|Metropolis, Capital of Maharashtra state|
|Nickname(s): City of Seven Islands, City of Dreams, Gateway of India, Hollywood of India|
|Native Language||Marathi |
|• Mayor||Snehal Ambekar (SS)|
|• Municipal commissioner||Sitaram Kunte|
|• Metropolis, Capital of Maharashtra state||603 km2 (233 sq mi)|
|• Metro||4,355 km2 (1,681.5 sq mi)|
|Elevation||14 m (46 ft)|
|• Metropolis, Capital of Maharashtra state||12,478,447|
|• Density||21,000/km2 (54,000/sq mi)|
|• Urban||18,414,288 (1st)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|ZIP code(s)||400 001 to 400 107|
|Vehicle registration||MH- 01, 02, 03, 47|
Mumbai (//; also known as Bombay) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, most populous metropolitan area in India, and the eighth most populous city in the world, with an estimated city population of 18.4 million and metropolitan area population of 20.7 million as of 2011. Along with the urban areas, including the cities of Navi Mumbai, Thane, Bhiwandi, Kalyan, it is one of the most populous urban regions in the world. Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2009, Mumbai was named an alpha world city. It is also the wealthiest city in India, and has the highest GDP of any city in South, West or Central Asia. Mumbai has the highest number of billionaires and millionaires than any other city in India.
The seven islands that came to constitute Mumbai were home to communities of fishing colonies. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese and subsequently to the British East India Company when in 1661 King Charles II married the Portuguese Catherine of Braganza, and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and seven islands of Bombay. During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterized by economic and educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. The city was renamed Mumbai in 1996.
Mumbai is the financial, commercial and entertainment capital of India. It is also one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India (Mumbai Port Trust and JNPT), and 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations. It is also home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like BARC, NPCL, IREL, TIFR, AERB, AECI, and the Department of Atomic Energy. The city also houses India's Hindi (Bollywood) and Marathi film and television industry. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures.
The name Mumbai is derived from Mumba or Maha-Amba—the name of the Koli goddess Mumbadevi—and Aai, "mother" in the language of Marathi, the mother tongue of the Kolis and the official language of Maharashtra.
The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja; these are sometimes still used. Ali Muhammad Khan, in the Mirat-i-Ahmedi (1507) referred to the city as Manbai. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name Bombaim, in his Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India"). This name possibly originated as the Old Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", and Bombaim is still commonly used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi.
Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn (1525), Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563), Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666), Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), Boon Bay (1690), and Bon Bahia. After the British gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was officially anglicised as Bombay.
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Konkani, Gujarati, Kannada and Sindhi, and as Bambai in Hindi, Persian and Urdu. The English name was officially changed to Mumbai in November 1995. This came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party that had just won the Maharashtra state elections and mirrored similar name changes across the country. According to Slate, "they argued that 'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of 'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate also said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and Indians from other regions, mention of the city by a name other than Mumbai has been controversial, resulting in emotional outbursts sometimes of a violently political nature.
Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands: Bombay Island, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman's Island (also known as Little Colaba). It is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited. Pleistocene sediments found along the coastal areas around Kandivali in northern Mumbai suggest that the islands were inhabited since the Stone Age. Perhaps at the beginning of the Common era (2,000 years ago), or possibly earlier, they came to be occupied by the Koli fishing community.
In the third century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya Empire, during its expansion in the south, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. The Kanheri Caves in Borivali were excavated in the mid-third century BCE, and served as an important centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient Times. The city then was known as Heptanesia (Ancient Greek: A Cluster of Seven Islands) to the Greek geographer Ptolemy in 150 CE.
Between the second century BCE and ninth century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Western Kshatrapas, Abhiras, Vakatakas, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas, before being ruled by the Silhara dynasty from 810 to 1260. Some of the oldest edifices in the city built during this period are, Jogeshwari Caves (between 520 to 525), Elephanta Caves (between the sixth to seventh century), Walkeshwar Temple (10th century), and Banganga Tank (12th century).
King Bhimdev founded his kingdom in the region in the late 13th century and established his capital in Mahikawati (present day Mahim). The Pathare Prabhus, among the earliest known settlers of the city, were brought to Mahikawati from Saurashtra in Gujarat around 1298 by Bhimdev. The Delhi Sultanate annexed the islands in 1347–48 and controlled it until 1407. During this time, the islands were administered by the Muslim Governors of Gujarat, who were appointed by the Delhi Sultanate.
The islands were later governed by the independent Gujarat Sultanate, which was established in 1407. The Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah in Worli, built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431. From 1429 to 1431, the islands were a source of contention between the Gujarat Sultanate and the Bahamani Sultanate of Deccan. In 1493, Bahadur Khan Gilani of the Bahamani Sultanate attempted to conquer the islands but was defeated.
Portuguese and British ruleEdit
The Mughal Empire, founded in 1526, was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent during the mid-16th century. Growing apprehensive of the power of the Mughal emperor Humayun, Sultan Bahadur Shah of the Gujarat Sultanate was obliged to sign the Treaty of Bassein with the Portuguese Empire on 23 December 1534. According to the treaty, the seven islands of Bombay, the nearby strategic town of Bassein and its dependencies were offered to the Portuguese. The territories were later surrendered on 25 October 1535.
The Portuguese were actively involved in the foundation and growth of their Roman Catholic religious orders in Bombay. They called the islands by various names, which finally took the written form Bombaim. The islands were leased to several Portuguese officers during their regime. The Portuguese Franciscans and Jesuits built several churches in the city, prominent being the St. Michael's Church at Mahim (1534), St. John the Baptist Church at Andheri (1579), St. Andrew's Church at Bandra (1580), and Gloria Church at Byculla (1632). The Portuguese also built several fortifications around the city like the Bombay Castle, Castella de Aguada (Castelo da Aguada or Bandra Fort), and Madh Fort. The English were in constant struggle with the Portuguese vying for hegemony over Bombay, as they recognized its strategic natural harbour and its natural isolation from land-attacks. By the middle of the 17th century the growing power of the Dutch Empire forced the English to acquire a station in western India. On 11 May 1661, the marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands in possession of the English Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles. However, Salsette, Bassein, Mazagaon, Parel, Worli, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala still remained under Portuguese possession. From 1665 to 1666, the English managed to acquire Mahim, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala.
In accordance with the Royal Charter of 27 March 1668, England leased these islands to the English East India Company in 1668 for a sum of £10 per annum. The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675. The islands were subsequently attacked by Yakut Khan, the Siddi admiral of the Mughal Empire, in October 1672, Rickloffe van Goen, the Governor-General of Dutch India on 20 February 1673, and Siddi admiral Sambal on 10 October 1673.
In 1687, the English East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. The city eventually became the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency. Following the transfer, Bombay was placed at the head of all the Company's establishments in India. Towards the end of the 17th century, the islands again suffered incursions from Yakut Khan in 1689–90. The Portuguese presence ended in Bombay when the Marathas under Peshwa Baji Rao I captured Salsette in 1737, and Bassein in 1739. By the middle of the 18th century, Bombay began to grow into a major trading town, and received a huge influx of migrants from across India. Later, the British occupied Salsette on 28 December 1774. With the Treaty of Surat (1775), the British formally gained control of Salsette and Bassein, resulting in the First Anglo-Maratha War. The British were able to secure Salsette from the Marathas without violence through the Treaty of Purandar (1776), and later through the Treaty of Salbai (1782), signed to settle the outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War.
From 1782 onwards, the city was reshaped with large-scale civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the seven islands into a single amalgamated mass. This project, known as Hornby Vellard, was completed by 1784. In 1817, the British East India Company under Mountstuart Elphinstone defeated Baji Rao II, the last of the Maratha Peshwa in the Battle of Khadki. Following his defeat, almost the whole of the Deccan came under British suzerainty, and was incorporated into the Bombay Presidency. The success of the British campaign in the Deccan marked the liberation of Bombay from all attacks by native powers.
By 1845, the seven islands coalesced into a single landmass by the Hornby Vellard project via large scale land reclamation. On 16 April 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the neighbouring town of Thane. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the city became the world's chief cotton-trading market, resulting in a boom in the economy that subsequently enhanced the city's stature.
The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea. In September 1896, Bombay was hit by a bubonic plague epidemic where the death toll was estimated at 1,900 people per week. About 850,000 people fled Bombay and the textile industry was adversely affected. As the capital of the Bombay Presidency, the city witnessed the Indian independence movement, with the Quit India Movement in 1942 and The Royal Indian Navy Mutiny in 1946 being its most notable events.
After India's independence in 1947, the territory of the Bombay Presidency retained by India was restructured into Bombay State. The area of Bombay State increased, after several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union were integrated into the state. Subsequently, the city became the capital of Bombay State. On April 1950, Municipal limits of Bombay were expanded by merging the Bombay Suburban District and Bombay City to form the Greater Bombay Municipal Corporation.
The Samyukta Maharashtra movement to create a separate Maharashtra state including Bombay was at its height in the 1950s. In the Lok Sabha discussions in 1955, the Congress party demanded that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state. The States Reorganisation Committee recommended a bilingual state for Maharashtra–Gujarat with Bombay as its capital in its 1955 report. Bombay Citizens' Committee, an advocacy group of leading Gujarati industrialists lobbied for Bombay's independent status.
Following protests during the movement in which 105 people were killed by police, Bombay State was reorganised on linguistic lines on 1 May 1960. Gujarati-speaking areas of Bombay State were partitioned into the state of Gujarat. Maharashtra State with Bombay as its capital was formed with the merger of Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts from Central Provinces and Berar, five districts from Hyderabad State, and numerous princely states enclosed between them. As a memorial to the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, Flora Fountain was renamed as Hutatma Chowk (Martyr's Square), and a memorial was erected.
