Last modified on 26 July 2014, at 18:23

Multiracial American

Multiracial Americans
Poster-sized portrait of Barack Obama.jpg
Derek Jeter 2007 in Baltimore.jpg
Beyonce Knowles with necklaces.jpg
Norah.jpg
JohnBHarrington.jpg
Malcolm X NYWTS 2a.jpg
Jimi Hendrix 1967.png
Keanu Reeves 2013 TIFF (cropped).jpg
Tiger Woods in 2009.jpg
Total population

(2010 Census)
Multiracial Identified Americans
9,000,000[3]


(2.9% of the U.S. population)
Regions with significant populations

Western US 2.4 million (3.4%)
Southern US 1.8 million (1.6%)
Midwestern US 1.1 million (1.6%)
Northeastern US 0.8 million (1.6%)

(2006 American Community Survey)

Multiracial Americans are Americans who have mixed ancestry of "two or more races". The term may also include Americans of mixed-race ancestry who self-identify with just one group culturally and socially (cf. the one-drop rule). In the 2010 US census, approximately 9 million individuals, or 2.9% of the population, self-identified as multiracial.[4][5] There is evidence that an accounting by genetic ancestry would produce a higher number, but people live according to social and cultural identities, not DNA. Historical reasons, including slavery creating a racial caste and the European-American suppression of Native Americans, often led people to identify or be classified by only one ethnicity, generally that of the culture they were raised in.[6] Prior to the mid-20th century, many people hid their multiracial heritage because of racial discrimination against minorities.[6] While many Americans may be biologically multiracial, they often do not know it or do not identify so culturally, any more than they maintain all the differing traditions of a variety of national ancestries.[6]

After a period of racial segregation in the former Confederacy following the Reconstruction Era, and bans on interracial marriage in various parts of the country, more people are forming interracial unions again. Social conditions have changed and it is no longer seen as socially advantageous to try to "pass" as white. In addition, increasingly diverse immigration has brought more mixed-race people into the United States, such as the large population of Hispanics self-identifying as Mestizos. In addition, since the 1980s, the United States has had a growing multiracial identity movement (cf. Loving Day).[7] Because more Americans have been embracing their mixed racial origins in recent decades, the 2000 census for the first time allowed residents to identify as multiracial by checking more than one ethno-racial identity. In 2008 Barack Obama was elected as the first multiracial President of the United States; he has an acknowledged multiracial background and identifies as African American.[8]

Today, multiracial individuals are found in every corner of the country. Multiracial groups in the US include Métis Americans, Mestizo Americans, Hapas, Melungeons, Lumbees, Houmas, and several other communities found primarily in the Eastern US.

HistoryEdit

The American people are mostly multi-ethnic descendants of various culturally distinct immigrant groups, many of which have now developed nations. Some consider themselves multiracial, while acknowledging race as a social construct. Creolization, assimilation and integration have been continuing processes. The African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968) and other social movements since the mid-twentieth century worked to achieve social justice and equal enforcement of civil rights under the constitution for all ethnicities. In the 2000s, less than 5% of the population identified as multiracial. In many instances, mixed racial ancestry is so far back in an individual's family history (for instance, before the Civil War or earlier), that it does not affect more recent ethnic and cultural identification.

Interracial relationships, common-law marriages and marriages have occurred since the earliest colonial years, especially before slavery hardened as a racial caste associated with people of African descent in the British colonies. Virginia and other colonies passed laws in the 17th century that gave children the social status of their mother, according to the principle of partus sequitur ventrem, regardless of the father's race or citizenship. This overturned the principle in English common law, that a man gave his status to his children – this had enabled communities to demand that fathers support their children, whether legitimate or not. The change increased white men's ability to use slave women sexually, as they had no responsibility for the children. If the master as well as father of the mixed-race children, they could use them as servants or laborers or sell them as slaves. In some cases, white fathers provided for their multiracial children providing for education or apprenticeships and freeing them, particularly during the two decades following the American Revolution. (The practice of providing for the children was more common in French and Spanish colonies, where a Creole class developed who became educated and property owners.) Many other white fathers abandoned the mixed-race children and their mothers to slavery.

