Last modified on 11 October 2014, at 23:04

Oghur languages

Not to be confused with Uyghur language or Oghuz languages.
Oghur
Geographic
distribution:
Astrakhan Oblast, Chuvashia, Dagestan
Linguistic classification: Turkic
  • Oghur
Subdivisions:
Glottolog: bolg1249[1]

The Oghur, or Bulgar languages (also spelled Ogur, Oghur, Oguric; Bulghar, Bolgar, and variants; also known as Lir-Turkic), are a branch of the Turkic language family. It was historically spoken in the Hunnic Empire, Old Great Bulgaria (Magna Bulgaria/Onoguria), and later in Danube Bulgar Khanate (Danube Bulgaria) and Volga Bulgaria. Its only extant member is the Chuvash language. This branch arguably broke off from Common Turkic perhaps as early as 500 BCE.[2]

Languages from this family were spoken in some of the nomadic tribal confederations, such as the Onogurs, Bulgars, and Khazars, and possibly by the Huns and Eurasian Avars. It's uncertain whether Chuvash is directly descended from any of these, or is a separate branch within this dialect group (Johanson 1998).

The Oghur group is characterized by the sound correspondences Oghuric l vs. Common Turkic (i.e. non-Oghur-Turkic) š and Oghuric r vs. Common Turkic z, for which reason it is also known as "Lir-Turkic", or "r-Turkic". The name oghur itself is an example of the r/z isogloss, being cognate with Oghuz in Common Turkic. "dj-Turkic" is also used for Oghur, in reference to a sound change from i- to dj-.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Oghur". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Pter Golden, 'The Khazar Sacral Kingship' in Kathryn Von Reyerson, Theofanis George Stavrou,James Donald Tracy (eds.) Pre-modern Russia and its world:Essays in Honour of Thomas S. Noonan, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 2006 p.86.

LiteratureEdit

  • Brook, Kevin Alan. 2004. "Tales about Jewish Khazars in the Byzantine Empire Resolve an Old Debate". Los Muestros No. 54, pp. 27–29.[1]
  • Brook, Kevin Alan. 2006. The Jews of Khazaria. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2nd ed. (1999. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson, 1st ed.[2]
  • Clark, Larry. 1998. "Chuvash." In: Johanson & Csató, pp. 434–452.
  • Clauson, Gerard. 1972. An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Décsy, Gyula. 1998. The Turkic protolanguage: A computational reconstruction. Bloomington, IN: Eurolingua.
  • Dunlop, Douglas M. 1954. The History of the Jewish Khazars. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Gmyrya, L. 1995. Hun country at the Caspian Gate: Caspian Dagestan during the epoch of the Great Movement of Peoples. Makhachkala: Dagestan Publishing.
  • Golb, Norman & Omeljan Pritsak. 1982. Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press.
  • Golden, Peter B. 1980. Khazar Studies: An Historio-Philological Inquiry into the Origins of the Khazars. Budapest: Akademia Kiado.
  • Golden, Peter B. 1998. "The Turkic peoples: A historical sketch." In: Johanson & Csató, pp. 16–29.
  • Johanson, Lars & Éva Agnes Csató (ed.). 1998. The Turkic languages. London: Routledge.
  • Johanson, Lars. 1998. "The history of Turkic." In: Johanson & Csató, pp. 81–125.[3]
  • Johanson, Lars. 1998. "Turkic languages." In: Encyclopædia Britannica. CD 98. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 5 sept. 2007.[4]
  • Johanson, Lars. 2000. "Linguistic convergence in the Volga area." In: Gilbers, Dicky & Nerbonne, John & Jos Schaeken (ed.). Languages in contact. Amsterdam & Atlanta: Rodopi. (Studies in Slavic and General linguistics 28.), pp. 165–178.[5]
  • Johanson, Lars. 2007. Chuvash. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier.
  • Krueger, John. 1961. Chuvash Manual. Bloomington: Indiana University Publications.
  • Liptak, Pal. 1983. Avars and Ancient Hungarians. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado.
  • Maenchen-Helfen, Otto J. 1973. The world of the Huns: Studies in their history and culture. Berkeley: University of California Press.[6]
  • Menges, K. H. 1968. The Turkic languages and peoples: An introduction to Turkic studies. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • Paasonen, Heikki. 1949. Gebräuche und Volksdichtung der Tschuwassen. Gesammelt von Heikki Paasonen. Herausgegeben von Eino Karahka und Martti Räsänen. Helsinki: Suomalais-ugrilainen Seura (Suomalais-ugrilaisen Seuran toimituksia, vol. 94).
  • Pohl, Walter. 1988. Die Awaren: Ein Steppenvolk in Mitteleuropa 567 – 822 n. Chr. Munich: Verlag C. H. Beck.
  • Pritsak, Omeljan. 1982. "The Hunnic Language of the Attila Clan." Havard Ukrainian Studies, vol. 6, pp. 428–476.
  • Rashev, Rasho. 1992. "On the origin of the Proto-Bulgarians." In: Studia protobulgarica et mediaevalia europensia. In honour of Prof. V. Beshevliev. Veliko Tarnovo, pp. 23–33.[7]
  • Róna-Tas, András. 1996. "The migration and landtaking of the Magyars." The Hungarian Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 144, p. 37–41.
  • Róna-Tas, András. 1998. "The reconstruction of Proto-Turkic and the genetic question." In: Johanson & Csató, pp. 67–80.
  • Samoilovich, A. N. 1922. Some additions to the classification of the Turkic languages. Petrograd.[8]
  • Schönig, Claus. 1997–1998. "A new attempt to classify the Turkic languages I-III." Turkic Languages 1:1.117–133, 1:2.262–277, 2:1.130–151.
  • Vajda, Edward J. 2000. Review of Décsy (1998). Language 76.473-474.

External linksEdit