|Born||Paul Bede Johnson
2 November 1928
|Known for||Editor of the New Statesman (1965–70)|
|Spouse(s)||Marigold Hunt (m. 1957)|
Paul Bede Johnson (born 2 November 1928) is an English journalist, historian, speechwriter and author. He was educated at the Jesuit independent school Stonyhurst College, and at Magdalen College, Oxford. Johnson first came to prominence in the 1950s as a journalist writing for, and later editing, the New Statesman magazine.
A prolific writer, he has written over 40 books and contributed to numerous magazines and newspapers. While associated with the left in his early career, he is now a conservative popular historian. His sons are the journalist Daniel Johnson, founder of Standpoint, and the businessman Luke Johnson, former chairman of Channel 4.
Early life and careerEdit
Johnson was born in Manchester, England. His father, William Aloysius Johnson, was an artist and Principal of the Art School in Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire. At Stonyhurst, Johnson received an education grounded in the Jesuit method, which he preferred over the more secularized curriculum of Oxford. One of his tutors at Oxford was the historian A. J. P. Taylor.
After graduating with a second-class honours degree, Johnson performed his national service in the Army, joining the King's Royal Rifle Corps and then the Royal Army Educational Corps, where he was commissioned as a Captain (acting) based mainly in Gibraltar. Here he saw the "grim misery and cruelty of the Franco regime". Johnson's military record helped the Paris periodical Realités hire him, where he was assistant editor from 1952 to 1955.
Johnson adopted a left-wing political outlook during this period as he witnessed, in May 1952, the police response to a riot in Paris, the "ferocity [of which] I would not have believed had I not seen it with my own eyes." Subsequently, he also served as the New Statesman’s Paris correspondent. For a time he was a convinced Bevanite and an associate of Aneurin Bevan himself. Moving back to London in 1955, Johnson joined the Statesman's staff.
Some of Johnson's writing already showed signs of iconoclasm. His first book, about the Suez War, appeared in 1957. An anonymous commentator in The Spectator wrote that "one of his [Johnson's] remarks about Mr. Gaitskell is quite as damaging as anything he has to say about Sir Anthony Eden", but the Labour Party's opposition to the Suez intervention led Johnson to assert "the old militant spirit of the party was back". The following year, he attacked Ian Fleming's James Bond novel Dr No and in 1964 he warned of "The Menace of Beatlism" in an article contemporarily described as being "rather exaggerated" by Henry Fairlie in The Spectator.
He was successively lead writer, deputy editor and editor of the New Statesman magazine from 1965 to 1970. He was found suspect for his attendances at the soirées of Lady Antonia Fraser, then married to a Conservative MP. There was some resistance to his appointment as New Statesman editor, not least from the writer Leonard Woolf, who objected to a Catholic filling the position, and Johnson was placed on six months' probation.
Statesmen And Nations (1971), the anthology of his Statesman articles, contains numerous reviews of biographies of Conservative politicians and an openness to continental Europe; in one article Johnson took a positive view of events of May 1968 in Paris, an article which at the time of first publication led Colin Welch in The Spectator to accuse Johnson of possessing "a taste for violence". According to this book, Johnson filed 54 overseas reports during his Statesman years.
Shift to the rightEdit
During the 1970s Johnson became increasingly conservative in his outlook, and has largely remained so. In his Enemies of Society (1977), following a series of articles in the British press, he opposed the trade union movement, perceiving it as violent and intolerant, terming trade unionists "fascists". As Britain’s economy faltered, Johnson began to advocate the future British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher’s message of less government and less taxation. He was eventually won over to the Right and became one of Thatcher's closest advisers. "In the 1970s Britain was on its knees. The Left had no answers. I became disgusted by the over-powerful trade unions which were destroying Britain," he recalled in 2004. After Thatcher's victory in the general election of 1979 Johnson advised on changes to legislation concerning trade unions, and was also one of Thatcher's speechwriters. Johnson was quoted in 2004:
"'I was instantly drawn to her,' he recalls. 'I’d known Margaret at Oxford. She was not a party person. She was an individual who made up her own mind. People would say that she was much influenced by Karl Popper or Frederick Hayek. The result was that Thatcher followed three guiding principles: truthfulness, honesty and never borrowing money.'"
From 1981 to 2009, Johnson wrote a column for The Spectator; initially focusing on media developments, it subsequently acquired the title "And Another Thing". In his journalism, Johnson generally deals with issues and events which he sees as indicative of a general social decline, whether in art, education, religious observance or personal conduct. He has continued to contribute to the magazine, though less frequently than before. During the same period he contributed a column to the Daily Mail until 2001. In a Daily Telegraph interview in November 2003, he criticised the Mail for having a pernicious impact: "I came to the conclusion that that kind of journalism is bad for the country, bad for society, bad for the newspaper".