The researcher Paul Heinegg found that most families of free people of color in colonial times were founded from the unions of white women, whether free or indentured servants, and African men, slave, indentured or free. In the early years, the working class peoples lived and worked together. Their children were free because of the status of the white women. This was in contrast to the pattern in the post-Revolutionary era, in which most mixed-race children had white fathers and slave mothers.[9]

Anti-miscegenation laws were passed in most states during the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries, but this did not prevent white slaveholders from taking slave women as concubines and having multiracial children with them. Patterns of Asian immigration and Latino residents led white legislators in California and the western US to pass laws prohibiting marriage between European and Asian Americans until the 1950s.

Early United States historyEdit

Olaudah Equiano

Interracial relationships have had a long history in North America and the United States, beginning with the intermixing of European explorers and soldiers, who took native women as companions. After European settlement increased, traders and fur trappers often married or had unions with women of native tribes. In the 17th century, faced with a continuing, critical labor shortage, colonists primarily in the Chesapeake Bay Colony, imported Africans as laborers, sometimes as indentured servants and, increasingly, as slaves. African slaves were also imported into New York and other northern ports by the Dutch and later English. Some African slaves were freed by their masters during these early years.

In the colonial years, while conditions were more fluid, white women, indentured servant or free, and African men, servant, slave or free, made unions. Because the women were free, their mixed-race children were born free; they and their descendants formed most of the families of free people of color during the colonial period in Virginia. The scholar Paul Heinegg found that eighty percent of the free people of color in North Carolina in censuses from 1790–1810 could be traced to families free in Virginia in colonial years.[10]

In 1789 Olaudah Equiano, a former slave from Nigeria who was enslaved in North America, published his autobiography. He advocated interracial marriage between whites and blacks.[11] By the late eighteenth century, visitors to the Upper South noted the high proportion of mixed-race slaves, evidence of miscegenation by white men.

In 1790, the first federal population census was taken in the United States. Enumerators were instructed to classify free residents as white or "other." Only the heads of households were identified by name in the federal census until 1850. Native Americans were included among "Other;" in later censuses, they were included as "Free people of color" if they were not living on Indian reservations. Slaves were counted separately from free persons in all the censuses until the Civil War and end of slavery. In later censuses, they were classified by appearance as mulatto (which recognized mixed ancestry) or black.

After the American Revolutionary War, the number and proportion of free people of color increased markedly in the North and the South. Most northern states abolished slavery, sometimes, like New York, in programs of gradual emancipation that took more than two decades to be completed. The last slaves in New York were not freed until 1827. In connection with the Second Great Awakening, Quaker and Methodist preachers in the South urged slaveholders to free their slaves. Revolutionary ideals led many men to free their slaves, some by deed and others by will, so that from 1782 to 1810, the percentage of free people of color rose from less than one percent to nearly 10 percent of blacks in the South.[12]

19th century: American Civil War, emancipation, Reconstruction and Jim CrowEdit

Of numerous relationships between male slaveholders, overseers, or master's sons and slaves, the most notable is likely that of President Thomas Jefferson with his slave Sally Hemings. As noted in the 2012 collaborative Smithsonian-Monticello exhibit, Slavery at Monticello: The Paradox of Liberty, Jefferson, then a widower, took Hemings as his concubine for nearly 40 years. They had six children of record; four Hemings children survived into adulthood, and he freed them all, among the very few slaves he freed. Two were allowed to "escape" to the North in 1822, and two were granted freedom by his will upon his death in 1826. Seven-eighths white by ancestry, all four moved to northern states as adults; three of the four entered the white community, and all their descendants identified as white. Of the descendants of Madison Hemings, who continued to identify as black, some in future generations eventually identified as white and "married out", while others identified as African American. It was socially advantageous then for the Hemings children to identify as white. Although born into slavery, the Hemings children were legally white under Virginia law of the time.