The following decades saw massive expansion of the city and its suburbs. In the late 1960s, Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade were reclaimed and developed. The Bombay Metropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA) was established on 26 January 1975 by the Government of Maharashtra as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Bombay metropolitan region. In August 1979, a sister township of New Bombay was founded by the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) across Thane and Raigad districts to help the dispersal and control of Bombay's population. The textile industry in Bombay largely disappeared after the widespread 1982 Great Bombay Textile Strike, in which nearly 250,000 workers in more than 50 textile mills went on strike. Mumbai's defunct cotton mills have since become the focus of intense redevelopment.
The Jawaharlal Nehru Port, which currently handles 55–60% of India's containerised cargo, was commissioned on 26 May 1989 at Nhava Sheva with a view to de-congest Bombay Harbour and to serve as a hub port for the city. The geographical limits of Greater Bombay were coextensive with municipal limits of Greater Bombay. On 1 October 1990, the Greater Bombay district was bifurcated to form two revenue districts namely, Bombay City and Bombay Suburban, though they were administered by same Municipal Administration.
The past two decades have seen an increase in violence in the hitherto largely peaceful city. Following the demolition of the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, the city was rocked by the Hindu-Muslim riots of 1992–93 in which more than 1,000 people were killed. On 12 March 1993, a series of 13 co-ordinated bombings at several city landmarks by Islamic extremists and the Bombay underworld resulted in 257 deaths and over 700 injuries. In 2006, 209 people were killed and over 700 injured when seven bombs exploded on the city's commuter trains. In 2008, a series of ten coordinated attacks by armed terrorists for three days resulted in 173 deaths, 308 injuries, and severe damage to several heritage landmarks and prestigious hotels. The blasts that occurred at the Opera House, Zaveri Bazaar, and Dadar on 13 July 2011 were the latest in the series of terrorist attacks in Mumbai.
Today, Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and has evolved into a global financial hub. For several decades it has been the home of India's main financial services, and a focus for both infrastructure development and private investment. From being an ancient fishing community and a colonial centre of trade, Mumbai has become South Asia's largest city and home of the world's most prolific film industry.
Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai City district and Mumbai Suburban district, which form two separate revenue districts of Maharashtra. The city district region is also commonly referred to as the Island City or South Mumbai. The total area of Mumbai is 603.4 km2 (233 sq mi). Of this, the island city spans 67.79 km2 (26 sq mi), while the suburban district spans 370 km2 (143 sq mi), together accounting for 437.71 km2 (169 sq mi) under the administration of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). The remaining area belongs to Defence, Mumbai Port Trust, Atomic Energy Commission and Borivali National Park, which are out of the jurisdiction of the BMC.
Mumbai lies at the mouth of the Ulhas River on the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan. It sits on Salsette Island, partially shared with the Thane district. Mumbai is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the west. Many parts of the city lie just above sea level, with elevations ranging from 10 m (33 ft) to 15 m (49 ft); the city has an average elevation of 14 m (46 ft). Northern Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly, and the highest point in the city is 450 m (1,476 ft) at Salsette in the Powai–Kanheri ranges. The Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Borivali National Park) is located partly in the Mumbai suburban district, and partly in the Thane district, and it extends over an area of 103.09 km2 (39.80 sq mi).
Apart from the Bhatsa Dam, there are six major lakes that supply water to the city: Vihar, Lower Vaitarna, Upper Vaitarna, Tulsi, Tansa and Powai. Tulsi Lake and Vihar Lake are located in Borivili National Park, within the city's limits. The supply from Powai lake, also within the city limits, is used only for agricultural and industrial purposes. Three small rivers, the Dahisar River, Poinsar (or Poisar) and Ohiwara (or Oshiwara) originate within the park, while the polluted Mithi River originates from Tulsi Lake and gathers water overflowing from Vihar and Powai Lakes. The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays, stretching from the Thane creek on the eastern to Madh Marve on the western front. The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove swamps, rich in biodiversity, while the western coast is mostly sandy and rocky.
Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy. The underlying rock of the region is composed of black Deccan basalt flows, and their acidic and basic variants dating back to the late Cretaceous and early Eocene eras. Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone owing to the presence of 23 fault lines in the vicinity. The area is classified as a Seismic Zone III region, which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter-scale may be expected.
Mumbai has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw) under the Köppen climate classification, with seven months of dryness and peak of rains in July. The cooler season from December to February is followed by the summer season from March to June. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season, and October and November form the post-monsoon season.
Between June and September, the south west monsoon rains lash the city. Pre-monsoon showers are received in May. Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November. The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 mm (136 in) for 1954. The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 mm (37 in) on 26 July 2005. The average total annual rainfall is 2,146.6 mm (85 in) for the Island City, and 2,457 mm (97 in) for the suburbs.
The average annual temperature is 27.2 °C (81 °F), and the average annual precipitation is 2,167 mm (85 in). In the Island City, the average maximum temperature is 31.2 °C (88 °F), while the average minimum temperature is 23.7 °C (75 °F). In the suburbs, the daily mean maximum temperature range from 29.1 °C (84 °F) to 33.3 °C (92 °F), while the daily mean minimum temperature ranges from 16.3 °C (61 °F) to 26.2 °C (79 °F). The record high is 40.2 °C (104 °F) on 28 March 1982, and the record low is 7.4 °C (45 °F) on 27 January 1962.
|Climate data for Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport)|
|Record high °C (°F)||37.1
|Average high °C (°F)||30.7
|Average low °C (°F)||16.8
|Record low °C (°F)||7.4
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||0.6
|Avg. rainy days||0.1||0.1||0.0||0.1||0.7||14.5||23.2||21.4||14.4||3.0||1.0||0.4||78.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||69||67||69||71||70||80||86||86||83||78||71||69||75|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||269.5||257.6||274.3||283.7||296.2||148.6||73.4||75.9||165.1||240.2||245.8||253.2||2,583.5|
|Source #1: India Meteorological Department (Period 1961–1990, record high and low up to 2010)|
|Source #2: NOAA (humidity, sun 1971–1990) |
Mumbai is India's largest city (by population) and is the financial and commercial capital of the country as it generates 6.16% of the total GDP. It serves as an economic hub of India, contributing 10% of factory employment, 25% of industrial output, 33% of income tax collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 40% of India's foreign trade and 4000 crore (US$630 million) in corporate taxes. Along with the rest of India, Mumbai has witnessed an economic boom since the liberalisation of 1991, the finance boom in the mid-nineties and the IT, export, services and outsourcing boom in 2000s. Although Mumbai had prominently figured as the hub of economic activity of India in the 1990s, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region is presently witnessing a reduction in its contribution to India's GDP.
As of 2008, Mumbai's GDP is $209 billion, and its per-capita (PPP) income in 2009 was 486,000 (US$7,600), which is almost three times the national average. Its nominal per capita income is 125,000 (US$2,000), (US$2,094). Many of India's numerous conglomerates (including Larsen and Toubro, State Bank of India (SBI), Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance), and five of the Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Mumbai. This is facilitated by the presence of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), the National Stock Exchange of India (NSE), and financial sector regulators such as the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
Until the 1970s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since then diversified to include finance, engineering, diamond-polishing, healthcare and information technology. The key sectors contributing to the city's economy are: finance, gems & jewellery, leather processing, IT and ITES, textiles, and entertainment. Nariman Point and Bandra Kurla Complex (BKC) are Mumbai's major financial centres. Despite competition from Bangalore, Hyderabad and Pune, Mumbai has carved a niche for itself in the information technology industry. The Santacruz Electronic Export Processing Zone (SEEPZ) and the International Infotech Park (Navi Mumbai) offer excellent facilities to IT companies.
State and central government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled self-employed population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar professions. The port and shipping industry is well established, with Mumbai Port being one of the oldest and most significant ports in India. Dharavi, in central Mumbai, has an increasingly large recycling industry, processing recyclable waste from other parts of the city; the district has an estimated 15,000 single-room factories.
Mumbai has been ranked sixth among top ten global cities on the billionaire count, 48th on the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008, seventh in the list of "Top Ten Cities for Billionaires" by Forbes magazine (April 2008), and first in terms of those billionaires' average wealth. As of 2008, the Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC) has ranked Mumbai as an "Alpha world city", third in its categories of Global cities. Mumbai is the third most expensive office market in the world, and was ranked among the fastest cities in the country for business startup in 2009.
Mumbai, extending from Colaba in the south, to Mulund and Dahisar in the north, and Mankhurd in the east, is administered by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM), formerly known as the Bombay Municipal Corporation (BMC). The MCGM is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis. The Mayor is usually chosen through indirect election by the councillors from among themselves for a term of two and half years.
The Municipal Commissioner is the chief Executive Officer and head of the executive arm of the Municipal Corporation. All executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner who is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by the state government. Although the Municipal Corporation is the legislative body that lays down policies for the governance of the city, it is the Commissioner who is responsible for the execution of the policies. The Commissioner is appointed for a fixed term as defined by state statute. The powers of the Commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the Corporation or the Standing Committee.
The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai was ranked 9th out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.5 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.
The two revenue districts of Mumbai come under the jurisdiction of a District Collector. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city.
The Mumbai Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer. The Mumbai Police comes under the state Home Ministry. The city is divided into seven police zones and seventeen traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police. The Mumbai Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by four Deputy Chief Fire Officers and six Divisional Officers.
