|President of Apulia|
|Member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies|
26 August 1958 |
|Political party||Left Ecology Freedom|
Born in Terlizzi, province of Bari (Puglia) on 26 August 1958, Vendola had been a member of the Italian Communist Youth Federation since the age of 14; he studied literature in university, presenting a dissertation about the poet and film director Pier Paolo Pasolini.
Vendola then went on to become a journalist for l'Unità, and a leading member of the Italian gay organisation Arcigay. A member of the National Secretariat of the Italian Communist Party, he fiercely opposed the dissolution of the party proposed by Achille Occhetto in 1991, which lead to the formation of the Democratic Party of the Left. Vendola instead joined the Communist Refoundation Party.
In 1992, Vendola was elected to the Chamber of Deputies, to a seat which he held until 2005. As a member of the Antimafia Commission, he came to prominence as a strong opponent of the Mafia and organised crime presence in the economy and society.
In 2005, Vendola ran for the first primary election ever held in Italy, held by the centre-left coalition The Union to choose their candidate for the presidency of the Apulia region. He won the primary over the rival Francesco Boccia. Many moderates in the alliance criticised the choice, since it appeared impossible that a communist and homosexual could be elected president of a southern Italian region such as Apulia, generally considered to be conservative and strongly Catholic. Vendola, though, declares himself as "believer" (in the line of Pax Christi): he once said that "the most important book for a communist like me is the Bible".
In the regional election in Apulia, held in April 2005, he narrowly defeated the outgoing president Raffaele Fitto, candidate for the centre-right coalition the House of Freedoms, thus becoming the first member of the Communist Refoundation Party to be elected as president of any Italian region.
Vendola is also a poet: some of his poems have been collected in a book, named L'ultimo mare ("The last sea"). His figure has inspired a biographical film, Nichi.
Vendola was one of the two major candidates running for the place of Chairman of the Communist Refoundation party in the July 2008 congress, but lost to an alliance led by the other major candidate, Paolo Ferrero, formerly Minister for Social Solidarity in the Prodi II Cabinet. Following the defeat, Vendola's supporters have renounced to all positions as party executives. On 24 January 2009, at Chianciano Terme, Vendola split from Communist Refoundation and founded the Movement for the Left. In December 2009, Vendola became the first leader of the newly-founded party Left Ecology Freedom, which the Movement for the Left had fully merged into.
In late 2009, his candidacy for re-election was put under question by his centre-left allies from the Democratic Party, who asked him to step down in order to allow the choice of a candidate able to achieve wider support from other political parties, namely the Christian-democratic Union of the Centre. After Vendola refused to step down, chances of having a new primary election quickly increased, and, after some weeks of heated debate, they were ultimately called for 24 January 2010, with Francesco Boccia once again running as Vendola's challenger, supported by the Democratic Party. Vendola easily won the election with more than 67% of the votes, being therefore picked again as leader of the centre-left coalition, and went on to defeat centre-right candidate Rocco Palese by a wide margin.
In July 2010, during a general congress of the so-called "Factories of Nichi", Mr. Vendola announced his candidacy for the Primary Elections of the Italian centre-left, which should anticipate the 2013 Italian general elections. Following his candidacy, the Democratic Party judged sharply his candidacy, while nationwide polls show Vendola winning either over Democratic Party Secretary Pier Luigi Bersani, and Silvio Berlusconi, the Prime Minister of Italy at the time.
- Damiani, Marco (2011). "Nichi Vendola: For the New ‘Laboratory’ of the Italian Left". Bulletin of Italian Politics 3 (2): 371–390. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- Mark Mardell (6 April 2006). "Europe diary: Italian reds". BBC. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
- Horowitz, Jason (January 19, 2011). "Nichi Vendola, a gay, ex-communist governor, becomes the unlikely rival to Italy's Berlusconi". Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-01-23.
- Ireland, Doug (November 11, 2010). "A gay prime minister for Italy?". Gay City News. Retrieved 2010-11-13.
- Madar, Chase (January 2011). "Nichi Vendola, the Italian Obama". Le Monde diplomatique. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
- Mane, Saviona (October 20, 2010). "Catholic, communist and gay". Haaretz. Retrieved 2010-11-13.
- Willan, Philip (December 12, 2010). "Gay left-winger gives electorate a real alternative to Berslusconi era". Herald Scotland. Retrieved 2010-12-12.
- (Italian) La fabbrica di nichi
- "i-Italy Meets Nichi Vendola" (video). i-Italy. November 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-04.
- Could Puglia governor Nichi Vendola be 'Italy's Obama'?, BBC News profile of Vendola, December 2010
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