Perth

Perth
Western Australia
Perth CBD from Mill Point (2).jpg
Perth's skyline, viewed from Mill Point.
Perth is located in Australia
Perth
Perth
Coordinates 31°57′8″S 115°51′32″E / 31.95222°S 115.85889°E / -31.95222; 115.85889Coordinates: 31°57′8″S 115°51′32″E / 31.95222°S 115.85889°E / -31.95222; 115.85889
Population 1,972,358 (2013)[1] (4th)
 • Density 310/km2 (800/sq mi) [2]
Established 1829
Area 6,417.9 km2 (2,478.0 sq mi)(GCCSA)[3]
Time zone AWST (UTC+8)
Location
State electorate(s) Perth (and 41 others)[8]
Federal Division(s) Perth (and 10 others)
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
24.6 °C
76 °F
12.7 °C
55 °F
850.0 mm
33.5 in

Perth /ˈpɜrθ/ is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is the fourth most populous city in Australia, with an estimated population of 1.97 million (as of 30 June 2013) living in Greater Perth.[1] Part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, the majority of the metropolitan area of Perth is located on the Swan Coastal Plain, a narrow strip between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp, a low coastal escarpment. The first areas settled were on the Swan River, with the city's central business district and port (Fremantle) both located on its shores. Perth is formally divided into a number of local government areas, which themselves consist of a large number of suburbs, extending from Two Rocks in the north to Rockingham in the south, and east inland to The Lakes.

Perth was originally founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony, and gained city status in 1856 (currently vested in the smaller City of Perth). The city is named for Perth, Scotland, by influence of Sir George Murray, then British Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. The city's population increased substantially as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century, largely as a result of emigration from the eastern colonies of Australia. During Australia's involvement in World War II, Fremantle served as a base for submarines operating in the Pacific Theatre, and a US Navy Catalina flying boat fleet was based at Matilda Bay.[9] An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece, Italy and Yugoslavia, led to rapid population growth. This was followed by a surge in economic activity flowing from several mining booms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries that saw Perth become the regional headquarters for a number of large mining operations located around the state.

As part of Perth's role as the capital of Western Australia, the state's Parliament and Supreme Court are located within the city, as well as Government House, the residence of the Governor of Western Australia. Perth became known worldwide as the "City of Light" when city residents lit their house lights and streetlights as American astronaut John Glenn passed overhead while orbiting the earth on Friendship 7 in 1962.[10][11] The city repeated the act as Glenn passed overhead on the Space Shuttle in 1998.[12][13] Perth came 9th in the Economist Intelligence Unit's August 2012 list of the world's most liveable cities,[14] and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2010 as a world city.[15]

HistoryEdit

Indigenous historyEdit

Before European colonisation, the area had been inhabited by the Whadjuk Noongar people for over 40,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological findings on the Upper Swan River.[16] These Aborigines occupied the southwest corner of Western Australia and lived as hunter-gatherers. The wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were particularly important to them, both spiritually, featuring in local mythology, and as a source of food. Rottnest, Carnac and Garden Islands were also important to the Noongar. About 5,000 years ago, when sea levels were low, it was possible to reach the limestone outcrops on foot.[citation needed]

The area where Perth now stands was called Boorloo by the Aborigines living there in 1827 at the time of their first contact with Europeans. Boorloo formed part of Mooro, the tribal lands of the Yellagonga. It is one of several groups based around the Swan River and known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk were part of a larger group of thirteen or more tribes which formed the south west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar (meaning "the people" in their language), also sometimes called the Bibbulmun. On 19 September 2006, the Federal Court of Australia brought down a judgment recognising Noongar native title over the Perth metropolitan area, in the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia [2006] FCA 1243.[17] The judgment was overturned on appeal.[18]

Early European sightingsEdit

The first documented European sighting of the region was made by the Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh and his crew on 10 January 1697.[19] Subsequent sightings between this date and 1829 were made by other Europeans, but as in the case of the sighting and observations made by Vlamingh, the area was considered to be inhospitable and unsuitable for the agriculture which would be needed to sustain a settlement.[20]

Swan River ColonyEdit

The Foundation of Perth 1829 by George Pitt Morison is a historically accurate reconstruction of the official ceremony by which Perth was founded.

Although the British Army had established a base at King George Sound (later Albany) on the south coast of western Australia in 1826 in response to rumours that the area would be annexed by France, Perth was the first full-scale settlement by Europeans in the western third of the continent. The British colony would be officially designated Western Australia in 1832, but was known informally for many years as the Swan River Colony after the area's major watercourse.

On 4 June 1829, newly arriving British colonists had their first view of the mainland, and Western Australia's Foundation Day has since been recognised by a public holiday on the first Monday in June each year. Captain James Stirling, aboard the Parmelia, said that Perth was "as beautiful as anything of this kind I had ever witnessed". On 12 August that year, Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the second ship, Sulphur, cut down a tree to mark the founding of the town.