20th centuryEdit

Racial discrimination continued to be enacted in new laws in the 20th century, for instance the one-drop rule was enacted in Virginia's 1924 Racial Integrity Law and in other southern states, in part influenced by the popularity of eugenics and fading memories of how many whites had multiracial ancestry. Many families were, in fact, multiracial. Similar laws had been proposed but not passed in the late nineteenth century in South Carolina and Virginia, for instance. After regaining political power in Southern states by disfranchising blacks, white Democrats passed laws to impose Jim Crow and racial segregation to achieve white supremacy. They maintained these until forced to change in the 1960s by federal legislation enforcing the constitutional rights of African Americans and other minority citizens.

In 1967 the United States Supreme Court case, Loving v. Virginia ruled that anti-miscegenation laws were unconstitutional.[13]

In the twentieth century up until 1989, social service organizations typically assigned multiracial children to the racial identity of the minority parent, which reflected social practices of hypodescent.[14] Black social workers had influenced court decisions on regulations related to identity; they argued that, as the biracial child was socially considered black, it should be classified that way in order to identify with the group and learn to deal with discrimination.[15]

By 1990, the Census Bureau included more than a dozen ethnic/racial categories on the census, reflecting not only changing social ideas about ethnicity, but the wide variety of immigrants who had come to reside in the United States due to changing historical forces and new immigration laws in the 1960s. With a changing society, more citizens have begun to press for acknowledging multiracial ancestry. The Census Bureau changed its data collection by allowing people to self-identify as more than one ethnicity. Some ethnic groups are concerned about the potential political and economic effects, as federal assistance to historically underserved groups has depended on Census data.

The proportion of multiracial children in the United States is growing. Interracial partnerships are on the rise, as are transracial adoptions. In 1990, about 14% of 18- to 19-year-olds, 12% of 20- to 21-year-olds and 7% of 34- to 35-year-olds were involved in interracial relationships (Joyner and Kao, 2005).[16]

DemographicsEdit

Multiracial people who wanted to acknowledge their full heritage won a victory of sorts in 1997, when the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) changed the federal regulation of racial categories to permit multiple responses. This resulted in a change to the 2000 United States Census, which allowed participants to select more than one of the six available categories, which were, in brief: "White," "Black or African American," "Asian," "American Indian or Alaskan Native," "Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander," and "Other." Further details are given in the article: Race (U.S. census). The OMB made its directive mandatory for all government forms by 2003.

In 2000, Cindy Rodriguez reported on reactions to the new census:

To many mainline civil rights groups, the new census is part of a multiracial nightmare. After decades of framing racial issues in stark black and white terms, they fear that the multiracial movement will break down longstanding alliances, weakening people of color by splintering them into new subgroups.[17]

Some multiracial individuals feel marginalized by U.S. society. For example, when applying to schools or for a job, or when taking standardized tests, Americans are sometimes asked to check boxes corresponding to race or ethnicity. Typically, about five race choices are given, with the instruction to "check only one." While some surveys offer an "other" box, this choice groups together individuals of many different multiracial types (ex: European Americans/African-Americans are grouped with Asian/Native American Indians).

The 2000 U.S. Census in the write-in response category had a code listing which standardizes the placement of various write-in responses for automatic placement within the framework of the U.S. Census's enumerated races. Whereas most responses can be distinguished as falling into one of the five enumerated races, there remains some write-in responses which fall into the "Mixture" heading which cannot be racially categorized. These include "Bi Racial, Combination, Everything, Many, Mixed, Multi National, Multiple, Several and Various".[18]

In 1997, Greg Mayeda, a member of the Board of Directors person for the Hapa Issues Forum, attended a meeting regarding the new racial classifications for the 2000 U.S. Census. He was arguing against a multiracial category and for multiracial people being counted as all of their races. He argued that a

"separate Multiracial Box does not allow a person who identifies as mixed race the opportunity to be counted accurately. After all, we are not just mixed race. We are representatives of all racial groups and should be counted as such. A stand alone Multiracial Box reveals very little about the person's background checking it."[19]

According to James P. Allen and Eugene Turner from California State University, Northridge, who analyzed the 2000 Census, most multiracial people identified as part white. In addition, the breakdown is as follows:

  • white/Native American and Alaskan Native, at 7,015,017,
  • white/black at 737,492,
  • white/Asian at 727,197, and
  • white/Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander at 125,628.[20]

In 2010, 1.6 million Americans checked both "black" and "white" on their census forms, a figure 134% higher than the number a decade earlier.[21] The number of interracial marriages and relationships, and transracial and international adoptions has increased the proportion of multiracial families.[22] In addition, more individuals may be identifying multiple ancestries, as the concept is more widely accepted.

