|Paul Thomas Anderson|
Anderson in New York City, December 10, 2007
|Born||Paul Thomas Anderson
June 26, 1970
Los Angeles, California
|Other names||P.T.A., P.T. Anderson|
|Occupation||Film director, script writer, producer|
|Notable work(s)||Boogie Nights, Magnolia, Punch-Drunk Love, There Will Be Blood, The Master|
|Partner(s)||Maya Rudolph (2001–present)|
Paul Thomas Anderson (born June 26, 1970) is an American film director, screenwriter, and producer. Interested in film-making at a young age, Anderson was encouraged by his father Ernie Anderson (a disc jockey, and television and radio announcer/voiceover artist) to become a filmmaker. Anderson is a distinctive filmmaker of his generation, initially being praised as a wunderkind after the release of Boogie Nights and Magnolia.
In 1993, he wrote and directed a short film titled Cigarettes & Coffee on a budget of $20,000. After he attended the Sundance Institute, Anderson had a deal with Rysher Entertainment to direct his first feature film, Hard Eight, in 1996. Anderson received critical and commercial success for his film Boogie Nights (1997), set during the Golden Age of Porn in the 1970s and 1980s. His third feature, Magnolia (1999), received wide acclaim despite struggling at the box office.
In 2002, Punch-Drunk Love, Anderson's fourth feature, was released to positive reviews. After a five-year absence, There Will Be Blood was released to critical acclaim in 2007. It is Anderson's highest-grossing film to date and is considered by many critics to be one of the most important films of the 2000s. In 2012, Anderson's sixth film, The Master, was released to critical acclaim. His seventh film, Inherent Vice, based on the novel of the same name by Thomas Pynchon, is scheduled for release in 2014.
Paul Thomas Anderson was born on June 26, 1970, in Studio City, California, to Edwina (née Gough) and Ernie Anderson. Ernie was an actor who was the voice of A.B.C. and a Cleveland television late-night horror movie host known as "Ghoulardi" (after whom Paul Thomas Anderson later named his production company). Anderson grew up in the San Fernando Valley. He is third youngest of nine children, and had a troubled relationship with his mother but was close with his father, who encouraged him to become a writer or director. Anderson attended a number of schools, including Buckley in Sherman Oaks, John Thomas Dye School, Campbell Hall School, Cushing Academy and Montclair Prep.
Anderson was involved in film-making at a young age and never really had an alternative plan to directing films. He made his first movie when he was eight years old and started making movies on a Betamax video camera which his dad bought in 1982 when he was twelve years old. He later started using 8 mm film but realized that video was easier. He began writing in adolescence, and at 17 years old he began experimenting with a Bolex sixteen millimeter camera. After years of experimenting with "standard fare", he wrote and filmed his first real production as a senior in high school at Montclair Prep using money he earned cleaning cages at a pet store. The film was a thirty-minute mockumentary shot on video called The Dirk Diggler Story (1988), about a pornography star; the story was inspired by John Holmes, who also served as a major inspiration for Boogie Nights.
An admittedly poor student in high school, Anderson was unable to immediately attend college. Nevertheless, he spent two semesters as an English major at Emerson College and only two days at New York University. Anderson began his career as a production assistant on television movies, music videos and game shows in Los Angeles and New York City. With some money he won gambling, his girlfriend's credit card, and $10,000 his father set aside for college, Anderson decided to make a twenty-minute film that would be his "college."
The film he made was Cigarettes & Coffee (1993), a short film made for $20,000 connecting multiple story lines with a twenty-dollar bill. The film was screened at the 1993 Sundance Festival Shorts Program. He decided to expand the film into a feature length film and was subsequently invited to the 1994 Sundance Feature Film Program. At Sundance Feature Film Program, Michael Caton-Jones served as Anderson's mentor; he saw Anderson as someone with "talent and a fully formed creative voice but not much hands-on experience" and gave him some hard and practical lessons.
While at the Sundance Feature Film Program, Anderson already had a deal with Rysher Entertainment to direct his first feature. In 1996, Anderson made his first full-length feature, Sydney, which was retitled Hard Eight (1996). Upon completion of the film, Rysher re-edited it. Anderson, who still had the workprint of his original cut, submitted the film, which was accepted and screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival. Anderson was able to get his version released but only after he retitled the film and raised the $200,000 necessary to finish it; he, Philip Baker Hall, Gwyneth Paltrow, and John C. Reilly contributed the funding. The version that was released was Anderson's and the acclaim from the film launched his career.