It is clear that Stirling had already selected the name Perth for the capital well before the town was proclaimed, as his proclamation of the colony, read in Fremantle on 18 June 1829, ended "given under my hand and Seal at Perth this 18th Day of June 1829. James Stirling Lieutenant Governor".[21] The only contemporary information on the source of the name comes from Fremantle's diary entry for 12 August, which records that they "named the town Perth according to the wishes of Sir George Murray".[22] Murray was born in Perth, Scotland, and was in 1829 Secretary of State for the Colonies and Member for Perthshire in the British House of Commons. The town was named after the Scottish Perth,[23][24] in Murray's honour.[25][26][27]

Beginning in 1831, hostile encounters between the British settlers and the Noongar people – both large-scale land users with conflicting land value systems – increased considerably as the colony grew. This violent phase of the region's history culminated in a series of events in which the British overcame the indigenous people, including the execution of the Whadjuk elder Midgegooroo, the death of his son Yagan in 1833, and the Battle of Pinjarra in 1834.

By 1843, when Yellagonga died, his people had begun to disintegrate after having been dispossessed of the land around the main settlement area of Perth. They retreated to the swamps and lakes north of the settlement area including Third Swamp, known to them as Boodjamooling. Boodjamooling continued to be a main camp-site for the remaining Noongar people in the Perth region, and was also used by travellers, itinerants, and homeless people. By the gold-rush days of the 1890s they were joined by miners who were en route to the goldfields.[28]

In 1850, Western Australia was opened to convicts at the request of farming and business people looking for cheap labour.[29] Queen Victoria announced the city status of Perth in 1856.[30]

Federation and beyondEdit

Perth looking across the Perth train station c1955

After a referendum in 1900,[31] Western Australia joined the Federation of Australia in 1901.[30] It was the last of the Australian colonies to agree to join the Federation, and did so only after the other colonies had offered several concessions, including the construction of a transcontinental railway line from Port Augusta in South Australia to Kalgoorlie to link Perth with the eastern states.[32]

In 1933, Western Australia voted in a referendum to leave the Australian Federation, with a majority of two to one in favour of secession.[31] However, an election held shortly before the referendum had voted out the incumbent "pro-independence" government, replacing it with a government that did not support the creed of an independence movement. Respecting the result of the referendum, the new government nonetheless petitioned the Agent General of the United Kingdom for independence, where the request was simply ignored.[33]

City skyline from Kings Park.

Perth's growth and relative prosperity, especially since the mid-1960s,[34] has resulted from its role as the main service centre for the state's resource industries, which extract gold, iron ore, nickel, alumina, diamonds, mineral sands, coal, oil, and natural gas.[35] Whilst most mineral and petroleum production takes place elsewhere in the state, the non-base services provide most of the employment and income to the people of Perth.[36]

GeographyEdit

Central business districtEdit

The central business district of Perth is bounded by the Swan River to the south and east, with Kings Park on the western end, while the railway reserve formed a northern border. A state and federally funded project named Perth City Link involves sinking a section of the railway line, to link Northbridge and the CBD for the first time in 100 years. The Perth Arena is a building in the city link area that has received a number of architecture awards.[which?] Also, an inlet on the Swan River is currently being built to connect the city to the river. St Georges Terrace is the prominent street of the area with 1.3 million m² of office space in the CBD.[37] Hay Street and Murray Street have most of the retail and entertainment facilities. The tallest building in the city is Central Park, which is the seventh tallest building in Australia.[38] The CBD has recently been the centre of a mining-induced boom, with several commercial and residential projects due for completion, including a 244 m (801 ft) office building for Australian/British mining company BHP Billiton.

Perth skyline, viewed from Mill Point

Geology and landformsEdit

Perth is set on the Swan River, named after the native black swans in 1697 by Willem de Vlamingh, captain of a Dutch expedition and namer of WA's Rottnest Island.[39] Traditionally, this water body has been known by Aboriginal inhabitants as Derbarl Yerrigan.[40] The city centre and most of the suburbs are located on the sandy and relatively flat Swan Coastal Plain, which lies between the Darling Scarp and the Indian Ocean. The soils of this area are quite infertile. The metropolitan area extends along the coast to Two Rocks in the north and Singleton to the south,[41] a total distance of approximately 125 kilometres (78 mi).[42] From the coast in the west to Mundaring in the east is a total distance of approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi). The Perth metropolitan area covers 6,417.9 square kilometres (2,478.0 sq mi).[3]

Satellite image of Perth

Much of Perth was originally built on a series of freshwater wetlands running from Herdsman Lake in the west through to Claisebrook Cove in the east.[43]

The coastal suburbs' placement is advantageous due to proximity to Perth's oceanside location and clean beaches. To the east, the city is bordered by a low escarpment called the Darling Scarp. Perth is on generally flat, rolling land – largely due to the high amount of sandy soils and deep bedrock. The Perth metropolitan area has two major river systems; the first is made up of the Swan and Canning Rivers. The second is that of the Serpentine and Murray Rivers, which discharge into the Peel Estuary at Mandurah.

ClimateEdit

Perth receives moderate though highly seasonal rainfall, making it the fourth wettest Australian capital city after Darwin, Sydney and Brisbane. Summers are generally very hot and dry, lasting from December to late March, with February generally being the hottest month of the year, while winters are relatively mild and wet, making Perth a classic example of a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa).[44][45] Summer is not completely devoid of rain with sporadic rainfall in the form of short-lived thunderstorms, weak cold fronts and on very rare occasions decaying tropical cyclones from Western Australia's north-west which can bring significant rainfall. The highest ever recorded temperature in Perth was 46.2 °C (115.2 °F) on 23 February 1991, although Perth Airport recorded 46.7 °C (116.1 °F) on the same day.[46][47] On most summer afternoons a sea breeze, also known as the "Fremantle doctor", blows from the southwest, providing relief from the hot north-easterly winds. Temperatures often fall below 30 °C (86 °F) a few hours after the arrival of the wind change.[48] Perth is a particularly sunny city for a Mediterranean climate, with an average of 8.8 hours of sunshine per day, which equates to around 3200 hours of annual sunshine.[47]