Multiracial familiesEdit

A 2004 California wedding between a Filipina bride and a Nigerian groom.

In an article about mixed-race children having identity problems, Charlotte Nitary states:

Wardle (1989) says that today, parents assume one of three positions as to the identity of their interracial children. Some insist that their child is 'human above all else' and that race or ethnicity is irrelevant, while others choose to raise their children with the identity of the parent of color. Another growing group of parents is insisting that the child have the ethnic, racial, cultural and genetic heritage of both parents.[15]

In her book Love's Revolution: Interracial Marriage, Maria P. P. Root writes:

Women with children, especially biracial children, have fewer chances for remarriage than childless women. And because the children of divorce tend to remain with mothers, becoming incorporated into new families when their mothers remarry, interracial children are more threatening markers of race and racial authenticity for families in which race matters.[23]

In 2009, Keith Bardwell, a justice of the peace in Robert, Louisiana, refused to officiate a wedding for an interracial couple and was summarily sued in federal court. See refusal of interracial marriage in Louisiana.

About 15% of all new marriages in the United States in 2010 were between spouses of a different race or ethnicity from one another, more than double the share in 1980 (6.7%).[24]

Multi-racial American identityEdit

Given the variety of the familial and general social environments in which multiracial children are raised, along with the diversity of their appearance and heritage, generalizations about multiracial children's challenges or opportunities are not very useful.

The social identity of children and of their parents in the same multiracial family may vary or be the same.[25] Some multiracial children feel pressure from various sources to "choose" or to identify as a single racial identity. Others may feel pressure not to abandon one or more of their ethnicities, particularly if identified with culturally.

Some multiracial individuals attempt to claim a new category. For instance, the athlete Tiger Woods has said that he is not only African American but "Cablinasian," as he is of Caucasian, African American, Native American, and Asian descent.[26]

Some children grow up without race being a significant issue in their lives.

[B]eing multiracial can still be problematic. Most constructions of race in America revolve around a peculiar institution known as the 'one-drop rule' ... The one-drop conceit shapes both racism—creating an arbitrary 'caste'—and the collective response against it. To identify as multiracial is to challenge this logic, and consequently, to fall outside both camps.[27]

[M]any monoracials do view a multiracial identity as a choice that denies loyalty to the oppressed racial group. We can see this issue enacted currently over the debate of the U.S. census to include a multiracial category— some oppressed monoracial groups believe this category would decrease their numbers and 'benefits.'[14]

Many students who called themselves 'half-Asian/Black/etc.' came to college in search of cultural knowledge but found themselves unwelcome in groups of peers that were 'whole' ethnicities.' (Renn, 1998) She found that as a result of this exclusion, many multiracial students expressed the need to create and maintain a self-identified multiracial community on campus. Multiracial people may identify more with each other, because "they share the experience of navigating campus life as multiracial people," (Renn, 1998) than with their component ethnic groups. Multiracial students of different ancestries have their own experiences in common.[28]

White and European American identityEdit

DNA analysis has shown that about 30% of self-identified White Americans have recent sub-Saharan African ancestry.[75] Some of the most notable families include the Van Salees,[76] Vanderbilts, Whitneys, Blacks,[77] Cheswells,[78] Newells,[79] Battises,[80] Bostons,[81] Eldings[82] of the North; the Staffords,[83] Gibsons,[84] Locklears, Pendarvises,[85] Driggers,[86][87] Galphins,[88] Fairfaxes,[89] Grinsteads (Greenstead, Grinsted and Grimsted),[90] Johnsons, Timrods, Darnalls of the South; and the Picos,[91] Yturrias[92] and Bushes of the West.[93]

Some biographical accounts include the autobiography Life on the Color Line: The True Story of a White Boy Who Discovered He Was Black by Gregory Howard Williams; One Drop: My Father's Hidden Life—A Story of Race and Family Secrets written by Bliss Broyard about her father Anatole Broyard; the documentary Colored White Boy[94] about a white man in North Carolina who discovers that he is the descendant of a white plantation owner and a raped African slave; and the documentary on The Sanders Women[95] of Shreveport, Louisiana.