Johnson is a regular contributor to The Daily Telegraph, mainly as a book reviewer, and in the United States to The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Commentary and the National Review. He also writes for Forbes magazine. For a time in the early 1980s he wrote for The Sun after Rupert Murdoch urged him to "raise its tone a bit".
Johnson is a critic of modernity because of what he sees as its moral relativism, and finds objectionable those who use Charles Darwin's theory of evolution to justify their atheism or use it to promote biotechnological experimentation. As a result of Johnson's views on evolution, Richard Dawkins and Steven Pinker have been a target of Johnson's criticism. As a conservative Catholic, Johnson regards liberation theology as a heresy and defends clerical celibacy, but departs from others in seeing many good reasons for ordination of women as priests.
Admired by conservatives in the United States and elsewhere, he is strongly anti-communist. Johnson has defended Richard Nixon in the Watergate scandal, finding his cover-up considerably less heinous than Bill Clinton's perjury, and Oliver North's involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair. In his Spectator column, Johnson defended his friend Jonathan Aitken, has expressed admiration for General Augusto Pinochet and (qualified) admiration for General Franco.
Johnson was active in the campaign, led by Norman Lamont, to prevent General Pinochet's extradition to Spain, following the General's arrest in London. "There have been countless attempts to link him to human rights atrocities, but nobody has provided a single scrap of evidence," Johnson was reported as saying in 1999. In Heroes (2008), Johnson returned to his longstanding claim that criticism of Pinochet's regime on human rights grounds came from "the Soviet Union, whose propaganda machine successfully demonised [Pinochet] among the chattering classes all over the world. It was the last triumph of the KGB before it vanished into history's dustbin." He has described France as "a republic run by bureaucratic and party elites, whose errors are dealt with by strikes, street riots and blockades" rather than a democracy.
He served on the Royal Commission on the Press (1974–77) and was a member of the Cable Authority (regulator) from 1984 to 1990.
In 2006 Johnson was honoured with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by U.S. President George W. Bush. On the BBC programme Desert Island Discs in January 2012, Johnson professed himself unimpressed by Nelson Mandela.
Paul Johnson has been married to the psychotherapist and former Labour Party parliamentary candidate Marigold Hunt since 1958. They have three sons and a daughter: the journalist Daniel Johnson, a freelance writer, editor of Standpoint magazine, and previously associate editor of The Daily Telegraph, who is married to the writer and birth educator Sarah Johnson née Thompson; Luke Johnson, businessman and former chairman of Channel 4 Television; Cosmo Johnson; and Sophie Johnson-Clark, who has worked as a television script editor and now resides in the US and is married to Spike Vrusho (aka Mike Clark), the underground sportswriter and author. Paul and Marigold Johnson have ten grandchildren.
In 1998 it was revealed Johnson had an affair lasting eleven years with the writer Gloria Stewart. Stewart went public with the affair to the newspapers after what she saw as Johnson’s hypocrisy over his views on morality, religion and family values.
Johnson is a watercolourist, painting mainly landscapes, who has exhibited regularly.
Johnson's books are listed by subject or type. The country of publication is the UK, unless stated otherwise.
Anthologies, polemics & contemporary historyEdit
- Johnson, Paul Bede; Abel-Smith, Brian; Calder, Nigel; Hoggart, Richard; Jones, Mervyn; Marris, Peter; Murdoch, Iris; Shore, Peter; Thomas, Hugh; Townsend, Peter; Williams, Raymond (1957), "A Sense of Outrage", in Mackenzie, Norman Ian, Conviction, London, ENG, UK: MacGibbon & Kee, pp. 202–17.
- Johnson, Paul Bede (1957), The Suez War, London, ENG, UK: MacGibbon & Kee.
- ——— (1958), Journey Into Chaos, Western Policy in the Middle East, London, ENG, UK: MacGibbon & Kee.
- ——— (1971), Statesmen and Nations, Sidgwick & Jackson. An anthology of New Statesman articles from the 1950s and 1960s. Often surprisingly mild in tone given Johnson's later development.
- ——— (1977), Enemies of Society, Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
- ——— (1980), The Recovery of Freedom, Mainstream, Basil Blackwell.
- ——— (1981), Davis, William, ed., The Best of Everything – Animals, Business, Drink, Travel, Food, Literature, Medicine, Playtime, Politics, Theatre, Young World, Art, Communications, Law and Crime, Films, Pop Culture, Sport, Women's Fashion, Men's Fashion, Music, Military – contributor.