Winters are relatively cool and wet, with most of Perth's annual rainfall between May and September. The lowest temperature recorded in Perth was −0.7 °C (30.7 °F) on 17 June 2006.[46] The lowest temperature within the Perth metropolitan area was −3.4 °C (25.9 °F) on the same day at Jandakot Airport.[49]

The rainfall pattern has changed in Perth and Southwest Western Australia since the mid-1970s. A significant reduction in winter rainfall has been observed with a greater number of extreme rainfall events in the summer months,[50] such as slow-moving storms on 8 February 1992 which brought 120.6 millimetres (4.75 in) of rain, the highest recorded in Perth,[46][48] and a severe thunderstorm on 22 March 2010, which brought 40.2 millimetres (1.58 in) of rain and caused significant damage in the metropolitan area.[51]


Climate data for Perth, Western Australia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 45.8
(114.4)
46.2
(115.2)
42.4
(108.3)
37.6
(99.7)
34.3
(93.7)
28.1
(82.6)
26.3
(79.3)
27.8
(82)
32.7
(90.9)
37.3
(99.1)
40.3
(104.5)
44.2
(111.6)
46.2
(115.2)
Average high °C (°F) 31.0
(87.8)
31.4
(88.5)
29.7
(85.5)
25.8
(78.4)
22.4
(72.3)
19.3
(66.7)
18.4
(65.1)
18.9
(66)
20.2
(68.4)
23.2
(73.8)
26.3
(79.3)
29.0
(84.2)
24.6
(76.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.5
(76.1)
24.9
(76.8)
23.1
(73.6)
19.7
(67.5)
16.5
(61.7)
14.0
(57.2)
13.0
(55.4)
13.5
(56.3)
14.8
(58.6)
17.3
(63.1)
20.3
(68.5)
22.7
(72.9)
18.7
(65.7)
Average low °C (°F) 18.0
(64.4)
18.3
(64.9)
16.6
(61.9)
13.7
(56.7)
10.6
(51.1)
8.7
(47.7)
7.7
(45.9)
8.1
(46.6)
9.5
(49.1)
11.4
(52.5)
14.2
(57.6)
16.4
(61.5)
12.8
(55)
Record low °C (°F) 8.9
(48)
8.7
(47.7)
6.3
(43.3)
4.1
(39.4)
1.3
(34.3)
−0.7
(30.7)
0.0
(32)
1.3
(34.3)
1.0
(33.8)
2.2
(36)
5.0
(41)
7.9
(46.2)
−0.7
(30.7)
Rainfall mm (inches) 9.7
(0.382)
12.7
(0.5)
19.2
(0.756)
44.1
(1.736)
116.8
(4.598)
175.4
(6.906)
168.7
(6.642)
133.1
(5.24)
80.9
(3.185)
52.0
(2.047)
22.4
(0.882)
13.3
(0.524)
848.3
(33.398)
Avg. precipitation days 2.4 2.1 4.1 6.7 11.1 15.2 16.9 15.7 15.3 8.7 6.3 3.9 108.4
 % humidity 39 38 39 46 50 56 57 54 53 46 44 41 47
Mean daily sunshine hours 11.5 11.0 9.6 8.3 6.9 5.9 6.1 7.2 7.7 9.6 10.6 11.5 8.8
Source: Bureau of Meteorology[52][53]
Temperatures: 1993–2012; Extremes: 1897–2012; Rain data: 1876–2012


IsolationEdit

The nearest city to Perth with a population of more than 100,000 is Adelaide, South Australia, which is 2,104 kilometres (1,307 mi) away. Author Bill Bryson states that Perth is the most remote city on earth,[57] which he justifies by noting that the population of metropolitan Perth is greater than the combined populations of the rest of Western Australia, the Northern Territory and South Australia, west of Adelaide. However, other measures suggest that Honolulu (population 900,000), which is 3,841 kilometres (2,387 mi) from San Francisco; or Auckland (population 1.5M), which is 2,153 kilometres (1,338 mi) from Sydney, New South Wales, are more isolated.

Perth is geographically closer to both Dili, East Timor (2,785 kilometres (1,731 mi)), and Jakarta, Indonesia (3,002 kilometres (1,865 mi)), than Sydney (3,291 kilometres (2,045 mi)), Brisbane, Queensland, (3,604 kilometres (2,239 mi)) or Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (3,106 kilometres (1,930 mi)).

DemographicsEdit

Perth is Australia's fourth most populous city, having overtaken Adelaide's population in the early 1980s. At the 2006 Census 1,445,079 residents in the Perth statistical area were counted. As of 2011 there were approximately 1.83 million residents in the metropolitan area.[60]

Ethnic groupsEdit

One dot represents 100 persons born in:
United Kingdom (dark blue),
China (red),
Italy (light green),
Malaysia (dark green),
South Africa (brown),
Singapore (purple) and
Vietnam (yellow), based on 2006 Census.