Black and African American identityEdit

Americans with Sub-Saharan African ancestry for historical reasons: slavery, partus sequitur ventrem, one-eighth law, the one-drop rule of 20th-century legislation, have frequently been classified as black (historically) or African American, even if they have significant European American or Native American ancestry. As slavery became a racial caste, those who were enslaved and others of any African ancestry were classified by what is termed "hypodescent" according to the lower status ethnic group. Many of majority European ancestry and appearance "married white" and assimilated into white society for its social and economic advantages, such as generations of families identified as Melungeons, now generally classified as white but demonstrated genetically to be of European and sub-Saharan African ancestry.

The rise of the Civil Rights Movement and Black Power put pressure on multiracial people in a different way – the movements wanted to claim all people of any African descent both because of historical oppression and in order to have more political power. It has been a reverse kind of one-drop rule.

Sometimes people of mixed African-American and Native American descent report having had elder family members withholding pertinent genealogical information.[107] Tracing the genealogy of African Americans can be a very difficult process, as censuses did not identify slaves by name before the American Civil War, meaning that most African Americans did not appear by name in those records. In addition, many white fathers who used slave women sexually, even those in long-term relationships like Thomas Jefferson's with Sally Hemings, did not acknowledge their mixed-race slave children in records, so paternity was lost.

Colonial records of French and Spanish slave ships and sales, and plantation records in all the former colonies, often have much more information about slaves, from which researchers are reconstructing slave family histories. Genealogists have begun to find plantation records, court records, land deeds and other sources to trace African-American families and individuals before 1870. As slaves were generally forbidden to learn to read and write, black families passed along oral histories, which have had great persistence. Similarly, Native Americans did not generally learn to read and write English, although some did in the nineteenth century.[107] Until 1930, census enumerators used the terms free people of color and mulatto to classify people of apparent mixed race. When those terms were dropped, as a result of the lobbying by the Southern Congressional bloc, the Census Bureau used only the binary classifications of black or white, as was typical in segregated southern states.

In the 1980s, parents of mixed-race children began to organize and lobby for the addition of a more inclusive term of racial designation that would reflect the heritage of their children. When the U.S. government proposed the addition of the category of "bi-racial" or "multiracial" in 1988, the response from the public was mostly negative. Some African-American organizations, and African-American political leaders, such as Congresswoman Diane Watson and Congressman Augustus Hawkins, were particularly vocal in their rejection of the category, as they feared the loss of political and economic power if African Americans reduced their numbers by self-identification.[108]

Since the 1990s and 2000s, the terms mixed-race, biracial, and multiracial have been used more frequently in society. It is still most common in the United States (unlike some other countries with a history of slavery) for people with visible African features to identify as or be classified solely as blacks or African Americans, regardless of other also obvious ancestry.

President Barack Obama is of East African and European American ancestry; he identifies as African American.[109] A 2007 poll, when Obama was a presidential candidate, found that Americans differed in their responses as to how they classified him: a majority of White and Hispanics classified him as biracial, but a majority of African Americans classified him as black.[110]

A 2003 study found an average of 18.6% (±1.5%) European admixture in a population sample of 416 African Americans from Washington, DC.[111] Studies of other populations in other areas have found differing percentages of ethnicity.