Mumbai is the seat of the Bombay High Court, which exercises jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra and Goa, and the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Mumbai also has two lower courts, the Small Causes Court for civil matters, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases. Mumbai also has a special Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (TADA) court for people accused of conspiring and abetting acts of terrorism in the city.
Mumbai had been a traditional stronghold and birthplace of the Indian National Congress, also known as the Congress Party. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885. The city played host to the Indian National Congress six times during its first 50 years, and became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the 20th century.
The 1960s saw the rise of regionalist politics in Bombay, with the formation of the Shiv Sena on 19 June 1966, out of a feeling of resentment about the relative marginalisation of the native Marathi people in Bombay. Shiv Sena switched from 'Marathi Cause' to larger 'Hindutva Cause' in 1985 and joined hands with Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) in same year. The Congress had dominated the politics of Bombay from independence until the early 1980s, when the Shiv Sena won the 1985 Bombay municipal corporation elections.
In 1989, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), a major national political party, forged an electoral alliance with the Shiv Sena to dislodge the Congress in the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly elections. In 1999, the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) separated from the Congress, but later allied with the Congress, to form a joint venture known as the Democratic Front. Currently, other parties such as Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS), Samajwadi Party (SP), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), and several independent candidates also contest elections in the city.
In the Indian national elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by six parliamentary constituencies: North, North West, North East, North Central, South Central, and South. A Member of Parliament (MP) to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament, is elected from each of the parliamentary constituencies. In the 2014 national elections, all six parliamentary constituencies were won by the BJP and Shiv Sena in alliance, with both parties winning three seats each.
In the Maharashtra state assembly elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by 36 assembly constituencies. A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) to the Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) is elected from each of the assembly constituencies. In the 2014 state assembly elections, out of the 36 assembly constituencies, 15 were won by the BJP, 14 by the Shiv Sena and 5 by the Congress. Elections are also held every five years to elect corporators to power in the BMC.
The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected Councillors representing the 24 municipal wards, five nominated Councillors having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration, and a Mayor whose role is mostly ceremonial. In the 2007 municipal corporation elections, out of the 227 seats, the Shiv Sena-BJP alliance secured 111 seats, holding power in the BMC, while the Congress-NCP alliance bagged 85 seats. The tenure of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, and Municipal Commissioner is two and a half years.
Public transport systems in Mumbai include the Mumbai Suburban Railway, Monorail, Metro, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) buses, black-and-yellow meter taxis, auto rickshaws and ferries. Suburban railway and BEST bus services together accounted for about 88% of the passenger traffic in 2008.
The Mumbai Suburban Railway, popularly referred to as Locals forms the backbone of the city's transport system. It is operated by the Central Railway and Western Railway zones of the Indian Railways. Mumbai's suburban rail systems carried a total of 6.3 million passengers every day in 2007, which is more than half of the Indian Railways daily carrying capacity. Trains are overcrowded during peak hours, with nine-car trains of rated capacity 1,700 passengers, actually carrying around 4,500 passengers at peak hours. The Mumbai rail network is spread at an expanse of 319 route kilometres. 191 rakes (ratin-sets) of 9 car and 12 car composition are utilised to run a total of 2,226 train services in the city.
The Mumbai Monorail and Mumbai Metro have been built and are being extended in phases to relieve overcrowding on the existing network. The Mumbai Monorail opened in early February 2014. The first line of the Mumbai Metro opened in early June 2014.
Mumbai is the headquarters of two of Indian Railways' zones: the Central Railway (CR) headquartered at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), and the Western Railway (WR) headquartered at Churchgate. Mumbai is also well connected to most parts of India by the Indian Railways. Long-distance trains originate from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Dadar, Lokmanya Tilak Terminus, Mumbai Central, Bandra Terminus, Andheri and Borivali.
Mumbai's bus services carried over 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008. Public buses run by BEST cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai, Mira-Bhayandar and Thane. The BEST operates a total of 4,608 buses with CCTV cameras installed, ferrying 4.5 million passengers daily over 390 routes. Its fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker, vestibule, low-floor, disabled-friendly, air-conditioned and Euro III compliant diesel and Compressed Natural Gas powered buses. Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC) buses provide intercity transport connecting Mumbai with other towns and cities of Maharashtra and nearby states. The Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) also operates its buses in Mumbai, connecting various nodes of Navi Mumbai to parts of Mumbai.
Buses are generally favoured for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes.
The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai. Mumbai BRTS (Bus Rapid Transit System) lanes have been planned throughout Mumbai. Though 88% of the city's commuters travel by public transport, Mumbai still continues to struggle with traffic congestion. Mumbai's transport system has been categorised as one of the most congested in the world.
Mumbai is served by National Highway 3, National Highway 4, National Highway 8, National Highway 17 and National Highway 222 of India's National Highways system. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway was the first expressway built in India. The Eastern Freeway was opened in 2013. The Mumbai Nashik Expressway, Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway, are under construction. The Bandra-Worli Sea Link bridge, along with Mahim Causeway, links the island city to the western suburbs. The three major road arteries of the city are the Eastern Express Highway from Sion to Thane, the Sion Panvel Expressway from Sion to Panvel and the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Borivali. Mumbai has approximately 1,900 km (1,181 mi) of roads.
Auto rickshaws are allowed to operate only in the suburban areas of Mumbai, while taxis are allowed to operate throughout Mumbai, but generally operate in South Mumbai. Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on compressed natural gas (CNG), and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport.
The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the second busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic. It handled 32.22 million passengers and 648,742 tonnes of cargo during FY 2013–14. An upgrade plan was initiated in 2006, targeted at increasing the capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million passengers annually and the new terminal T2 was opened in February 2014.
The proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport to be built in the Kopra-Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport.
Mumbai is served by two major ports, Mumbai Port Trust and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, which lies just across the creek in Navi Mumbai. Mumbai Port has one of the best natural harbours in the world, and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation facilities. Jawaharlal Nehru Port, commissioned on 26 May 1989, is the busiest and most modern major port in India. It handles 55–60% of the country's total containerised cargo. Ferries from Ferry Wharf in Mazagaon allow access to islands near the city.
Under colonial rule, tanks were the only source of water in Mumbai. Many localities have been named after them. The BMC supplies potable water to the city from six lakes, most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes. The Tansa lake supplies water to the western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western Railway. The water is filtered at Bhandup, which is Asia's largest water filtration plant. India's first underground water tunnel is being built in Mumbai.
About 700 million litres of water, out of a daily supply of 3500 million litres, is lost by way of water thefts, illegal connections and leakages, per day in Mumbai. Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes, of which 40 metric tonnes is plastic waste, is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast, and to the Deonar dumping ground in the east. Sewage treatment is carried out at Worli and Bandra, and disposed of by two independent marine outfalls of 3.4 km (2.1 mi) and 3.7 km (2.3 mi) at Bandra and Worli respectively.
Electricity is distributed by Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) in the island city, and by Reliance Energy, Tata Power, and Mahavitaran (Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co. Ltd) in the suburbs. Consumption of electricity is growing faster than production capacity. The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL, which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services.
Cell phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Vodafone Essar, Airtel, MTNL, Loop Mobile, Reliance Communications, Idea Cellular and Tata Indicom. Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city. Many of the above service providers also provide broadband internet and wireless internet access in Mumbai. Mumbai has highest number of internet users in India with 16.4 
The architecture of the city is a blend of Gothic Revival, Indo-Saracenic, Art Deco, and other contemporary styles. Most of the buildings during the British period, such as the Victoria Terminus and Bombay University, were built in Gothic Revival style. Their architectural features include a variety of European influences such as German gables, Dutch roofs, Swiss timbering, Romance arches, Tudor casements, and traditional Indian features. There are also a few Indo-Saracenic styled buildings such as the Gateway of India. Art Deco styled landmarks can be found along the Marine Drive and west of the Oval Maidan. Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world after Miami. In the newer suburbs, modern buildings dominate the landscape. Mumbai has by far the largest number of skyscrapers in India, with 956 existing buildings and 272 under construction as of 2009.
The Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee (MHCC), established in 1995, formulates special regulations and by-laws to assist in the conservation of the city's heritage structures. Mumbai has two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Elephanta Caves. In the south of Mumbai, there are colonial-era buildings and Soviet-style offices. In the east are factories and some slums. On the West coast are former-textile mills being demolished and skyscrapers built on top. There are 31 buildings taller than 100m, compared with 200 in Shanghai, 500 in Hong Kong and 500 in New York.
Data is based on
Government of India Census.
According to the 2011 census, the population of Mumbai was 12,479,608. The population density is estimated to be about 20,482 persons per square kilometre. The living space is 4.5sq metre per person. As Per 2011 census, Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of the MCGM, has a literacy rate of 94.7%, higher than the national average of 86.7%. The number of slum-dwellers is estimated to be 9 million, up from 6 million in 2001, that is, 62% of all Mumbaikers live in informal slums.
The sex ratio was 838 (females per 1,000 males) in the island city, 857 in the suburbs, and 848 as a whole in Greater Mumbai, all numbers lower than the national average of 914 females per 1,000 males. The low sex ratio is partly because of the large number of male migrants who come to the city to work.
Residents of Mumbai call themselves Mumbaikar, Mumbaiite or Bombayite. Mumbai has a large polyglot population like any other metropolitan city of India. Sixteen major languages of India are also spoken in Mumbai, most common being Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati and English. English is extensively spoken and is the principal language of the city's white collar workforce. A colloquial form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya – a blend of Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati, Konkani, Urdu, Indian English and some invented words – is spoken on the streets.
Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries: widespread poverty and unemployment, poor public health and poor civic and educational standards for a large section of the population. With available land at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways. Many of them live in close proximity to bus or train stations although suburban residents spend significant time travelling southward to the main commercial district. Dharavi, Asia's second largest slum (if Karachi's Orangi Town is counted as a single slum) is located in central Mumbai and houses between 800,000 to one million people in 2.39 square kilometres (0.92 sq mi), making it one of the most densely populated areas on Earth with a population density of at least 334,728 persons per square kilometre. With a literacy rate of 69%, the slums in Mumbai are the most literate in India.
The number of migrants to Mumbai from outside Maharashtra during the 1991–2001 decade was 1.12 million, which amounted to 54.8% of the net addition to the population of Mumbai.
The number of households in Mumbai is forecast to rise from 4.2 million in 2008 to 6.6 million in 2020. The number of households with annual incomes of 2 million rupees will increase from 4% to 10% by 2020, amounting to 660,000 families. The number of households with incomes from 1–2 million rupees is also estimated to increase from 4% to 15% by 2020.
Ethnic groups and religionEdit
The religions represented in Mumbai include Hindus (67.39%), Muslims (18.56%), Buddhists (5.22%), Jains (3.99%), Christians (4.2%), Sikhs (0.58%), with Parsis and Jews making up the rest of the population. The linguistic/ethnic demographics are: Maharashtrians (42%), Gujaratis (19%), with the rest hailing from other parts of India.
Native Christians include East Indian Catholics, who were converted by the Portuguese during the 16th century, while Goan and Mangalorean Catholics also constitute a significant portion of the Christian community of the city. Jews settled in Bombay during the 18th century. The Bene Israeli Jewish community of Bombay, who migrated from the Konkan villages, south of Bombay, are believed to be the descendants of the Jews of Israel who were shipwrecked off the Konkan coast, probably in the year 175 BCE, during the reign of the Greek ruler, Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Mumbai is also home to the largest population of Parsi Zoroastrians in the world, numbering about 80,000. Parsis migrated to India from Pars (Persia/Iran) following the Muslim conquest of Persia in the seventh century. The oldest Muslim communities in Mumbai include the Dawoodi Bohras, Ismaili Khojas, and Konkani Muslims.
Mumbai's culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music and theatres. The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle with a variety of food, entertainment and night life, available in a form and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals. Mumbai's history as a major trading centre has led to a diverse range of cultures, religions and cuisines coexisting in the city. This unique blend of cultures is due to the migration of people from all over India since the British period.
Mumbai is the birthplace of Indian cinema—Dadasaheb Phalke laid the foundations with silent movies followed by Marathi talkies—and the oldest film broadcast took place in the early 20th century. Mumbai also has a large number of cinema halls that feature Bollywood, Marathi and Hollywood movies. The Mumbai International Film Festival and the award ceremony of the Filmfare Awards, the oldest and prominent film awards given for Hindi film industry in India, are held in Mumbai. Despite most of the professional theatre groups that formed during the British Raj having disbanded by the 1950s, Mumbai has developed a thriving "theatre movement" tradition in Marathi, Hindi, English and other regional languages.
Contemporary art is featured in both government-funded art spaces and private commercial galleries. The government-funded institutions include the Jehangir Art Gallery and the National Gallery of Modern Art. Built in 1833, the Asiatic Society of Bombay is one of the oldest public libraries in the city. The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly The Prince of Wales Museum) is a renowned museum in South Mumbai which houses rare ancient exhibits of Indian history.
Mumbai has a zoo named Jijamata Udyaan (formerly Victoria Gardens), which also harbours a garden. The rich literary traditions of the city have been highlighted internationally by Booker Prize winners Salman Rushdie, Aravind Adiga. Marathi literature has been modernised in the works of Mumbai based authors such as Mohan Apte, Anant Kanekar, and Gangadhar Gadgil, and is promoted through an annual Sahitya Akademi Award, a literary honour bestowed by India's National Academy of Letters.
Mumbai residents celebrate both Western and Indian festivals. Diwali, Holi, Eid, Christmas, Navratri, Good Friday, Dussera, Moharram, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja and Maha Shivratri are some of the popular festivals in the city. The Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an exhibition of a world of arts that encapsulates works of artists in the fields of music, dance, theatre, and films. A week-long annual fair known as Bandra Fair, starting on the following Sunday after 8 September, is celebrated by people of all faiths, to commemorate the Nativity of Mary, mother of Jesus, on 8 September.
The Banganga Festival is a two-day music festival, held annually in the month of January, which is organised by the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) at the historic Banganga Tank in Mumbai. The Elephanta Festival—celebrated every February on the Elephanta Islands—is dedicated to classical Indian dance and music and attracts performers from across the country. Public holidays specific to the city and the state include Maharashtra Day on 1 May, to celebrate the formation of Maharashtra state on 1 May 1960, and Gudi Padwa which is the New Year's Day for Marathi people.
Beaches are a major tourist attraction in the city. The major beaches in Mumbai are Girgaum Chowpatty, Juhu Beach, Dadar Chowpatty, Gorai Beach, Marve Beach, Versova Beach, Madh Beach, Aksa Beach, and Manori Beach. Most of the beaches are unfit for swimming, except Girgaum Chowpatty and Juhu Beach. Essel World is a theme park and amusement centre situated close to Gorai Beach, and includes Asia's largest theme water park, Water Kingdom.
Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. Marathi dailies enjoy the maximum readership share in the city and the top Marathi language newspapers are Maharashtra Times, Navakaal, Lokmat, Loksatta, Mumbai Chaufer, Saamana and Sakaal. Popular Marathi language magazines are Saptahik Sakaal, Grihashobhika, Lokrajya, Lokprabha & Chitralekha. Popular English language newspapers published and sold in Mumbai include The Times of India, Mid-day, Hindustan Times, DNA India, and The Indian Express. Newspapers are also printed in other Indian languages. Mumbai is home to Asia's oldest newspaper, Bombay Samachar, which has been published in Gujarati since 1822. Bombay Durpan, the first Marathi newspaper, was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in Mumbai in 1832.
Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Mumbai through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider. The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence. The national television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free terrestrial channels, while three main cable networks serve most households.
The wide range of cable channels available includes Zee Marathi, Zee Talkies, ETV Marathi, Star Pravah, Mi Marathi, DD Sahyadri (All Marathi channels), news channels such as ABP Majha, IBN-Lokmat, Zee 24 Taas, sports channels like ESPN, Star Sports, National entertainment channels like Colors, Sony, Zee TV and Star Plus, business news channels like CNBC Awaaz, Zee Business, ET Now and Bloomberg UTV. News channels entirely dedicated to Mumbai include Sahara Samay Mumbai. Zing a popular Bollywood gossip channel is also based out of Mumbai. Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs. Prominent DTH entertainment services in Mumbai include Dish TV and Tata Sky.
There are twelve radio stations in Mumbai, with nine broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band. Mumbai also has access to Commercial radio providers such as WorldSpace, Sirius and XM. The Conditional Access System (CAS) started by the Union Government in 2006 met a poor response in Mumbai due to competition from its sister technology Direct-to-Home (DTH) transmission service.
Bollywood, the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai, produces around 150–200 films every year. The name Bollywood is a blend of Bombay and Hollywood. The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity overseas. This led filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances such as special effects and animation. Studios in Goregaon, including Film City, are the location for most movie sets. The city also hosts the Marathi film industry which has seen increased popularity in recent years, and TV production companies.
Schools in Mumbai are either "municipal schools" (run by the BMC) or private schools (run by trusts or individuals), which in some cases receive financial aid from the government. The schools are affiliated either with the Maharashtra State Board (MSBSHSE), the All-India Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) or the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) boards. Marathi or English is the usual language of instruction. The government run public schools lack many facilities, but are the only option for poorer residents who cannot afford the more expensive private schools.
The primary education system of the BMC is the largest urban primary education system in Asia. The BMC operates 1,188 primary schools imparting primary education to 485,531 students in eight languages (Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu, English, Tamil, Telugu, and Kannada). The BMC also imparts secondary education to 55,576 students through its 49 secondary schools.
Under the 10+2+3/4 plan, students complete ten years of schooling and then enroll for two years in junior college, where they select one of three streams: arts, commerce, or science. This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine. Most colleges in the city are affiliated with the University of Mumbai, one of the largest universities in the world in terms of the number of graduates.
The University Of Mumbai is one of the premier universities in India. It was ranked 41 among the Top 50 Engineering Schools of the world by America's news broadcasting firm Business Insider in 2012 and was the only university in the list from the five emerging BRICS nations viz Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. Moreover, the University of Mumbai was ranked 5th in the list of best Universities in India by India Today in 2013 and ranked at 62 in the QS BRICS University rankings for 2013, a ranking of leading universities in the five BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). Its strongest scores in the QS University Rankings: BRICS are for papers per faculty (8th), employer reputation (20th) and citations per paper (28th). It was ranked 10th among the top Universities of India by QS in 2013. With 7 of the top ten Indian Universities being purely science and technology universities, it was India's 3rd best Multi Disciplinary University in the QS University ranking.