In 2006, the largest ancestry groups in the Perth metropolitan areas were: English (534,555 or 28.6%), Australian (479,174 or 25.6%), Irish (115,384 or 6.2%), Scottish (113,846 or 6.1%), Italian (84,331 or 4.5%) and Chinese (53,390 or 2.9%). There were 26,700 Indigenous Australians in the city.[62]

Perth's population is notable for the high proportion of British and Irish born residents. At the 2006 Census, 142,424 England-born Perth residents were counted,[63] narrowly behind Sydney (145,261),[64] despite the fact that Perth had just 35% of the overall population of Sydney.

The ethnic make-up of Perth changed in the second part of the 20th century, when significant numbers of continental European immigrants arrived in the city. Prior to this, Perth's population had been almost completely Anglo-Celtic in ethnic origin. As Fremantle was the first landfall in Australia for many migrant ships coming from Europe in the 1950s and 1960s, Perth started to experience a diverse influx of people, which included Italians, Greeks, Dutch, Germans, Croats, and many others. The Italian influence in the Perth and Fremantle area has been substantial, evident in places like the "Cappuccino strip" in Fremantle featuring many Italian eateries and shops. In Fremantle the traditional Italian blessing of the fleet festival is held every year at the start of the fishing season. In Northbridge every December is the San Nicola (Saint Nicholas) Festival, which involves a pageant followed by a concert, predominantly in Italian. Suburbs surrounding the Fremantle area such as Spearwood and Hamilton Hill also contain high concentrations of Italians, Croatians and Portuguese. Perth also has a small Jewish community – numbering 5,082 in 2006[61] – who have emigrated primarily from Eastern Europe and more recently from South Africa.

Another more recent wave of arrivals includes white minorities from Southern Africa. South African residents overtook those born in Italy as the fourth largest foreign group after 2001. By 2006, there were 18,825 South Africans born in Perth, accounting for 1.3% of the city's population.[63] Many Afrikaners and Anglo-Africans emigrated to Perth during the 1980s and 1990s, with the phrase "packing for Perth" becoming associated with South Africans who choose to emigrate abroad, sometimes regardless of the destination.[65] As a result, the city has been described as "the Australian capital of South Africans in exile".[66] The reason for Perth being so popular among white South Africans has often been the location (closer to Africa than other large cities), the vast amount of expansion and space, and the slightly warmer climate compared to other large Australian cities—Perth has a Mediterranean climate reminiscent of Cape Town.

Since the late 1970s, Southeast Asia has become an increasingly important source of migrants, with communities from Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Mainland China, and India all now well-established. There were 53,390 persons of Chinese descent in Perth in 2006 – 2.9% of the city's population.[67] These are supported by the Australian Eurasian Association of Western Australia,[68] which also serves a community of Portuguese-Malacca Eurasian or Kristang immigrants.[69]

The Indian community includes a substantial number of Parsees who emigrated from Bombay – Perth being the closest Australian city to India – and the India-born population of the city at the time of the 2006 census was 14,094 or 0.8%.[67] Perth is also home to the largest population of Anglo-Burmese in the world; many settled here following the independence of Burma in 1948 and the city is now the cultural hub for Anglo-Burmese worldwide.[citation needed] There is also a substantial Anglo-Indian population in Perth, who also settled in the city following the independence of India.

ReligionEdit

Protestant Christianity, predominantly Anglican, make up approximately 28% of the population.[70][71] Perth is the seat of the Anglican Diocese of Perth[citation needed] and of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Perth.[citation needed] Roman Catholics make up about 23% of the population,[70] and Catholicism is the most common single denomination.[70] Perth is also home to 12,000 Latter-day Saints[72] and the Perth Australia Temple of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[citation needed] Perth is also home of the seat of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross as the Church of St Ninian and St Chad in Perth was named the principal church of the ordinariate.[73]

Buddhism and Islam each claim more than 20,000 adherents.[70] Perth has one of the larger Jewish populations in Australia,[citation needed] numbering approximately 20,000,[70] with both Orthodox and Progressive synagogues and a Jewish Day School.[citation needed] The Bahá’í community in Perth numbers around 1,500.[70] Hindus are a community with over 20,000 adherents in Perth.[70] The Diwali (festival of lights) celebration in 2009 attracted over 20,000 visitors.[citation needed] There are Hindu temples in Canning Vale, Anketell and a Swaminarayan temple north of the Swan River.[citation needed]

Approximately one in five people from Perth profess to having no religion, with 11% of people not specific as to their beliefs.

GovernanceEdit

Government House, Western Australia
Parliament House, Perth

Perth houses the Parliament of Western Australia and the Governor of Western Australia. At present, 42 of the Legislative Assembly's 59 seats and 18 of the Legislative Council's 36 seats are based in Perth's metropolitan area as of the 2008 state election. Perth is represented by 9 full seats and significant parts of three others in the Federal House of Representatives, with the seats of Canning, Pearce and Brand including some areas outside the metropolitan area. The metropolitan area is divided into over 30 local government bodies, including the City of Perth which administers Perth's central business district.

The state's highest court, the Supreme Court, is located in Perth,[74] along with the District[75] and Family[76] Courts. The Magistrates' Court has six metropolitan locations.[77] The Federal Court of Australia and the Federal Magistrates' Courts occupy the Commonwealth Law Courts building on Victoria Avenue, Perth,[78] which is the also the location for annual Perth sittings of Australia's High Court.[79]

The Metropolitan Region Scheme is the statutory town planning scheme for land use in the Perth metropolitan area, and has been in operation since 1963.[80]

EconomyEdit

By virtue of its population and role as the administrative centre for business and government, Perth dominates the Western Australian economy, despite the major mining, petroleum, and agricultural export industries located elsewhere in the state.[81] Perth’s function as the State’s capital city, its economic base and population size have also created development opportunities for many other businesses oriented to local or more diversified markets.

