and Bradford's Of Plimoth Plantation, which describe the events of the First Thanksgiving.
- Eric Jay Dolin. Fur, Fortune, and Empire.
- Philbrick (2006), pp. 102–103
- Philbrick (2006), pp. 104–109
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 110–113
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 113–116
- Deetz, Patricia Scott; James Deetz (2000). "Population of Plymouth Town, County, & Colony, 1620–1690". The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 151–154
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 154–155
- Winslow, Edward; Caleb Johnson, ed. (1624). "Chapter 5". Good Newes From New England. The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 123–126, 134
- The Dike and Dyke Family, A Genealogy Compiled by Ethel Bradford Davis and Clarence Sheldon Dike, 1965: Quintin Publications, Pawtucket, R.I. www.quintinpublications.com
- "Residents of Plymouth according to the 1627 Division of Cattle". Plimoth Plantation: Living, Breathing History. Plimoth Plantation. Retrieved 2007-05-02.
- Leach, Douglas Edward (September 1951). "The Military System of Plymouth Colony". The New England Quarterly 24 (3): 342–364. doi:10.2307/361908. JSTOR 361908. note: login required for access
- Taylor, Norris (1998). "The Massachusetts Bay Colony". Retrieved 2007-03-30.
- Philbrick (2006), pp. 57–58, 71, 84, 90, 115, 128, 155
- "Perspectives: The Pequot War". The Descendants of Henry Doude. Retrieved 2007-04-02.
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 180–181
- Philbrick (2006) p. 205
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 207–208
- Aultman, Jennifer L. (2001). "From Thanksgiving to War: Native Americans in Criminal Cases of Plymouth Colony, 1630–1675". The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 221–223
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 229–237
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 288–289
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 311–323
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 331–337
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 332, 345–346
- "Timeline of Plymouth Colony 1620–1692". Plimoth Plantation. 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-02.
- Moore, Jacob Bailey (1851). Lives of the Governors of New Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay. Boston: C. D. Strong. pp. 417–418. OCLC 11362972.
- Demos (1970), p. 17
- Demos (1970), pp. 17–18
- Weinstein and Rubel (2002), pp. 64–65
- Demos (1970), foreword p. x.
- Demos (1970), pp. 83–84
- Demos (1970) pp. 134–136
- Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion in the United States', p. 64
- Maxwell, Richard Howland (2003). "Pilgrim and Puritan: A Delicate Distinction". Pilgrim Society Note, Series Two. Pilgrim Hall Museum. Retrieved 2003-04-04.
- Demos (1970), p. 8
- Fennell, Christopher (1998). "Plymouth Colony Legal Structure". The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- Demos 1970, pp. 104–106, 140
- Demos (1970), pp. 8–9
- Demos (1970), p. 132
- Philbrick (2006), p. 104
- Deetz and Deetz, pp. 87–100 and endnotes
- Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp. 92–98 and endnotes
- Demos (1970), p. 151
- Demos (1970), p. 66. Demos names the following figures for life expectancy: For males that reached 21 years old, they lived to an average age of 70; for women who reached this age the life expectancy was 63.
- Demos (1970), pp. 82–99
- Demos (1970), p. 66. Historian John Demos quotes a 1667 contract between John Phillips and Faith Doty which states "The said Faith Doty is to enjoy all of her house and land, goods and cattles, that shee [sic] is now possessed of, to her owne [sic] proper use, to dispose of them att [sic] her owne [sic] free will..."
- Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp. 99–100
- Whipps, Heather (September 21, 2006). "Census: U.S. household size shrinking". MSNBC.com. Retrieved 2007-05-11. A study reported by MSNBC found that the modern American household consisted of 2.6 people. Demos (1970), p. 192 cites that by the third generation, the average family had 9.3 births, with 7.9 children living until adulthood. Since most families had two parents, this would extrapolate to an average of 10 people under one roof.
- Demos (1970), pp. 64–69
- Travers, Carolyn Freeman (2007). "Common Myths: Dead at Forty". Plimoth Plantation. Retrieved 2007-05-11.
- Demos (1970), pp. 62–81
- Demos (1970), p. 141
- Demos (1970), pp. 71–75
- Demos (1970), p. 146
- Demos (1970), pp. 147–149
- Demos (1970), pp. 142–143
- Demos (1970), p. 144
- Demos (1970), p. 104
- Clifton E. Olmstead (1960), History of Religion in America. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J., pp. 64-69. - M. Schmidt, Pilgerväter. In: Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3rd edition, Tübingen (Germany), Volume V, col. 384
- Demos (1970), p. 148
- "Governors of Plymouth Colony". Pilgrim Hall Museum. 1998. Retrieved 2007-04-02.
- Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion in the United States, p. 10
- Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion in the United States, p. 67
- Demos (1970), p. 7
- Demos (1970), p. 10
- Demos (1970), p. 14
- Philbrick (2006), pp. 214–215
- Deetz and Deetz (2000), p. 133 cite the first eight examples (treason-adultery), Demos (1970) p. 100 mentions the last
- Deetz and Deetz (2000), p. 135
- Demos (1970) p. 102. Bumpus's actual sentence was to be "whipt att the post", with the note that "hee was crasey brained, ortherwise hee had bine put to death."