The Indian Institute of Technology (Bombay), Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), University Institute of Chemical Technology (UICT) which are India's premier engineering and technology schools, and SNDT Women's University are the other autonomous universities in Mumbai. Thadomal Shahani Engineering College is the first and the oldest private engineering college affiliated to the federal University of Mumbai and is also pioneered to be the first institute in the city's university to offer undergraduate level courses in Computer Engineering, Information Technology, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. Grant Medical College established in 1845 and Seth G.S. Medical College are the leading medical institutes affiliated with Sir Jamshedjee Jeejeebhoy Group of Hospitals and KEM Hospital respectively. Mumbai is also home to National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS), S P Jain Institute of Management and Research and several other management schools. Government Law College and Sydenham College, respectively the oldest law and commerce colleges in India, are based in Mumbai. The Sir J. J. School of Art is Mumbai's oldest art institution.
Mumbai is home to two prominent research institutions: the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). The BARC operates CIRUS, a 40 MW nuclear research reactor at their facility in Trombay.
Cricket is more popular than any other sport in the city. Due to a shortage of grounds, various modified versions (generally referred to as gully cricket) are played everywhere. Mumbai is also home to the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) and Indian Premier League (IPL). The Mumbai cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy and has won 40 titles, the most by any team. The city is also represented by the Mumbai Indians in the Indian Premier League. The city has two international cricket grounds, the Wankhede Stadium and the Brabourne Stadium. The first cricket test match in India was played in Mumbai at Bombay Gymkhana. The biggest cricketing event to be staged in the city so far is the final of the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup which was played at the Wankhede Stadium. Mumbai and London are the only two cities to have hosted both a World Cup final and the final of an ICC Champions Trophy which was played at the Brabourne Stadium in 2006.
Football is another popular sport in the city, with the FIFA World Cup and the English Premier League being followed widely. In Indian Super League, Mumbai City FC represents the city; while in the I-League (matches in the city are played at the Cooperage Ground), the city is represented by two teams: Mumbai FC and Air-India. When the Elite Football League of India was introduced in August 2011, Mumbai was noted as one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the inaugural season. Named the Mumbai Gladiators, the team's first season was played in Pune in late 2012, and it will be Mumbai's first professional American football franchise. In Hockey, Mumbai is home to the Mumbai Marines and Mumbai Magicians in the World Series Hockey and Hockey India League respectively .
Every February, Mumbai holds derby races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse. Mcdowell's Derby is also held in February at the Turf Club in Mumbai. In March 2004, the Mumbai Grand Prix was part of the F1 powerboat world championship. and the Force India F1 team car was unveiled in the city, in 2008. The city is planning to build its own F1 track and various sites in the city were being chalked out, of which the authorities have planned to zero down on Marve-Malad or Panvel-Kalyan land. If approved, the track will be clubbed with a theme park and will spread over an area of some 160 to 200 ha (400 to 500 acres). In 2004, the annual Mumbai Marathon was established as a part of "The Greatest Race on Earth". Mumbai has also played host to the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open, an International Series tournament of the ATP World Tour, in 2006 and 2007.
- "The Seven Islands". The Mumbai Pages. 16 July 1995. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- "Sitaram Kunte new commissioner of Mumbai civic body". DNA India (Mumbai, India). Press Trust of India. 30 April 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- "Mumbai metropolitan area" (in Italian). Projectsecoa.eu. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Peri-urban water and sanitation services policy, planning and method 2010, p. 286.
- "Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Census India Agglomerations" (PDF). Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "India stats: Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011". Press Information Bureau, Mumbai (Press release). Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 31 October 2011.
- "Population of urban agglomerations with 750,000 inhabitants or more in 2007 (thousands) 1950–2025 (India)". Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN). Retrieved 9 June 2009.[dead link]
- "GAWC World Cities Ranking List". Diserio.com. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- "India needs cities network for easy rural-urban shift – Economy and Politics". livemint.com. 3 August 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- Bharucha, Nauzer (Mar 9, 2015). "Thirty of India’s 68 billionaires live in Mumbai". Times of India (Mumbai). Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "With 68 billionaires, India ranks 7th globally; Mumbai leads in India with 30". Daily News and Analysis (New Delhi). 10 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- Wynne, S. M. (2004). "Catherine (1638–1705)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4894. Retrieved 21 February 2015.(subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 28
- "Once Upon a Time in Bombay". Foreign Policy. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
- "Bombay: History of a City". British Library. Retrieved 8 November 2008.
- "Mumbai, a land of opportunities". The Times of India. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Mumbai Urban Infrastructure Project". Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). Archived from the original on 2009-02-26. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
- "10 worst oil spills that cost trillions in losses : Rediff.com Business". Business.rediff.com. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
- "Navi Mumbai International Airport" (JPG). City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO). Retrieved 18 July 2008.[dead link]
- Corporation, Marshall Cavendish (September 2007). World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia. Marshall Cavendish. p. 451. ISBN 978-0-7614-7631-3. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- Bapat, Jyotsna (2005). Development projects and critical theory of environment. SAGE. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-7619-3357-1.
- Patel & Masselos 2003, p. 4
- Mehta 2004, p. 130
- Shirodkar 1998, p. 3
- Shirodkar 1998, pp. 4–5
- Yule & Burnell 1996, p. 102
- Shirodkar 1998, p. 7
- Yule & Burnell 1996, p. 103
- Shirodkar 1998, p. 2
- Yule & Burnell 1996, p. 104
- Keay, John (2000). India, a History. New York, United States: Harper Collins Publishers. p. 348. ISBN 0-00-638784-5.
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 6
- Hansen 2001, p. 1
- Beam, Christopher (1 December 2008). "Why did Bombay become Mumbai?". Slate.
- Beam, Christopher (12 May 2006). "Mumbai? What about Bombay?". Slate.
- "Mumbai (Bombay) and Maharashtra". Fodor's. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
- "Mumbai vs Bombay". Indian Express. 11 October 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Fruit And Nut: Another 'Bombay' controversy brewing?". Indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Farooqui 2006, p. 1
- Ghosh 1990, p. 25
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 5
- David 1995, p. 5
- "Kanheri Caves". Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- Kumari 1990, p. 37
- David 1973, p. 8
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, pp. 127–150
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 79
- "The Slum and the Sacred Cave" (PDF). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (Columbia University). p. 5. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- "World Heritage Sites — Elephanta Caves". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
- Dwivedi, Sharada (26 September 2007). "The Legends of Walkeshwar". Mumbai Newsline. Express Group. Retrieved 31 January 2009.[dead link]
- Agarwal, Lekha (2 June 2007). "What about Gateway of India, Banganga Tank?". Mumbai Newsline. Express Group. Retrieved 31 January 2009.[dead link]
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 51
- Maharashtra 2004, p. 1703
- David 1973, p. 14
- David 1995, p. 12
- Khalidi 2006, p. 24
- Misra 1982, p. 193
- Misra 1982, p. 222
- David 1973, p. 16
- "Mughal Empire". Department of Social Sciences (University of California). Retrieved 22 May 2009.
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 166
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 169
- David 1995, p. 19
- Shukla, Ashutosh (12 May 2008). "Relishing a Sunday feast, but only once in a year". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). Retrieved 2 September 2009.
- D'Mello, Ashley (9 June 2008). "New life for old church records". The Times of India (India). Retrieved 2 September 2009.
- "Glorious past". Express India. 28 October 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2009.[dead link]
- "Catherine of Bragança (1638–1705)". BBC. Retrieved 5 November 2008.
- The Gazetteer of Bombay City and Island 1978, p. 54
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 20
- David 1973, p. 410
- Yimene 2004, p. 94
- Ganley, Colin C. (2007). "Security, the central component of an early modern institutional matrix; 17th century Bombay's Economic Growth" (PDF). International Society for New Institutional Economics (ISNIE). p. 13. Retrieved 6 November 2008.
- Carsten 1961, p. 427
- David 1973, p. 179
- Nandgaonkar, Satish (22 March 2003). "Mazgaon fort was blown to pieces – 313 years ago". Indian Express. Retrieved 20 September 2008.[dead link]
- History of Medieval India, p. 126
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 32
- Fortescue 2008, p. 145
- Naravane 2007, p. 56
- Naravane 2007, p. 63
- Naravane 2007, pp. 80–82
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 233
- "Maharashtra — trivia". Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation. Retrieved 7 December 2007.
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 127
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 343
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 88
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 74
- "Rat Trap". Time out (Mumbai) (Time Out) (6). 14 November 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2008.[dead link]
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 345
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 293
- Census of India 1961, p. 23
- "Administration". Mumbai Suburban District. Retrieved 6 November 2008.
- Guha, Ramachandra (13 April 2003). "The battle for Bombay". The Hindu. India. Archived from the original on 3 April 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2008.
- Guha 2007, pp. 197–8
- "Sons of soil: born, reborn". The Indian Express. 6 February 2008. Retrieved on 12 November 2008.
- "Gujarat". Government of India. Archived from the original on 15 January 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2008.
- "Maharashtra". Government of India. Archived from the original on 5 January 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2008.
- Desai, Geeta (13 May 2008). "BMC will give jobs to kin of Samyukta Maharashtra martyrs". Mumbai Mirror. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 306
- "About Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)". Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority. Archived from the original on 2009-03-07. Retrieved 13 November 2008.
- "The Great Mumbai Textile Strike... 25 Years On". Rediff.com India Limited. 18 January 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
- "Profile of Jawaharlal Nehru Custom House (Nhava Sheva)". Jawaharlal Nehru Custom House. Retrieved 13 November 2008.[dead link]
- "Profile". Mumbai Suburban District.
- "1993: Bombay hit by devastating bombs". BBC News. 12 March 1993. Retrieved 12 November 2008.
- "Special Report: Mumbai Train Attacks". BBC News. 30 September 2006. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
- "HM announces measures to enhance security" (Press release). Press Information Bureau (Government of India). 11 December 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2008.