Twenty percent of African Americans have more than 25% European ancestry, reflecting the long history of unions between the groups. The "mostly African" group is substantially African, as 70% of African Americans in this group have less than 15% European ancestry. The 20% of African Americans in the "mostly mixed" group (2.7% of US population) have between 25% and 50% European ancestry.[112]

The writer Sherrel W. Stewart's assertion that "most" African Americans have significant Native American heritage,[113] is not supported by genetic researchers who have done extensive population mapping studies. The TV series on African-American ancestry, hosted by the scholar Henry Louis Gates, Jr., had genetics scholars who discussed in detail the variety of ancestries among African Americans. They noted there is popular belief in a high rate of Native American admixture that is not supported by the data that has been collected. (Reference is coming)

Genetic testing of direct male and female lines evaluates only two out of an individual's lines of ancestry.[114] For this reason, individuals on the Gates show had fuller DNA testing.

The critic Troy Duster, writing in The Chronicle of Higher Education, thought Gates' series African American Lives should have told people more about the limitations of genetic SNP testing. He says that not all ancestry may show up in the tests, especially for those who claim part-Native American descent.[114][115] Other experts disagree.[116]

Population testing is still being done. Some Native American groups that have been sampled may not have shared the pattern of markers being searched for. Geneticists acknowledge that DNA testing cannot yet distinguish among members of differing cultural Native American nations. There is genetic evidence for three major migrations into North America, but not for more recent historic differentiation.[115] In addition, not all Native Americans have been tested, so scientists do not know for sure that Native Americans have only the genetic markers they have identified.[114][115]

AdmixtureEdit

On census forms, the government depends on individuals' self-identification. Contemporary African Americans possess varying degrees of admixture with European ancestry. A percentage also have various degrees of Native American ancestry.[129][130]

Many free African American families descended from unions between white women and African men in colonial Virginia. Their free descendants migrated to the frontier of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina in the 18th and 19th centuries. There were also similar free families in Delaware and Maryland, as documented by Paul Heinegg.[131]

In addition, many Native American women turned to African American men due to the decline in the number of Native American men due to disease and warfare.[132] Some Native American women bought African slaves but, unknown to European sellers, the women freed the African men and married them into their respective tribes.[132] If an African American man had children by a Native American woman, their children were free because of the status of the mother.[132]

In their attempt to ensure white supremacy decades after emancipation, in the early 20th century, most southern states created laws based on the one-drop rule, defining as black, persons with any known African ancestry. This was a stricter interpretation than what had prevailed in the 19th century; it ignored the many mixed families in the state and went against commonly accepted social rules of judging a person by appearance and association. Some courts called it "the traceable amount rule." Anthropologists called it an example of a hypodescent rule, meaning that racially mixed persons were assigned the status of the socially subordinate group.

Prior to the one-drop rule, different states had different laws regarding color. More importantly, social acceptance often played a bigger role in how a person was perceived and how identity was construed than any law. In frontier areas, there were fewer questions about origins. The community looked at how people performed, whether they served in the militia and voted, which were the responsibilities and signs of free citizens. When questions about racial identity arose because of inheritance issues, for instance, litigation outcomes often were based on how people were accepted by neighbors.[133]

In Virginia prior to 1920, for example, a person was legally white if having seven-eights or more white ancestry. The one-drop rule originated in some Southern United States in the late 19th century, likely in response to whites' attempt to maintain white supremacy and limit black political power following the Democrats' regaining control of state legislatures in the late 1870s.[134][135] The first year in which the U.S. Census dropped the mulatto category was 1920; that year enumerators were instructed to classify people in a binary way as white or black. This was a result of the Southern-dominated Congress convincing the Census Bureau to change its rules.[135]

After the Civil War, racial segregation forced African Americans to share more of a common lot in society than they might have given widely varying ancestry, educational and economic levels. The binary division altered the separate status of the traditionally free people of color in Louisiana, for instance, although they maintained a strong Louisiana Créole culture related to French culture and language, and practice of Catholicism. African Americans began to create common cause—regardless of their multiracial admixture or social and economic stratification. In 20th-century changes, during the rise of the Civil Rights and Black Power movements, the African-American community increased its own pressure for people of any portion of African descent to be claimed by the black community to add to its power.