- Philbrick (2006), p. 223
- Johnson (1997), p. 53
- Demos (1970), pp. 96–98
- Deetz and Deetz (2000), p. 143
- Galle, Jillian (2000). "Servants and Masters in the Plymouth Colony". The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- Martucci, David (1997). "The Flag of New England". Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Payne, Morse (2006). "The Survey System of the Old Colony". Slade and Associates. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- "The Border is Where? Part II". The Rhode Islander: A depository of opinion, information, and pictures of the Ocean State. blogspot.com. 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- "Town of Bristol". EDC Profile. Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation. 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
- Deetz and Deetz (2000), endnotes, lists twenty towns as part of Plymouth Colony. In addition to the ones listed here, the towns of Edgartown and Tisbury on Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket on its namesake island are included. However, several other sources, including the 1890 Massachusetts Gazetteer used here, note that Martha's Vineyard (Dukes County) and Nantucket Island (Nantucket County) were part of the Colony of New York prior to the Dominion, and were not formally annexed until the 1691 charter that ended Plymouth Colony as an independent entity. Some towns north of the "Old Colony Line", such as Hull and Wessagussett may have been founded by Plymouth settlers or were temporarily administered as part of Plymouth Colony before the boundary with Massachusetts was established in 1644.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Barnstable County Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Barnstable Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Eastham Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Deyo, Simeon L. (1890). "Chapter XX". History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts. republished in 2006 online by CapeCodHistory.us. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
- "Rochester (MA) Town History". Town of Rochester, Massachusetts. 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
- Rochester was later transferred to Plymouth County some time after 1689; at the time of incorporation, however, it was part of Barnstable County. See: Freeman, Frederick (1860). History of Cape Cod. Vol. 1. Boston: Geo C. Rand & Avery & Cornhill. p. 312. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Sandwich Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Yarmouth Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Bristol County Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Taunton Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Dartmouth Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Freetown Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- "The Little Compton Historical Society Home Page". The Little Compton Historical Society. 2005. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Rehoboth Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Swansey Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03. note: some confusion exists over the correct spelling of Swansea. The modern spelling is used here.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Plymouth County Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Plymouth Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Bridgewater Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Duxbury Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Marshfield Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Middleborough Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- Nason, Elias; George G. Varney (1890). "Scituate Massachusetts, 1890". Massachusetts Gazetteer. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
- David Lindsay, PhD., Mayflower Bastard: A Stranger amongst the Pilgrims (St. Martins Press, New York, 2002) pp. x, xvi.
- Deetz and Deetz (2000), p. 14
- Donald F. Harris, PhD. The Mayflower Descendant (July 1993) vol. 43 no. 2 p.124
- Morison & Commager, The Growth of the American Republic ( 4th Ed., New York, 1950), vol. 1, p.40
- Cline, Duane A. (2006). "The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony: 1620". Rootsweb. Retrieved 2007-04-04.
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 21–23
- Demos (1970), p. 6
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 128, 151–154
- Deetz and Deetz (2000), p. 14 and endnotes
- Demos (1970), Appendices, pp. 192–194
- Demos, pp. 110–111, also see Demos's footnote #10 on p. 110
- Philbrick (2006), p. 136
- Philbrick (2006), pp. 199–200
- Deetz and Deetz (2000), pp. 77–78. The first mention of cattle occurs with the arrival of "three heifers and a bull" in 1624, but there is some doubt as to whether this was the first cattle in the colony.
- Chartier, Charles S. "Livestock in Plymouth Colony". Plymouth Archaeological Rediscovery Project. Retrieved 2007-05-03.
- Johnson (1997), pp. 36–37
- Demos (1970) pp. 52–53
- Philbrick 2006, pg 22
- "History Paintings". Pilgrim Hall. 1998. Retrieved 2007-04-05.
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 75, 288, 357–358
- Philbrick (2006) p. 354
- "IMDB search: Miles Standish". IMDB. Retrieved 2007-04-05.
- "Plymouth Adventure (1952)". IMDB. Retrieved 2007-04-05.
- "The Mayflower (2006)". IMDB. Retrieved 2007-04-05.
- "2007 Federal Holidays". U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved 2007-04-04.
- Wilson, Jerry (2001). "The Thanksgiving Story". Holiday Page. Wilstar.com. Retrieved 2007-04-05.
- "History of Thanksgiving: A Timeline". Twoop.com. 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-05.
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 75, 78–79
- Philbrick (2006) pp. 351–356
- Jeremy Waldron (2002), God, Locke, and Equality. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. ISBN 978-0-521-89057-1, pp. 223-224
- Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion in the United States, pp. 74-75, 102-105, 114-117
- Robert Middlekauf (2005), The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution 1763-1789. Revised and Expanded Edition. Oxford University Press Inc. ISBN 978-0-19-516247-9, pp. 51-52
- "The Mayflower Society Home Page". General Society of Mayflower Descendants. 2006. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
- Addison, Albert Christopher (1911). The Romantic Story of the Mayflower Pilgrims, and Its Place in the Life of To-day. Boston: L.C. Page & Company. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
- Deetz, James; Patricia Scott Deetz (2000). The Times of Their Lives: Life, Love, and Death in Plymouth Colony. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-3830-9.
- Demos, John (1970). A Little Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Johnson, Paul (1997). A History of the American People. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-016836-6.
- Philbrick, Nathaniel (2006). Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 0-670-03760-5.
- Weinstein, Allen; David Rubel (2002). The Story of America: Freedom and Crisis from Settlement to Superpower. New York: DK Publishing. ISBN 0-7894-8903-1.
- Timeline of Plymouth Colony
- Colonial America: Plymouth Colony 1620 A short history of Plymouth Colony hosted at U-S-History.com, includes a map of all of the New England colonies.
- The Plymouth Colony Archive Project A collection of primary sources documents and secondary source analysis related to Plymouth Colony.
- Pilgrim ships from 1602 to 1638 Pilgrim ships searchable by ship name, sailing date and passengers.
- History of the Town of Plymouth 1620...free Google eBook pdf format