- "Three bomb blasts in Mumbai, 18 dead, over 130 injured". Retrieved 14 July 2011.
- Thomas, T. (27 April 2007). "Mumbai a global financial centre? Of course!". New Delhi: Rediff. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
- Shaw, Annapurna (1999). "Emerging Patterns of Urban Growth in India". Economic and Political Weekly 34 (16/17): 969–978. JSTOR 4407880.
- Brunn, Williams & Zeigler 2003, pp. 353–354
- "Mumbai Suburban" (PDF). National Informatics Centre (Mahrashtra State Centre).[dead link]
- "Area and Density – Metropolitan Cities". Ministry of Urban Development (Government of India). p. 33. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2008.
- Mumbai Plan, 1.2 Area and Divisions
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 2
- Mumbai Plan, 1.1 Location
- Krishnamoorthy 2008, p. 218
- "Mumbai, India". Weatherbase. Retrieved 19 March 2008.
- Mumbai Plan, 18.104.22.168 Salsette Island
- Srinivasu, T.; Pardeshi, Satish. "Floristic Survey of Institute of Science, Mumbai, Maharashta State". Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
- Bapat 2005, pp. 111–112
- "Salient Features of Powai Lake" (PPT). Department of Environment (Government of Maharashtra). pp. 1–3. Retrieved 29 April 2009.
- Mumbai Plan, 1.7 Water Supply and Sanitation
- Sen, Somit (13 December 2008). "Security web for city coastline". The Times of India. Retrieved 30 April 2009.
- Patil 1957, pp. 45–49
- Mumbai Plan, 1.3.1 Soil
- Mumbai Plan, 1.3.2 Geology and Geomorphology
- Kanth, S. T. G. Raghu; Iyenagar, R. N. (10 December 2006). "Seismic Hazard estimation for Mumbai City". Current Science (Current Science Association) 91 (11): 1486. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
This is used to compute the probability of ground motion that can be induced by each of the twenty-three known faults that exist around the city.
- Seismic Zoning Map (Map). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
- "The Seismic Environment of Mumbai". Department of Theoretical Physics (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research). Retrieved 6 December 2007.
- Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy 1999, p. 210
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 84
- Mumbai Plan, 1.4 Climate and Rainfall
- Kishwar, Madhu Purnima (3 July 2006). "Three drown as heavy rain lashes Mumbai for the 3rd day". Daily News and Analysis (DNA) (Mumbai). Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- Rohli & Vega 2007, p. 267
- WMO bulletin & 2000 °C on 28 March 1982, the highest since 1955.", p. 346, "Bombay recorded a maximum temperature of 40.2
- "Mumbai still cold at 8.6 °C". The Times of India. 9 February 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- "Mumbai Climatological Table, Period: 1961–1990". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "Mumbai (Bombay) Colaba Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "GDP growth: Surat fastest, Mumbai largest". The Financial Express. 29 January 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
- Swaminathan & Goyal 2006, p. 51
- Kelsey 2008, p. 208
- Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). "City Development Plan (Economic Profile)" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-08-25.
Mumbai, at present, is in reverse gear, as regards the economic growth and quality of life.
- India’s top 15 cities with the highest GDP - Yahoo India Finance
- "Mumbai, the Financial Capital of India" (PDF). ftkmc.com. Retrieved 15 October 2011.[dead link]
- Mumbai beats Delhi in per capita income
- "Fortune Global 500". CNN. 21 July 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- Swaminathan & Goyal 2006, p. 52
- Jadhav, Narendra. "Role of Mumbai in Indian Economy" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- "Indian Ports Association, Operational Details". Indian Ports Association. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
- McDougall, Dan (4 March 2007). "Waste not, want not in the £700m slum". Guardian (UK). Retrieved 29 April 2009.
- "Mumbai sixth among top 10 global cities on billionaire count". The Times of India. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008" (PDF). MasterCard. p. 21. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- Vorasarun, Chaniga. "In Pictures: The Top 10 Cities For Billionaires". Forbes. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- Vorasarun, Chaniga (30 April 2008). "Cities Of The Billionaires". Forbes. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- "The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Loughborough University. Retrieved 7 May 2009.
- "Doing Business in India 2009". World Bank. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
- "Official Website of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai". Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai//. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
- "Commissioner System".
- Nair, Ajesh. "Annual Survey of India's City-Systems" (PDF). http://janaagraha.org/asics/. Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai, p. 2
- Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai, pp. 7–8
- "About Bombay High Court". Bombay High Court. Retrieved 27 January 2008.
- Fuller & Bénéï 2001, p. 47
- 100 glorious years: Indian National Congress, 1885–1985, p. 4, "The centenary of the Indian National Congress, which is being celebrated at its birthplace Bombay, is a unique event."
- "Congress foundation day celebrated". The Hindu. 29 December 2006. Retrieved 12 November 2008.
- David 1995, p. 215
- "Sena fate: From roar to meow". The Times of India. 29 November 2005. Retrieved 12 November 2008.[dead link]
- "Bal Thackeray turned to Hindutva in 1985 to win elections: ex-Shiv Sena MP". dna.
- Phadnis, pp. 86–87
- Rana 2006, pp. 315–316
- "Stage Set for Third Phase Polls in Maharashtra". Outlook. 29 April 2009. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
- "List Of Parliamentary Constituencies" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 7. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
- "List of Members Elected General Election of the 16th Lok Sabha, 2014" (PDF).
- "List of ACs and PCs". Chief Electoral Officer (Government of Maharashtra). Retrieved 4 September 2009.[dead link]
- "Maharashtra Assembly Election 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 18 March 2010.[dead link]
- The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, p. 6
- "Corporation". Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- "Mayor – the First Citizen of Mumbai". Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). Archived from the original on 14 March 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
As the presiding authority at the Corporation Meetings, his/her role is confined to the four corners of the Corporation Hall. The decorative role, however, extends far beyond the city and the country to other parts of world
- The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, p. 3
- "Sena's hat-trick in BMC; Congress suffers setback". Rediff. 3 February 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
- The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, p. 27
- "Traffic statistics" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- "Development of Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Mumbai". Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). Archived from the original (DOC) on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- Outlook. Hathway Investments Pvt Ltd. July 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- Kumar, Akshey. "Making Rail Commuting Easier in Mumbai" (Press release). Press Information Bureau (Government of India). Retrieved 29 August 2009.
- "Overview of existing Mumbai suburban railway". Mumbai Rail Vikas Corporation. Archived from the original on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
- Environment and urbanization 2002, p. 160
- Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR, pp. 2–14
- "Terminal Facilities in Metropolitanc Cities" (PDF). Ministry of Railways (India). p. 14. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
The port city of Mumbai is served by 5 passenger terminals namely Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminal (CST), Mumbai Central, Dadar, Bandra and Lokmanya Tilak Terminal.
- "Organisational Setup". Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST). Archived from the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- "Times of India Publications". Lite.epaper.timesofindia.com. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Composition of Bus Fleet". BEST. Archived from the original on 18 July 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
- Tembhekar, Chittaranjan (4 August 2008). "MSRTC to make long distance travel easier". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- "MSRTC adds Volvo luxury to Mumbai trip". The Times of India. 29 December 2002. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- "NMMT Volvo bus route 123 extended till Borivali from Jan 1". Mumbaipluses.com. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- Metropolitan planning and management in the developing world 1993, p. 49
- Seth, Urvashi (31 March 2009). "Traffic claims Mumbai darshan hot spots". MiD DAY. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- "Bus Routes Under Bus Rapid Transit System" (PDF). BEST. p. 5. Retrieved 23 March 2009.[dead link]
- Khanna, Gaurav. "7 Questions You Wanted to Ask About the Mumbai Metro". Businessworld. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
Road congestion has worsened, though 88 per cent of journeys are made by public transport.[dead link]
- Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR, p. 2-1: "The 137% increase in cars, a 306% increase in two wheelers, the 420% increase in autos and 128% increase in taxis during 1991–2005 has created a lethal dose of traffic congestion which has categorised Mumbai as one of the congested cities in the world."
- "NH wise Details of NH in respect of Stretches entrusted to NHAI" (PDF). National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). Retrieved 4 July 2008.
- Dalal, Sucheta (1 April 2000). "India's first international-class expressway is just a month away". The Indian Express. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- Kumar, K.P. Narayana; Chandran, Rahul (6 March 2008). "NHAI starts work on Rs 6,672 cr expressway". Mint. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- "MSRDC – Project – Bandra Worli Sea Link". Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC). Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
- Mumbai Plan, 1.10 Transport and Communication Network
- "28,000 more autos to run riot on MMR streets – Mumbai – DNA". Dnaindia.com. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- Ghose, Anindita (24 August 2005). "What's Mumbai without the black beetles?". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). Retrieved 29 August 2009.
In Mumbai autos run only in the suburbs up to Mahim creek. This is probably the perfect arrangement because it is not economically viable for autos and taxis to solicit the same passengers. So autos monopolise the suburbs while taxis rule South Mumbai.
- "Taxi, auto fares may dip due to CNG usage". The Times of India. 22 April 2004. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
- Somit Sen; Manthan K Mehta (April 12, 2014). "Only 10 public transport services for every 90 private vehicles in Mumbai". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR, pp. 2–9
- "28,000 more autos to run riot on MMR streets". dna.
- "AAI traffic figures" (PDF). Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (CSIA)- Masterplan". Csia.in. Retrieved 19 January 2012.[dead link]
- "With maiden Air India flight, T2 opens to public". Daily News & Analysis. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Work on Navi Mumbai airport may start next year". The Hindu. 19 December 2006. Retrieved 16 May 2009.