By the 1980s, parents of mixed-race children (and adults of mixed-race ancestry) began to organize and lobby for the ability to show more than one ethnic category on Census and other legal forms. They refused to be put into just one category. When the U.S. government proposed the addition of the category of "bi-racial" or "multiracial" in 1988, the response from the general public was mostly negative. Some African-American organizations and political leaders, such as Senator Diane Watson and Representative Augustus Hawkins, were particularly vocal in their rejection of the category. They feared a loss in political and economic power if African Americans abandoned their one category.

This reaction is characterized as "historical irony" by Reginald Daniel (2002). The African American self-designation had been a response to the one-drop rule, but then people resisted the chance to claim their multiple heritages. At the bottom was a desire not to lose political power of the larger group. Whereas before people resisted being characterized as one group regardless of ranges of ancestry, now some of their own were trying to keep them in the same group.[108]

Definition of African AmericanEdit

Since the late twentieth century, the number of African and Caribbean ethnic African immigrants have increased in the United States. Together with publicity about the ancestry of President Barack Obama, whose father was from Kenya, some black writers have argued that new terms are needed for recent immigrants. They suggest that the term "African-American" should refer strictly to the descendants of African slaves and free people of color who survived the slavery era in the United States.[152] They argue that grouping together all ethnic Africans regardless of their unique ancestral circumstances would deny the lingering effects of slavery within the American slave descendant community.[152] They say recent ethnic African immigrants need to recognize their own unique ancestral backgrounds.[152]

Stanley Crouch wrote in a New York Daily News piece "Obama's mother is of white U.S. stock. His father is a black Kenyan," in a column entitled "What Obama Isn't: Black Like Me." During the 2008 campaign, the African-American columnist David Ehrenstein of the LA Times accused white liberals of flocking to Obama because he was a "Magic Negro", a term that refers to a black person with no past who simply appears to assist the mainstream white (as cultural protagonists/drivers) agenda.[153] Ehrenstein went on to say "He's there to assuage white 'guilt' they feel over the role of slavery and racial segregation in American history."[153]

Reacting to media criticism of Michelle Obama during the 2008 presidential election, Charles Kenzie Steele, Jr., CEO of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference said, “Why are they attacking Michelle Obama, and not really attacking, to that degree, her husband? Because he has no slave blood in him."[154] He later claimed his comment was intended to be "provocative" but declined to expand on the subject.[154] Former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice (who was famously mistaken for a "recent American immigrant" by French President Nicolas Sarkozy[155]), said "descendants of slaves did not get much of a head start, and I think you continue to see some of the effects of that." She has also rejected an immigrant designation for African Americans and instead prefers the term "black" or "white" .[156]

European and Indigenous American identityEdit

Interracial relations among Indigenous Americans and Europeans occurred from the earliest years of Spanish, French and British exploration. explorers and trappers. European impact was immediate, widespread, and profound—more than any other race that had contact with Indigenous Americans during the early years of colonization and nationhood.[132]

Some Europeans living among Indigenous Americans were called "white Indians". They "lived in native communities for years, learned native languages fluently, attended native councils, and often fought alongside their native companions."[157] More numerous and typical were traders and trappers, who married Indigenous American women from tribes on the frontier and had families with them. Some traders, who kept bases in the cities, had what ware called "country wives" among Indigenous Americans, with legal European-American wives and children at home in the city. Not all abandoned their "natural" mixed-race children. Some arranged for sons to be sent to European-American schools for their education.

The social identity of the children was strongly determined by the tribe's kinship system. Among the matrilineal tribes of the Southeast, the mixed-race children generally were accepted as and identified as Indian, as they gained their social status from their mother's clans and tribes, and often grew up with their mothers and their male relatives. By contrast, among the patrilineal Omaha, for example, the child of a white man and Omaha woman was considered "white"; such mixed-race children and their mothers would be protected, but the children could formally belong to the tribe as members only if adopted by a man.

In the early twentieth century in the West, "intermarried whites" were listed in a separate category on the Dawes Rolls, when members of tribes were listed and identified for allocation of lands to individual heads of households in the break-up of tribal communal lands in Indian Territory. There was increased intermarriage after this time as white men tried to gain control over Indigenous American lands.