Perth’s economy has been changing in favour of the service industries since the 1950s. Although one of the major sets of services it provides are related to the resources industry and, to a lesser extent, agriculture, most people in Perth are not connected to either; they have jobs that provide services to other people in Perth.[82]

As a result of Perth's relative geographical isolation, it has never had the necessary conditions to develop significant manufacturing industries other than those serving the immediate needs of its residents, mining and agriculture and some specialised areas, such as, in recent times, niche ship building and maintenance. It was simply cheaper to import all the needed manufactured goods from either the eastern states or overseas.

Industrial employment influenced the economic geography of Perth. After WWII, Perth experienced suburban expansion aided by high levels of car ownership. Workforce decentralisation and transport improvements made it possible for the establishment of small-scale manufacturing in the suburbs. Many firms took advantage of relatively cheap land to build spacious, single-storey plants in suburban locations where parking, access and traffic congestion were minimal. "The former close ties of manufacturing with near-central and/or rail-side locations were loosened."[81]

Industrial estates such as Kwinana, Welshpool and Kewdale were post-war additions contributing to the growth of manufacturing south of the river. The establishment of the Kwinana industrial area was supported by standardisation of the east-west rail gauge linking Perth with eastern Australia. Since the 1950s, heavy industry has dominated the location including an oil refinery, steel-rolling mill with a blast furnace, alumina refinery, power station and a nickel refinery. Another development, also linked with rail standardisation, was in 1968 when the Kewdale Freight Terminal was developed adjacent to the Welshpool industrial area, replacing the former Perth railway yards.[81]

With significant population growth post-WWII,[83] employment growth occurred not in manufacturing but in retail and wholesale trade, business services, health, education, community and personal services and in public administration. Increasingly it was these services sectors, concentrated around the Perth metropolitan area, that provided jobs.[81]

EducationEdit

Education is compulsory in Western Australia between the ages of six and seventeen, corresponding to primary and secondary school.[84] Tertiary education is available through a number of universities and TAFE colleges.

Primary and secondary educationEdit

Students may attend either public schools, run by the state government's Department of Education, or private schools, usually associated with a religion.

The Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE) is the credential given to students who have completed Years 11 and 12 of their secondary schooling.[85]

In 2012 the minimum requirements for students to receive their WACE changed.[86]

Tertiary educationEdit

Perth is home to four public universities: the University of Western Australia, Curtin University, Murdoch University, and Edith Cowan University. There is also one private university, the University of Notre Dame.

The University of Western Australia, which was founded in 1911,[87] is renowned as one of Australia's leading research institutions. The university's monumental neo-classical architecture, most of which is carved from white limestone, is a notable tourist destination in the city. It is the only university in the state to be a member of the Group of Eight, as well as the Sandstone universities. It is also the only university in Western Australia to have produced a Nobel Laureate,[citation needed] in Barry Marshall who graduated MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) in 1975 and was awarded a joint Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine in 2005, together with Robin Warren.

Curtin University (known as Curtin University of Technology until 2010) is Western Australia's largest university by student population, and was known from its founding in 1966 until 1986 as the Western Australian Institute of Technology (WAIT) and had amalgamated with Western Australian School of Mines and the Muresk Institute. It has a rapidly growing research reputation and is the only Western Australian university to produce PhD recipients of the AINSE gold medal, the highest possible recognition for PhD level science and engineering research excellence in Australia and New Zealand.[88]

Murdoch University was established in the 1970s, and is Australia's largest campus in geographical area (2.27 km2 (0.88 sq mi)), necessary to accommodate Western Australia's only veterinary school.

Edith Cowan University was established in the early 1990s from the existing Western Australian College of Advanced Education (WACAE) which itself was formed in the 1970s from the existing Teachers Colleges at Claremont, Churchlands, and Mount Lawley. It incorporates the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts (WAAPA).

The University of Notre Dame Australia was established in 1990. Notre Dame was established as a Catholic university with its lead campus in Fremantle and a large campus in Sydney. Its campus is set in the west end of Fremantle, utilising historic port buildings built in the 1890s, giving Notre Dame a distinct European university atmosphere. Though Notre Dame shares its name with the University of Notre Dame in Indiana USA, it is a separate institution, claiming only "strong ties" with its American namesake.[citation needed]

Colleges of TAFE provide trade and vocational training, including certificate- and diploma-level courses. TAFE began as a system of technical colleges and schools under the Education Department, from which they were separated in the 1980s and ultimately formed into regional colleges. Four exist in the Perth metropolitan area: Central Institute of Technology (formerly Central TAFE); West Coast Institute of Training (northern suburbs); Polytechnic West (eastern and south-eastern suburbs; formerly Swan TAFE); and Challenger Institute of Technology (Fremantle/Peel).

MediaEdit

ABC Perth studios in East Perth, home of 720 ABC Perth radio and ABC television in Western Australia

Perth is served by twenty digital free-to-air stations:

ABC1, SBS One, Seven, Nine and Ten were also broadcast in an analogue broadcast format until 16 April 2013, when the analogue transmission was switched off.[89] Community station Access 31 closed in August 2008. In April 2010 a new community station, West TV, began transmission (in digital format only).