Anderson began working on the script for his next feature film during his troubles with Hard Eight, completing the script in 1995. The result was Anderson's breakout film Boogie Nights (1997), a full-length major motion picture based on his short The Dirk Diggler Story. The script was noticed by New Line Cinemas president, Michael De Luca, who felt "totally gaga" reading it. It was released on October 10, 1997 and was a critical and commercial success. The film revived the career of Burt Reynolds and provided breakout roles for Mark Wahlberg and Julianne Moore. At 70th Academy Awards, the film received three Academy Award nominations, for Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Burt Reynolds), Best Actress in a Supporting Role (Julianne Moore), and Best Original Screenplay.
After the success of Boogie Nights, New Line told Anderson that he could do whatever he wanted for his next film and granted him creative control. Though Anderson initially wanted to make a film that was "intimate and small-scale", the script "kept blossoming". The resulting film was the ensemble piece Magnolia (1999), which tells the story of the peculiar interaction of several individuals in the San Fernando Valley. Anderson used the music of Aimee Mann as a basis and inspiration for the film, commissioning her to write eight new songs. At the 72nd Academy Awards, Magnolia received three nominations, for Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Tom Cruise), Best Original Song for "Save Me" by Aimee Mann and Best Original Screenplay. Anderson stated after the film's release that "what I really feel is that Magnolia is, for better or worse, the best movie I'll ever make."
After the release of Magnolia, Anderson stated that he would like to work with Adam Sandler in the future and that he was determined to make his next film 90 minutes long. His next feature was the comedy/romance film Punch-Drunk Love (2002), partly based on David Phillips (also called The Pudding Guy). The film starred Adam Sandler with Emily Watson portraying his love interest. The story centers on a beleaguered small-business owner (Sandler) with anger issues and seven emasculating sisters. Sandler received critical praise for his role in his first major departure from the mainstream comedies that had made him a star. At the 2002 Cannes Film Festival, the film won best director and was nominated for the Golden Palm.
There Will Be BloodEdit
There Will Be Blood (2007) was loosely based on the Upton Sinclair novel Oil!. The budget of the film was $25 million, and it earned $76.1 million worldwide. Daniel Day-Lewis starred and won an Oscar for Best Leading Actor for his role. The film received eight nominations overall at the 80th Academy Awards. Paul Dano received a BAFTA nomination for Best Supporting Actor. Anderson was nominated for Best Director from the Directors Guild of America. The film also received eight Academy Award nominations, tying with No Country for Old Men for the most nominations. Anderson received nominations for Best Picture, Best Director and Best Adapted Screenplay, losing all three to the Coen Brothers for No Country for Old Men. There Will Be Blood was regarded by some critics as one of the greatest films of the decade, and some parties further declaring it one of the most accomplished American films of the modern era; David Denby of The New Yorker wrote "the young writer-director Paul Thomas Anderson has now done work that bears comparison to the greatest achievements of Griffith and Ford", while Richard Schickel proclaimed it "one of the most wholly original American movies ever made".
In December 2009, Anderson was working on a new script tentatively titled The Master, about a "charismatic intellectual" who starts a new religion in the 1950s. Though the film makes no reference to the movement, it has "long been widely assumed to be based on Scientology." The Master was released on September 14, 2012 by The Weinstein Company in the United States and Canada to critical acclaim. The film received three nominations at the 85th Academy Awards: Joaquin Phoenix for Best Leading Actor, Philip Seymour Hoffman for Best Supporting Actor and Amy Adams for Best Supporting Actress.
Production of Anderson's adaptation of Thomas Pynchon's 2009 novel Inherent Vice began in May 2013 and ended in August of the same year. The film marks the first time that Pynchon allowed his work to be adapted for the screen and will see Anderson team up with Phoenix for a second time. The supporting cast includes Owen Wilson, Reese Witherspoon, Jena Malone, Martin Short, Benicio Del Toro, Sean Penn, Katherine Waterston, Josh Brolin, Peter McRobbie and Eric Roberts.
Anderson was a standby director during the 2005 filming of Robert Altman's A Prairie Home Companion for insurance purposes, as Altman was 80 years old at the time. In addition to films, Anderson has directed several music videos, including several for musician Fiona Apple. In 2008, Anderson co-wrote and directed a 70-minute play at the Largo Theatre, comprising a series of vignettes starring Maya Rudolph and Fred Armisen, with a live musical score by Jon Brion.