- "MIAL eyes Juhu airport". MiD DAY. 7 June 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR, pp. 2–12
- Chittar 1973, p. 65: "The Port is endowed with one of the best natural harbours in the world and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation to meet the normal needs of the city."
- "Laudable Achievement of JNPT" (Press release). Press Information Bureau (Government of India). 7 January 2003. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
- "Our Mission". Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust. Retrieved 27 August 2009.
- Sonawane, Rakshit (13 May 2007). "Cruise terminal plan gets MoU push". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 27 August 2009.
While Arthur Bunder is used by small boats and Hay Bunder caters to declining traffic of barges, Ferry Wharf offers services to Mora, Mandva, Rewas and Uran ports.[dead link]
- "BMC Inc. will now sell bottled water". The Indian Express. 21 May 1998. Retrieved 13 June 2009.[dead link]
- Sawant, Sanjay (23 March 2007). "It will be years before Mumbai surmounts its water crisis". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "Tansa water mains to be replaced". The Times of India. 1 August 2007. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- Wajihuddin, Mohammed (4 May 2003). "Make way for Mulund, Mumbai's newest hotspot". Mumbai Newsline (Indian Express Group). Retrieved 13 June 2009.[dead link]
- "Country's first water tunnel to come up in Mumbai". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). 20 February 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- Express News Service (22 October 2009). "Now, a toll-free helpline to check water leakage, theft". Indian Express. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- Nevin, John (27 August 2005). "Plastic ban: 1 lakh to be jobless". Rediff. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "How BMC cleans up the city". MiD DAY. 26 August 2002. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "Bombay Sewage Disposal". The World Bank Group. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
- Dasgupta, Devraj (26 April 2007). "Stay in island city, do biz". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "NTPC to give Mumbai 350 mw; electricity tariff may go up". The Financial Express (Indian Express Group). 21 October 2006. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- Campbell 2008, p. 143
- Somayaji, Chitra; Bhatnagar, Shailendra (13 June 2009). "Reliance Offers BlackBerry in India, Vies With Bharti". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "Internet surfers: Mumbai scores, Bangalore falls". economictimes.indiatimes.com. 7 Nov 2014. Retrieved 7 Nov 2014.
- "India's impressive railway stations". Rediff.com. 13 October 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "Rainswept glory". The Hindu. 24 July 2004. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
- Morris & Winchester 2005, p. 212
- "Mumbai's entrance -the 'Gateway' to be more tourist-friendly". The Hindu. 4 March 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2009.[dead link]
- "India: World heritage sites centre". UNESCO. Retrieved 9 August 2007.
- "Is the world's weirdest property market strangling the city that hosts it?". The Economist. 9 June 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- Population and Employment profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region, p. 6
- "The minimum city". economist.com (The Economist). Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- Jain, Bhavika (17 October 2010). "62% of Mumbai lives in slums: Census". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
The projections showed that about 90 lakh Mumbai residents now live in slums as against 60 lakh recorded in 2001 census – a 50 per cent increase in a decade that also saw an unprecedented real estate boom in the city.
- "Parsis top literacy, sex-ratio charts in city". The Times of India. 8 September 2004. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
- Pai 2005, p. 1804
- O'Brien 2003, p. 141
- Datta & Jones 1999, Low-Income Households and the Housing Problem in Mumbai, pp. 158–159
- Jacobson, Marc (May 2007). "Dharavi: Mumbai's Shadow City". National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- Davis 2006, p. 31
- "Dharavi, Mumbai | Sustainable Milano". Blogs.newschool.edu. 24 May 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Mumbai's slums are India's most literate – Mumbai – DNA". Dnaindia.com. 27 February 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
- "Highlights of Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2005–06" (PDF). Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Planning Department (Government of Maharashtra). p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2008.
- T Surendar (10 February 2010). "Mumbai's New-Age Builders want a Room at the Top". Forbes. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- "Census of India – Socio-cultural aspects". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Muslims of Mumbai (Bombay), major city of India". The 30-Days Prayer Network. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
- "Census GIS Household". Census of India. Office of the Registrar General. Retrieved 9 December 2008.
- Mehta 2004, p. 99
- Baptista 1967, p. 5
- Larsen, Karin (1998). Faces of Goa: A Journey Through the History and Cultural Revolution of Goa and Other Communities Influenced by the Portuguese. Gyan Books. p. 310.
In Bombay today, there are three Catholic communities; Goans, the Mangaloreans and the East Indians.
- Weil, Shalva (2008-11-30). "Background: A rich history now stained with blood". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- "The world's successful diasporas". Managementtoday.co.uk.
- Bates 2003, p. 266
- "Beginners' Bollywood". The Age (Sydney). 28 September 2005. Retrieved 11 September 2008.
- Vilanilam 2005, p. 130
- Nagarajan, Saraswathy (10 September 2006). "Matchbox journeys". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- "Filmfare Awards gets new sponsor". IndiaTimes Movies (The Times of India). 11 January 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2008.
- Chaudhuri 2005, pp. 4–6
- Gilder, Rosamond (October 1957). "The New Theatre in India: An Impression". Educational Theatre Journal (Washington, D.C.: Johns Hopkins University Press) 9 (3): 201–204. doi:10.2307/3203529. ISSN 0192-2882.
- David 1995, p. 232
- "Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya". Prince of Wales Museum of Western India, Mumbai. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
- "Sahitya Akademi: awards and fellowships". Sahitya Akademi. 1999. Archived from the original on 20 May 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
- "Kala Ghoda Arts Festival". Kala Ghoda Association. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
- Shah, Shika (17 September 2008). "Bandra's spirit captured in cakes, tattoos". MiD DAY. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
- "The Banganga Festival". Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
- "The Elephanta Festival". Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
- "Mumbai celebrates Maharashtra Day". The Times of India. 1 May 2009. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
- Krishnan, Ananth (24 March 2009). "‘Vote at Eight’ campaign". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
- "BMC to transfer beach cleaning works". The Asian Age. 2013-08-24. Retrieved 2013-08-27.[dead link]
- Jain, Bhavika (2011-05-10). "8 out of city’s 10 beaches unsafe". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2013-08-27.
- "About Essel World". Essel World. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
- O'Brien 2003, p. 143
- "The Times of India turns the Times of Colour". Televisionpoint.com. 26 April 2006. Retrieved 16 October 2007.
- "IRS Q2, 2010: Negligible decline of daily readers in Greater Mumbai". Afaqs.com. 1 September 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "IRS Q2 2010: Publications in Maharashtra see some light". Exchange4media.com. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Bansal, Shuchi; Mathai, Palakunnathu G. (6 April 2005). "Mumbai's media Mahabharat". Rediff. Retrieved 14 May 2009.[dead link]
- Rao, Subha J. (16 October 2004). "Learn with newspapers". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
- "IN-fighting among cable operators". The Indian Express. 26 July 1999. Retrieved 10 June 2009.[dead link]
- "What is CAS? What is DTH?". Rediff News. 5 September 2006. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
- "Tata Sky on Insat 4A". LyngSat. Retrieved 10 August 2008.[dead link]
- "Radio stations in Maharashtra, India". Asiawaves. Retrieved 18 January 2008.
- "Few takers for CAS in Mumbai". The Times of India. 20 December 2006. Retrieved 22 January 2008.
- Ganti 2004, p. 3
- Lundgren, Kari (26 November 2008). "Bollywood Trawls London for Talent as Students Balk at Banking". Bloomberg. Retrieved 26 May 2009.
- "Bollywood filmmakers experimenting with new genre of films". The Times of India. 17 July 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
- Deshpande, Haima (5 March 2001). "Mumbai's Film City may be home to world cinema". The Indian Express. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
- "City has 43 one-teacher schools". MiD DAY. 24 September 2006. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- Mukherji, Anahita (2 April 2009). "Education board tells schools to get state recognition". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "Now, schools can teach in 2 languages". The Times of India. 5 May 2006. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- Kak, Subhash (13 July 2004). "Saving India through Its Schools". Rediff News. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
- Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). "City Development (Education)" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- "Are you cut out for Arts, Science or Commerce?". Rediff News. 19 June 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- Sharma, Archana (4 June 2004). "When it comes to courses, MU dishes up a big buffet". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "History". University of Mumbai. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- India Today Best Universities 2013: University of Mumbai – | Photo1 | India Today |[dead link]. Indiatoday.intoday.in (1978-03-15). Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
- "The World's Best Engineering Schools". Business Insider. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- [dead link]
- QS University Rankings: BRICS 2013 | Top Universities
- Top Universities in India | Top Universities
- "IIT flights return home". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). 22 December 2006. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "About the Institute". Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI),. Retrieved 9 June 2009.[dead link]
- "Admission process for autonomous engg colleges to start today". Indian Express Group. 11 June 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2009.[dead link]
- "About University". SNDT Women's University. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- :: Directorate of Technical Education, Maharashtra State, Mumbai ::
- Bansal, Rashmi (8 November 2004). "Is the 'IIM' brand invincible?". Rediff News. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "Sydenham College: Our Profile". Sydenham College. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- "About The Government Law College". Government Law College. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- Martyris, Nina (6 October 2002). "JJ School seeks help from new friends". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
- "University ties up with renowned institutes". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). 24 November 2006. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "CIRUS reactor". Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). Retrieved 12 May 2009.