Foxtel provides a subscription-based satellite and cable television service. Perth has its own local newsreaders on ABC (James McHale), Seven (Rick Ardon, Susannah Carr), Nine (Tim McMillan) and Ten (Narelda Jacobs).

Television shows produced in Perth include local editions of the current affair program Today Tonight, and other types of programming such as The Force. An annual telethon has been broadcast since 1968 to raise funds for charities including Princess Margaret Hospital for Children. The 24 hour Perth Telethon claims to be "the most successful fundraising event per capita in the world"[90] and raised more than A$20.7 million in 2013, with a combined total of over A$153.47 million since 1968.[91]

The main newspapers for Perth are The West Australian and The Sunday Times. Localised free community papers cater for each local government area. There are also many advertising newspapers, such as The Quokka. The local business paper is Western Australian Business News.

Radio stations are on AM, FM and DAB+ frequencies. ABC stations include News Radio (585AM), 720 ABC Perth, Radio National (810AM), Classic FM (97.7FM) and Triple J (99.3FM). The six local commercial stations are: 92.9, Nova 93.7, Mix 94.5, 96fm, on FM and 882 6PR and 1080 6IX on AM. DAB+ has mostly the same as both FM and AM plus national stations from the ABC/SBS, Radar Radio and Novanation, along with local stations My Perth Digital and HotCountry Perth. Major community radio stations include RTRFM (92.1FM), Sonshine FM (98.5FM),[92] SportFM (91.3FM)[93] and Curtin FM (100.1FM).[94]

Online news media covering the Perth area include TheWest.com.au backed by The West Australian, Perth Now from the newsroom of The Sunday Times, WAToday from Fairfax Media and other outlets like TweetPerth on social media.

CultureEdit

Arts and entertainmentEdit

Public art by artist Akio Makigawa outside the State Library of Western Australia

The Perth Cultural Centre is the location of the city's major arts, cultural and educational institutions, including the Art Gallery of Western Australia, Western Australian Museum, State Library of Western Australia, State Records Office, and Perth Institute of Contemporary Arts (PICA).[95] The State Theatre Centre of Western Australia is also located there,[95] and is the home of the Black Swan State Theatre Company[96] and the Perth Theatre Company.[97] Other performing arts companies based in Perth include the West Australian Ballet, the West Australian Opera and the West Australian Symphony Orchestra, all of which present regular programmes.[98][99][100] The Western Australian Youth Orchestras provide young musicians with performance opportunities in orchestral and other musical ensembles.[101]

Perth is also home to the internationally regarded Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts at Edith Cowan University, from which many successful actors and broadcasters have launched their careers.[102][103] The city's main performance venues include the Riverside Theatre within the Perth Convention Exhibition Centre,[104] the Perth Concert Hall,[105] the historic His Majesty's Theatre,[106] the Regal Theatre in Subiaco[107] and the Astor Theatre in Mount Lawley.[108] Perth Arena can be configured as either an entertainment and sporting arena, and concerts are also hosted at other sporting venues, including Subiaco Oval, Challenge Stadium, and Members Equity Stadium. Outdoor concert venues include Quarry Amphitheatre, Supreme Court Gardens, Kings Park and Russell Square.

Soundwave Perth in 2010

A number of annual events are held in Perth. The Perth International Arts Festival is a large cultural festival that has been held annually since 1953, and has since been joined by the Winter Arts festival, Perth Fringe Festival, and Perth Writers Festival. Perth also hosts annual rock concerts the Big Day Out and Soundwave. The Perth International Comedy Festival features a variety of local and international comedic talent, with performance held at the Astor Theatre and nearby venues in Mount Lawley, while Sculpture by the Sea showcases a range of local and international sculptors' creations along Cottesloe Beach. There is also a wide variety of public art and sculptures on display across the city, throughout the year.

Perth has featured in a variety of artistic works in various mediums. An early novel, Moondyne, set in the Swan River Colony, was written by a former Fenian convict, John Boyle O'Reilly, and a A Faithful Picture, edited by Peter Cowan, gives a good idea of the early days of the colony. Songs that refer to the city include "I Love Perth" (1996) by Pavement, and "Perth" (2011) by Bon Iver, while a number of films feature Perth: Last Train to Freo, Two Fists, One Heart, Thunderstruck, Bran Nue Dae, Japanese Story and Nickel Queen. The industrial metal band Fear Factory recorded the video for their single "Cyberwaste" in South Fremantle.

Because of Perth's relative isolation from other Australian cities, overseas artists often exclude it from their Australian tour schedules. This isolation, however, has developed a strong local music scene, and the development of local music groups such as John Butler Trio, Eskimo Joe, Pendulum, Pond, Tame Impala, Karnivool and Birds of Tokyo. Celebrity musical performers from Perth have included the late AC/DC lead singer Bon Scott, who has been remembered with a statue in Fremantle, and veteran performer and artist Rolf Harris, given the nickname "The Boy From Bassendean". The largest performance area within the State Theatre Centre, the Heath Ledger Theatre, is named in honour of Perth-born film actor Heath Ledger.