- ——— (1985), The Pick of Paul Johnson, Harrap.
- ——— (1991) , The Oxford Book of Political Anecdotes (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press.
- ——— (1988), Intellectuals, Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
- 1994 The Quotable Paul Johnson A Topical Compilation of His Wit, Wisdom and Satire (George J. Marlin, Richard P. Rabatin, Heather Higgins (Editors)) 1994 Noonday Press/1996 Atlantic Books(US)
- 1994 Wake Up Britain – a Latter-day Pamphlet Weidenfeld & Nicolson
- 1996 To Hell with Picasso & Other Essays: Selected Pieces from “The Spectator” Weidenfeld & Nicolson
- 2009 Churchill (biography), 192 pp.
- 2012 Darwin: Portrait of a genius (Viking, 176 pages)
Art & architectureEdit
- 1980 British Cathedrals Weidenfeld & Nicolson ISBN 0-297-77828-5
- 1993 Gerald Laing : Portraits Thomas Gibson Fine Art Ltd (with Gerald Laing & David Mellor MP)
- 1999 Julian Barrow's London Fine Art Society
- 2003 Art: A New History Weidenfeld & Nicolson
- 1972 The Offshore Islanders: England's People from Roman Occupation to the Present/to European Entry [1985ed as History of the English People; 1998ed as Offshore Islanders: A History of the English People] Weidenfeld & Nicolson
- 1974 Elizabeth I: a Study in Power and Intellect Weidenfeld & Nicolson
- 1974 The Life and Times of Edward III Weidenfeld & Nicolson
- 1976 Civilizations of the Holy Land Weidenfeld & Nicolson
- 1976 A History of Christianity
- 1977 Education of an Establishment in The World Of the Public School (pp13–28), edited by George MacDonald Fraser, Weidenfeld & Nicolson /St Martins Press (US edition)
- 1978 The Civilization of Ancient Egypt Weidenfeld & Nicolson
- 1981 Ireland: A Concise History from the Twelfth Century to the Present Day [as ...Land of Troubles 1980 Eyre Methuen] Granada
- 1983 A History of the Modern World from 1917 to the 1980s Weidenfeld & Nicholson
- 1984 Modern Times: A History of the World from the 1920s to the 1980s Weidenfeld & Nicolson [later, ...Present Time and ...Year 2000 2005 ed] Weidenfeld & Nicolson
- 1987 Gold Fields A Centenary Portrait Weidenfeld & Nicolson
- 1987 The History of the Jews [2001ed] Weidenfeld & Nicolson (later editions titled A History of the Jews)
- 1991 The Birth of the Modern: World Society 1815-1830 Weidenfeld & Nicolson
- 1996 The Holocaust Phoenix [pages 482 to 517 of A History of the Jews]
- 1997 A History of the American People Weidenfeld & Nicolson ISBN 0-06-093034-9 
- 2002 The Renaissance [: A Short History *] Weidenfeld & Nicolson/*Random House (USA)
- 2002 Napoleon (Lives S.) Weidenfeld & Nicolson [2003 Phoenix pbk]
- 2005 George Washington: The Founding Father (Eminent Lives Series) Atlas Books
- 2006 Creators HarperCollins Publishers (USA) ISBN 0-06-019143-0
- 2007 Heroes HarperCollins Publishers (USA) ISBN 978-0-06-114316-8; ISBN 0-06-114316-2; HarperCollins Publishing link to book
- 2010 Humorists HarperCollins Publishers (USA) ISBN 978-0-06-182591-0
- 2011 Socrates Viking (USA)
- 2004 The Vanished Landscape: A 1930s Childhood in the Potteries Weidenfeld & Nicolson: ISBN 978-0-7538-1933-3
- 2010 Brief Lives Hutchinson
- 1959 Left of Centre MacGibbon & Kee ["Left Of Centre describes the meeting of a Complacent Young Man with an Angry Old City"]
- 1964 Merrie England MacGibbon & Kee
- 1975 Pope John XXIII Hutchinson
- 1977 A History of Christianity Weidenfeld & Nicolson /1976 Simon & Schuster /Atheneum (USA)
- 1982 Pope John Paul II And The Catholic Restoration St Martins Press
- 1996 The Quest for God: A Personal Pilgrimage Weidenfeld & Nicolson/HarperCollins (USA)
- 1997 The Papacy Weidenfeld & Nicolson
- 2010 Jesus: A Biography From a Believer Penguin Books
- 1973 The Highland Jaunt Collins (with George Gale)
- 1974 A Place in History: Places & Buildings Of British History Omega [Thames TV (UK) tie-in]
- 1978 National Trust Book of British Castles Granada Paperback [1992 Weidenfeld ed as Castles Of England, Scotland And Wales]
- 1984 The Aerofilms Book of London from the Air Weidenfeld & Nicolson
References and sourcesEdit
- As he saw it in his 1957 "Conviction" essay.