Influences and styleEdit
Anderson only attended film school for two days, preferring to learn the craft by watching films by the filmmakers he liked, as well as watching films accompanied by director's audio commentary. In 2012 at Australia's Melbourne premiere of The Master at The Astor Theatre, Anderson spoke candidly of his brief experiences at film school, remarking of his frustration at the 'dull silent movies' displayed by lecturers who tried to make movie watching feel 'as much like homework as possible.' Anderson cites Martin Scorsese, Robert Altman, Jonathan Demme, Stanley Kubrick, Orson Welles, and Max Ophüls as his main influences as a filmmaker.
Themes and styleEdit
Anderson is known for films set in the San Fernando Valley with realistically flawed and desperate characters. Among the themes dealt with in Anderson's films are dysfunctional familial relationships, alienation, surrogate families, regret, loneliness, destiny, the power of forgiveness, and ghosts of the past. Anderson's films are known for their bold visual style which includes stylistic trademarks such as constantly moving camera, steadicam-based long takes, memorable use of music, and multilayered audiovisual imagery. Anderson also tends to reference the Book of Exodus, either explicitly or subtly, such as in recurring references to Exodus 8:2 in Magnolia, which chronicles the Plague of frogs, culminating with the literal raining of frogs in the film's climax, or the title and themes in There will be blood, a phrase that can be found in Exodus 7:19, which details the Plague of blood.
Within his first three films, Hard Eight, Boogie Nights, and Magnolia, Anderson explored themes of dysfunctional families, alienation, and loneliness. Boogie Nights and Magnolia were noted for their large ensemble casts. In Punch-Drunk Love, Anderson explored similar themes but expressed a different visual style, shedding the influences and references of his earlier films, being more surreal and having a heightened sense of reality. It was also short, compared to his previous two films, at 90 minutes. There Will Be Blood stood apart from his first four films but shared similar themes and style such as flawed characters, moving camera, memorable music, and a lengthy running time. The film was more overtly engaged with politics than his previous films had been, examining capitalism and themes such as savagery, optimism, and obsession.
Anderson frequently collaborates with many actors and crew, carrying them over from film to film. Anderson has referred to his regular actors as "my little rep company" that includes John C. Reilly, Philip Baker Hall, Philip Seymour Hoffman, Julianne Moore, William H. Macy, and Melora Walters. Luis Guzmán is also considered an Anderson regular. Hoffman acted in Anderson's first four films as well as The Master. With the exception of Paul F. Tompkins, who had an equally minor role in Magnolia, There Will Be Blood had an entirely new cast. Additionally, Robert Elswit has been cinematographer for Anderson's first five features and returned for Inherent Vice. Jon Brion has served as composer for three of his films (Hard Eight, Magnolia, and Punch-Drunk Love), and Jonny Greenwood has served as composer on three (There Will Be Blood, The Master and Inherent Vice). Anderson also regularly works with producing partners JoAnne Sellar, Scott Rudin, Michael De Luca, and Daniel Lupi as well as casting director Cassandra Kulukundis.
Anderson has been in a relationship with actress and comedienne Maya Rudolph since 2001. They live together in Los Angeles with their four children: daughters Pearl Minnie (born October 2005) and Lucille (born November 2009), son Jack (born July 2011), and another daughter Minnie Ida (August 2013).
|Year||Film||Credited as||Rotten Tomatoes|
|1996||Hard Eight (also known as Sydney)||Yes||Yes||82%|
|2007||There Will Be Blood||Yes||Yes||Yes||91%|
Awards and recognitionEdit
Anderson has been hailed as "one of the most exciting talents to come along in years" and "among the supreme talents of today." After the release of Boogie Nights and Magnolia, Anderson was praised as a wunderkind. In 2004, Anderson was ranked twenty-first on The Guardian's list of the forty best directors. In 2007, Total Film named him the twentieth greatest director of all time and the American Film Institute regarded him as "one of American film's modern masters." In 2012, The Guardian ranked him number one on its list of "The 23 Best Film Directors in the World," stating "his dedication to his craft has intensified, with his disdain for PR and celebrity marking him out as the most devout filmmaker of his generation." In 2013, Entertainment Weekly named him the eighth-greatest working director, calling him "one of the most dynamic directors to emerge in the last 20 years." In a podcast interview with critic Elvis Mitchell, director Sam Mendes referred to Anderson as "a true auteur – and there are very few of those who I would classify as geniuses", and Ben Affleck in his acceptance speech for the Golden Globe Award for Best Director said "Paul Thomas Anderson, who I think is like Orson Welles."
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paul Thomas Anderson.|
- Paul Thomas Anderson at the Internet Movie Database
- Paul Thomas Anderson Resource | Cigarettes & Red Vines | 1999–2011
- Esquire magazine profile