- "About BCCI". Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI). Retrieved 16 May 2009.[dead link]
- "I-T Raids at IPL Headquarter at BCCI in Mumbai, reports NDTV | InvestmentKit.com Articles". Investmentkit.com. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2010.[dead link]
- Makarand, Waingankar (18 January 2009). "Attacking pattern of play has delivered". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
- Seth, Ramesh (1 December 2006). "Brabourne — the stadium with a difference". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
- "Aussies claim elusive trophy". The Sydney Morning Herald. 6 November 2006. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- Bubna, Shriya (7 July 2006). "Forget cricket, soccer's new media favourite". Rediff News. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "Mumbai Football Club launched". Rediff News. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "I-League: Mahindra United to face Mumbai FC". The Hindu. 10 October 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2009.[dead link]
- "Gridiron league launched in India". The Times of India. 5 August 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "‘They Need TV Product’: Why American Football Is Coming To India – TIME NewsFeed". Newsfeed.time.com. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Pal, Abir (17 January 2007). "Mallya, Diageo fight for McDowell Derby". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
- Jore, Dharmendra (14 November 2004). "Formula 1 powerboating swooshes into Mumbai, tourism hope for city". Mumbai Newsline (The Indian Express). Retrieved 14 May 2009.[dead link]
- Baldwin, Alan (25 January 2008). "Motor racing-Force India F1 team to launch 2008 car in Mumbai". Reuters UK. Retrieved 27 January 2008.
- Ashley D'Mello (24 January 2011). "Formula track soon". The Times Of India. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
- "Bangalore replaces Mumbai on ATP Tour circuit". CBS Sports. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- Baptista, Elsie Wilhelmina (1967). The East Indians: Catholic Community of Bombay, Salsette and Bassein. Bombay East Indian Association.
- Bates, Crispin (2003). Community, Empire and Migration: South Asians in Diaspora. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-2482-8.
- Brunn, Stanley; Williams, Jack Francis; Zeigler, Donald (2003). Cities of the World: World Regional Urban Development (Third ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-06-381225-8.
- Campbell, Dennis (2008). International Telecommunications Law  II. ISBN 1-4357-1699-X.
- Census of India, 1961 5. Office of the Registrar General (India). 1962.
- Carsten, F. L. (1961). The New Cambridge Modern History (The ascendancy of France 1648–88) V. Cambridge University Press Archive. ISBN 978-0-521-04544-5.
- Chaudhuri, Asha Kuthari (2005). "Introduction: Modern Indian Drama". Mahesh Dattani: An Introduction. Contemporary Indian Writers in English. Foundation Books. ISBN 81-7596-260-7. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- Chittar, Shantaram D. (1973). The Port of Bombay: a brief history. Bombay Port Trust.
- Datta, Kavita; Jones, Gareth A. (1999). Housing and finance in developing countries. Volume 7 of Routledge studies in development and society (illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-17242-4.
- David, M. D. (1973). History of Bombay, 1661–1708. University of Mumbai.
- David, M. D. (1995). Bombay, the city of dreams: a history of the first city in India. Himalaya Publishing House.
- Davis, Mike (2006). Planet of Slums [" Le pire des mondes possibles : de l'explosion urbaine au bidonville global "]. Paris: La Découverte. ISBN 978-2-7071-4915-2.
- Dwivedi, Sharada; Mehrotra, Rahul (2001). Bombay: The Cities Within. Eminence Designs. ISBN 81-85028-80-X.
- Environment and urbanization. v. 14, no. 1. International Institute for Environment and Development. April 2002. ISBN 978-1-84369-223-2. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
- "Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR". MMRDA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- Farooqui, Amar (2006). Opium city: the making of early Victorian Bombay. Three Essays Press. ISBN 978-81-88789-32-0.
- Fortescue, J. W. (2008). A History of the British Army III. Read Books. ISBN 978-1-4437-7768-1.
- Fuller, Christopher John; Bénéï, Véronique (2001). The everyday state and society in modern India. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85065-471-1.
- Ganti, Tejaswini (2004). "Introduction". Bollywood: a guidebook to popular Hindi cinema. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28854-1.
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer. Maharashtra State Gazetteers. v. 27, no. 1. Gazetteer Department (Government of Maharashtra). 1960.
- Ghosh, Amalananda (1990). An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. Brill. ISBN 81-215-0088-5.
- Guha, Ramachandra (2007). India after Gandhi. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-019881-8.
- Hansen, Thomas Blom (2001). Wages of violence: naming and identity in postcolonial Bombay. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-08840-2. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
- Huda, Anwar (2004). The Art and Science of Cinema. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 978-81-269-0348-1. Retrieved 11 June 2008.
- Jha, Subhash K. (2005). The Essential Guide to Bollywood. Roli Books. ISBN 81-7436-378-5.
- Keillor, Bruce David (2007). Marketing in the 21st Century: New world marketing 1. Praeger. ISBN 0-275-99276-4.
- Kelsey, Jane (2008). Serving Whose Interests?: The Political Economy of Trade in Services Agreements. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-44821-5.
- Khalidi, Omar (2006). Muslims in the Deccan: a historical survey. Global Media Publications. ISBN 978-81-88869-13-8.
- Kothari, Rajni (1970). Politics in India. Orient Longman.
- Krishnamoorthy, Bala (2008). Environmental Management: Text And Cases. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-203-3329-1.
- Kumari, Asha (1990). Hinduism and Buddhism. Vishwavidyalaya Prakashan. ISBN 81-7124-060-7.
- Lok Sabha debates. New Delhi: Lok Sabha Secretariat. 1998.
- Machado, José Pedro (1984). "Bombaim". Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa. Editorial Confluência (in Portuguese) I.
- Mehta, Suketu (2004). Maximum City: Bombay Lost and Found. Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40372-8.
- Metropolitan planning and management in the developing world: spatial decentralization policy in Bombay and Cairo. United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. 1993. ISBN 978-92-1-131233-1.
- Misra, Satish Chandra (1982). The Rise of Muslim Power in Gujarat: A History of Gujarat from 1298 to 1442. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.
- Morris, Jan; Winchester, Simon (2005) . Stones of empire: the buildings of the Raj (reissue, illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280596-6.
- "Mumbai Plan". Department of Relief and Rehabilitation (Government of Maharashtra). Retrieved 29 April 2009.
- Naravane, M. S. (2007). Battles of the honourable East India Company: making of the Raj. APH Publishing. ISBN 978-81-313-0034-3.
- O'Brien, Derek (2003). The Mumbai Factfile. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-302947-2.
- "Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai" (PDF, 1.18 MB). Mumbai Police. Retrieved 15 June 2009.[dead link]
- Patel, Sujata; Masselos, Jim, eds. (2003). "Bombay and Mumbai: Identities, Politics and Populism". Bombay and Mumbai. The City in Transition. Delhi, India: The Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-567711-0.
- Pai, Pushpa (2005). "Multilingualism, Multiculturalism and Education: Case Study of Mumbai City" (PDF). In Cohen, James; McAlister, Kara T.; Rolstad, Kellie; MacSwan, Jeff. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism. Cascadilla Press. pp. 1794–1806.
- Patil, R.P. (1957). The mangroves in Salsette Island near Bombay. Calcutta: Proceedings of the Symposium on Mangrove Forest.
- Aditi Phadnis. Business Standard Political Profiles: Of Cabals and Kings. Business Standard.
- "Population and Employment profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region". Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 December 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy 65. Indian National Science Academy. 1999.
- Rana, Mahendra Singh (2006). India votes: Lok Sabha & Vidhan Sabha elections 2001–2005. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 978-81-7625-647-6.
- Rohli, Robert V.; Vega, Anthony J. (2007). Climatology (illustrated ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7637-3828-0.
- Saini, A.K.; Chand; Hukam. History of Medieval India. Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-81-261-2313-1.
- Singh, K. S.; B. V. Bhanu; B. R. Bhatnagar; Anthropological Survey of India; D. K. Bose; V. S. Kulkarni; J. Sreenath (2004). Maharashtra XXX. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7991-102-0.
- Shirodkar, Prakashchandra P. (1998). Researches in Indo-Portuguese history 2. Publication Scheme. ISBN 978-81-86782-15-6.
- Swaminathan, R.; Goyal, Jaya (2006). Mumbai vision 2015: agenda for urban renewal. Macmillan India in association with Observer Research Foundation.
- Strizower, Schifra (1971). The children of Israel: the Bene Israel of Bombay. B. Blackwell.
- The Gazetteer of Bombay City and Island. Gazetteers of the Bombay Presidency 2. Gazetteer Department (Government of Maharashtra). 1978.
- "The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888" (PDF). State Election Commissioner (Government of Maharashtra). Retrieved 3 May 2009.
- Kurian, Mathew; McCarney, Patricia (2010). Peri-urban water and sanitation services policy, planning and method. Dordrecht: Springer. ISBN 9048194253.
- Vilanilam, John V. (2005). Mass communication in India: a sociological perspective (illustrated ed.). SAGE. ISBN 978-0-7619-3372-4.
- Wasko, Janet (2003). How Hollywood works. SAGE. ISBN 0-7619-6814-8.
- WMO bulletin 49. World Meteorological Organization. 2000.
- Yimene, Ababu Minda (2004). An African Indian Community in Hyderabad: Siddi Identity, Its Maintenance and Change. Cuvillier Verlag. ISBN 3-86537-206-6.
- Yule, Henry; Burnell, A. C. (1996) . A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases: Hobson-Jobson (2 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7007-0321-0.
- Zakakria, Rafiq; Indian National Congress (1985). 100 glorious years: Indian National Congress, 1885–1985. Reception Committee, Congress Centenary Session.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Media from Commons|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bombay City". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Official website of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai
- Official City Report