- Johnson, Paul Bede (22 July 2000), "Bugles softly blowing, national service was a time to treasure", The Spectator (Find articles).
- Conviction, p 206
- "A Spectator' Notebook", The Spectator, 25 January 1957, p.7
- Johnson, Paul Bede (5 April 1958), "Sex, Snobbery and Sadism", New Statesman, in Howe, Stephen, ed. (1988), Lines of Dissent: Writings from the "New Statesman", London: Verso, pp. 151–54.
- New Statesman, 28 February 1964: 326–27.
- Henry Fairlie "Beatles and Babies", The Spectator, 6 March 1964, p.4
- Colin Welch "AfterThought: Imbecile Power", The Spectator, 30 May 1968, p.31
- Jeremy Bradshaw "Paul Johnson: George Bush Is the Next Thatcher", newsmax.com, 30 July 2004
- Contributor: Paul Johnson, spectator.co.uk website
- Damian Thompson "'I'm very fond of that boy Tony'", Daily Telegraph, 3 November 2003
- Contributor page: Paul Johnson, Forbes.com
- Paul Johnson "And Another Thing", The Spectator, 29 January 1994, p.21
- Paul Johnson "What the temptations on the high mountain mean today", The Spectator, 28 February 2009
- Paul Johnson "And Another Thing - Shaping up for a new moral catastrophe in the 21st century", The Spectator, 16 October 1998, p.26
- Paul Johnson "The ayatollah of atheism and Darwin’s altars", The Spectator, 27 August 2005
- Paul Johnson "And Another Thing - An entertaining evening finding out how Professor Pinker's mind works", The Spectator, 31 January 1998, p.22
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- Paul Johnson "In Praise of Richard Nixon", Commentary, 86:4, October 1988, p.50-53
- Paul Johnson "And Another Thing - The Aitken case: who is holding the scales of justice tilted?", The Spectator, 28 March 1998, p.19
- "Pinochet remains a hero to me because I know the facts" (from Heroes, cited by Richard Lourie "Heroes Are People, Too", The Washington Post, 2 December 2007
- Paul Johnson "And Another Thing - Here is my list of the century's greatest political figures", The Spectator, 13 November 1999, p.38
- Nick Hopkins "Rightwing fan club tinkers with Chile history", The Guardian, 20 January 1999
- Paul Johnson "She crucified her enemies and burnt London to the ground. Meet Britain's first feminist, Boadicea", Daily Mail, 6 February 2008 [extracts from Heroes (2008)]
- Paul Johnson "Anti-Americanism Is Racist Envy", Forbes, 21 July 2003
- "Paul Johnson", Desert Island Discs, 15 January 2012
- Elizabeth Grice "Paul Johnson: 'After 70 you begin to mellow'", Daily Telegraph, 4 June 2010
- Christopher Hitchens "The Rise and Fall of Paul "Spanker" Johnson", salon, [28 May 1998][dead link]
- Foreman, Jonathan (10 December 2009), "Winston Churchill, Distilled", The Wall Street Journal: D6.
- Robin Blackburn "A Fabian at the End of His Tether" (New Statesman 14 December 1979, reprinted in Stephen Howe (ed) Lines of Dissent: Writings from the New Statesman 1913-88 London: Verso, 1988, pp284–96
- Christopher Booker The Seventies: Portrait of a Decade Allen Lane, 1980 (chapters: "Paul Johnson: The Convert Who Went over the Top" pp238–44 and "Facing the Catastrophe" pp304–7
- Official Website: The Paul Johnson Archives
- Feud - and it's a scorcher! - article by John Walsh on Johnson's differences with The Guardian in The Independent 28 July 1997
- New York Times Featured Author 9 September 2000: Paul Johnson
- White House press release regarding Presidential Medal of Freedom awarded to Johnson
- Paul Johnson's articles and interviews (English and Spanish)
- Booknotes interview with Johnson on A History of the American People, 5 April 1998.
- Johnson, Paul Bede (7 February 2010), In Depth (video) (interview), C-Span.
- The Weekend Interview with Paul Johnson: Why America Will Stay on Top by Brian Carney (Wall Street Journal, 5 March 2011)
- Paul Johnson on BBC Radio 4's Desert Island Discs, 15 January 2012
|Editor of the New Statesman