Tourism and recreationEdit

The WA Maritime Museum building on Victoria Quay

Tourism in Perth is an important part of the state's economy, with approximately 2.8 million domestic visitors and 0.7 million international visitors in the year ending March 2012.[109] Tourist attractions are generally focused around the city centre, Fremantle, the coast, and the Swan River. In addition to the Perth Cultural Centre, there are a number of museums across the city. The Scitech Discovery Centre in West Perth is an interactive science museum, with regularly changing exhibitions on a large range of science and technology based subjects. Scitech also conducts live science demonstration shows, and operates the adjacent Horizon planetarium. The Western Australian Maritime Museum in Fremantle displays maritime objects from all eras. It houses Australia II, the yacht that won the 1983 America's Cup, as well as a former Royal Australian Navy submarine. Also located in Fremantle is the Army Museum of Western Australia, situated within a historic artillery barracks. The museum consists of several galleries which reflect the Army's involvement in Western Australia, and the military service of Western Australians.[110] The museum holds numerous items of significance, including three Victoria Crosses.[111] There are many heritage sites in Perth's CBD, Fremantle, and other parts of the metropolitan areas. Some of the oldest remaining building, dating back to the 1830s, include the Round House in Fremantle, the Old Mill in South Perth, and the Old Court House in the city centre. Registers of important buildings are maintained by the Heritage Council of Western Australia and local governments.

The Murray Street mall, at the corner of Forrest Place

Retail shopping in the Perth CBD is focused around Murray Street and Hay Street. Both of these streets are pedestrian malls between William Street and Barrack Street. Forrest Place is another pedestrian mall that connects the Murray Street Mall to Wellington Street and the Perth railway station. A number of arcades run between Hay Street and Murray Street, including the Piccadilly Arcade, which houses the Piccadilly Cinema. Other shopping precincts include Harbour Town in West Perth, featuring factory outlets for major brands, the historically significant Fremantle Markets, which date back to 1897, and the Midland townsite on Great Eastern Highway, combining historic development around the Town Hall and Post Office buildings with the modern Midland Gate shopping centre further east. Joondalup's central business district is largely a shopping and retail area lined with townhouses and apartments, and also features Lakeside Joondalup Shopping City. Joondalup was granted the status of "tourism precinct" by the State Government in 2009, allowing for extended retail trading hours. The Swan Valley, with fertile soil, uncommon in the Perth region, features numerous wineries such as the large complex at Houghtons, the state's biggest producer, Sandalfords and many smaller operators, including microbreweries and rum distilleries. The Swan Valley also contains specialised food producers, many restaurants and cafes, and roadside local-produce stalls that sell seasonal fruit throughout the year. Tourist Drive 203 is a circular route in the Swan Valley, passing by many attractions on West Swan Road and Great Northern Highway.

Kings Park, located in central Perth between the CBD and the University of Western Australia, is one of the world's largest inner-city parks,[112] at 400.6 hectares (990 acres).[113] There are many landmarks and attractions within Kings Park, including the State War Memorial Precinct on Mount Eliza, Western Australian Botanic Garden, and children's playgrounds. Other features include DNA Tower, a 15m high double helix staircase that resembles the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule,[114] and Jacob's Ladder, comprising 242 steps that lead down to Mounts Bay Road. Hyde Park is another inner-city park located 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) north of the CBD. It was gazetted as a public park in 1897, created from 15 hectares (37 acres) of a chain of wetlands known as Third Swamp.[115] Avon Valey, John Forrest and Yanchep national parks are areas of protected bushland at the northern and eastern edges of the metropolitan area. Within the cities northern suburbs is Whiteman Park, a 4,000-hectare (9,900-acre) bushland area, with bushwalking trails, bike paths, sports facilities, playgrounds, a tram on a 4-kilometre (2.5 mi) circular track, motor and tractor museums, and Caversham Wildlife Park.

Perth Zoo, located in South Perth, houses a variety of Australian and exotic animals from around the globe. The zoo is home to highly successful breeding programs for orangutans and giraffes, and participates in captive breeding and reintroduction efforts for a number of Western Australian species, including the numbat, the dibbler, the chuditch, and the western swamp tortoise.[116] More wildlife can be observed at the Aquarium of Western Australia in Hillarys, which is Australia's largest aquarium, specialising in marine animals that inhabit the 12,000-kilometre-long (7,500 mi) western coast of Australia. The northern Perth section of the coastline is known as Sunset Coast; it includes numerous beaches and the Marmion Marine Park, a protected area inhabited by tropical fish, Australian sea lions and bottlenose dolphins, and traversed by humpback whales. Tourist Drive 204, also known as Sunset Coast Tourist Drive, is a designated route from North Fremantle to Iluka along coastal roads.

SportEdit

Patersons Stadium, the home stadium of Australian rules football and many other sports in Perth

The climate of Perth allows for extensive outdoor sporting activity, and this is reflected in the wide variety of sports available to citizens of the city. Perth was host to the 1962 Commonwealth Games and the 1987 America's Cup defence (based at Fremantle). Australian rules football is the most popular spectator sport in Perth – nearly 24% of Western Australians attended matches in 2005.[117] Other popular sports include cricket, basketball, association football (soccer), and rugby union.[citation needed]

Perth is home to a number of professional sporting teams participating in national competitions:

The exterior of Perth Arena

Perth has hosted numerous state and international sporting events. Ongoing international events include the Hopman Cup during the first week of January at the Perth Arena. In addition to these Perth has hosted international Rugby Union games, including qualifying matches for 2003 Rugby World Cup. The 1991 and 1998 FINA World Championships were held in Perth.[118] Four races (2006, 2007, 2008 and 2010) in the Red Bull Air Race World Championship have been held on a stretch of the Swan River called Perth Water, using Langley Park as a temporary air field.[119] Several motorsport facilities exist in Perth including Perth Motorplex, catering to drag racing and speedway, and Barbagallo Raceway for circuit racing and drifting. Perth also has two thoroughbred racing facilities: Ascot, home of the Railway Stakes and Perth Cup; and Belmont Park.

The WACA Ground opened in the 1890s and has hosted Test cricket since 1970.

InfrastructureEdit

HealthEdit

Royal Perth Hospital, on either side of Wellington Street in the centre of Perth

Perth has ten large hospitals with emergency departments. As of 2013, Royal Perth Hospital in the city centre is the largest, with others spread around the metropolitan area: Armadale Kelmscott District Memorial Hospital, Fremantle Hospital, Joondalup Health Campus, King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women in Subiaco, Rockingham General Hospital, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital in Nedlands, St John of God Murdoch Hospital, and Swan District Hospital in Middle Swan, Western Australia. Princess Margaret Hospital for Children is the state's only specialist children's hospital, and Graylands Hospital is the only public stand-alone psychiatric teaching hospital. Most of these are public hospitals, with some operating under public-private partnerships. St John of God Murdoch Hospital is privately owned and operated.

New hospitals are under construction to replace ageing facilities. Fiona Stanley Hospital in Murdoch, scheduled to open in 2014, will become the city's major tertiary hospital.[120] A new children's hospital, due to open in 2015, is being constructed next to Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, and will replace Princess Margaret Hospital.[121] Midland Health Campus, a public and a private hospital, is under construction in Midland. St John of God Health Care will build and operate the new hospitals under a public-private partnership with the state government. Midland Health Campus will open in late 2015, and replace the nearby Swan District Hospital.[122]

A number of other public and private hospitals operate in Perth.[123]

TransportEdit

The Kwinana Freeway links Perth and its surrounding suburbs to the city of Mandurah.

Perth is served by Perth Airport in the city's east for regional, domestic and international flights and Jandakot Airport in the city's southern suburbs for general aviation and charter flights.

Perth has a road network with three freeways and nine metropolitan highways. The Northbridge tunnel, part of the Graham Farmer Freeway, is the only significant road tunnel in Perth.

Perth metropolitan public transport, including trains, buses and ferries, are provided by Transperth, with links to rural areas provided by Transwa. There are 70 railway stations and 15 bus stations in the metropolitan area. The rail system has recently undergone significant redevelopment, with a new railway line built between Perth and Mandurah which doubled the length of Perth's railways. The railway was opened on 23 December 2007, a year after the original deadline.

Perth Underground Train Station

Recent initiatives include progressive replacement of the bus fleet and the SmartRider contactless smartcard ticketing system. Perth provides zero-fare bus and train trips around the city centre (the "Free Transit Zone"), including four high-frequency CAT bus routes. Additionally, the rail network has been expanded in the northern and southern suburbs as part of the New MetroRail project.

The Indian Pacific passenger rail service connects Perth with Adelaide and Sydney via Kalgoorlie one to two times per week in each direction. The Transwa Prospector passenger rail service connects Perth with Kalgoorlie via several Wheatbelt towns, while the Transwa Australind connects to Bunbury, and the Transwa Avonlink connects to Northam.

Rail freight terminates at the Kewdale Rail Terminal, 15 km (9 mi) south-east of the city centre.

Perth's main container and passenger port is at Fremantle, 19 km (12 mi) south west at the mouth of the Swan River.[124] A second port complex is being developed in Cockburn Sound primarily for the export of bulk commodities.

UtilitiesEdit

Perth's electricity is generated, supplied, and retailed by three Western Australian Government coorporations. Verve Energy operates coal and gas power generation stations, as well as wind farms and other power sources.[125] The physical network is maintained by Western Power,[126] while Synergy, the state's largest energy retailer, sells electricity to residential and business customers.[127]

Alinta Energy, which was previously a government owned company, had a monopoly in the domestic gas market since the 1990s. However, in 2013 Kleenheat Gas began operating in the market, allowing consumers to choose their gas retailer.[128]

The Water Corporation is the dominant supplier of water, as well as wastewater and drainage services, in Perth and throughout the Western Australia. It is also owned by the state government.[129]

Water supplyEdit

Reduced rainfall in the region in recent years has lowered inflow to reservoirs by two-thirds over the last 30 years, and affected groundwater levels. Coupled with the city's relatively high growth rate, this had led to concerns that Perth could run out of water in the near future.[130] The Western Australian State Government has responded by introducing mandatory household sprinkler restrictions in the city. The Kwinana Desalination Plant was opened in November 2006, able to supply over 45 gigalitres (10 billion imperial or 12 billion U.S. gallons) of potable water per year;[131][132] its power requirements were met by the construction of the Emu Downs Wind Farm near Cervantes.[133] Consideration was given to piping water from the Kimberley region, but the idea was rejected in May 2006 due primarily to its high cost.[134] Other proposals under consideration included the controversial extraction of an extra 45 gigalitres of water a year from the Yarragadee aquifer in the south-west of the state. However, in May 2007, the state government announced that a second desalination plant will be built at Binningup, on the coast between Mandurah and Bunbury.[135] A trial winter (1 June – 31 August) sprinkler ban was introduced in 2009 by the State Government, a move which the Government later announced would be made permanent.[136] In September 2009 Western Australia's dams reached 50% overall capacity for the first time since 2000.[137]

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External linksEdit

Last modified on 19 April 2014, at 10:15