Some early male settlers married Indigenous American women and had informal unions with them. Early contact between Indigenous Americans and Europeans was often charged with tension, but also had moments of friendship, cooperation, and intimacy.[174] Marriages took place in both English and Latin colonies between European men and Native women. For instance, on April 5, 1614, Pocahontas, a Powhatan woman in present-day Virginia, married the Englishman John Rolfe of Jamestown. Their son Thomas Rolfe was an ancestor to many descendants in First Families of Virginia. As a result, English laws did not exclude people with some Indigenous American ancestry from being considered English or white.

In the early 19th century, the Indigenous American woman Sacagawea, who would help translate for and guide the Lewis and Clark Expedition in the West, married the French trapper Toussaint Charbonneau. Most marriages between Europeans and Indigenous Americans were between European men and Indigenous American women. Depending on the kinship system of the woman's tribe, their children would be more or less easily assimilated into the tribe. Nations that had matrilineal systems, such as the Creek and Cherokee in the Southeast, gave the mixed-race children status in their mother's clans and tribes. If the tribe had a patrilineal system, like the Omaha, the children of white fathers were considered white. Unless they were specifically adopted into the tribe by an adult male, they could have no social status in it.

In those years, an Indigenous American man had to get consent of the European parents in order to marry a white woman. When such marriages were approved, it was with the stipulation that "he can prove to support her as a white woman in a good home".[175]

In the late 19th century, three European-American middle-class female teachers married Indigenous American men they had met at Hampton Institute during the years when it ran its Indian program.[176] In the late nineteenth century, Charles Eastman, a physician of European and Sioux ancestry who trained at Boston University, married Elaine Goodale, a European-American woman from New England. They met and worked together in Dakota Territory when she was Superintendent of Indian Education and he was a doctor for the reservations. His maternal grandfather was Seth Eastman, an artist and Army officer from New England, who had married a Sioux woman and had a daughter with her while stationed at Fort Snelling in Minnesota.

African and Indigenous American identityEdit

Interracial relations between Indigenous Americans and African Americans is a part of American history that has been neglected.[107] The earliest record of African and Indigenous American relations in the Americas occurred in April 1502, when the first Africans kidnapped were brought to Hispaniola to serve as slaves. Some escaped, and somewhere inland on Santo Domingo, the first Black Indians were born.[177] In addition, an example of African slaves' escaping from European colonists and being absorbed by Indigenous Americans occurred as far back as 1526. In June of that year, Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon established a Spanish colony near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in what is now eastern South Carolina. The Spanish settlement was named San Miguel de Gualdape. Amongst the settlement were 100 enslaved Africans. In 1526, the first African slaves fled the colony and took refuge with local Indigenous Americans.[178]

European colonists created treaties with Indigenous American tribes requesting the return of any runaway slaves. For example, in 1726, the British governor of New York exacted a promise from the Iroquois to return all runaway slaves who had joined them. This same promise was extracted from the Huron Nation in 1764, and from the Delaware Nation in 1765, though there is no record of slaves ever being returned.[192] Numerous advertisements requested the return of African Americans who had married Indigenous Americans or who spoke an Indigenous American language. The primary exposure that Africans and Indigenous Americans had to each other came through the institution of slavery.[193] Indigenous Americans learned that Africans had what Indigenous Americans considered 'Great Medicine' in their bodies because Africans were virtually immune to the Old-World diseases that were decimating most native populations.[194] Because of this, many tribes encouraged marriage between the two groups, to create stronger, healthier children from the unions.[194]

For African Americans, the one-drop rule was a significant factor in ethnic solidarity. African Americans generally shared a common cause in society regardless of their multiracial admixture, or social/economic stratification. Additionally, African Americans found it, near, impossible to learn about their Indigenous American heritage as many family elders withheld pertinent genealogical information.[107] Tracing the genealogy of African Americans can be a very difficult process, especially for descendants of Indigenous Americans, because African Americans who were slaves were forbidden to learn to read and write, and a majority of Indigenous Americans neither spoke English, nor read or wrote it.[107]

Pacific Islander American identityEdit

During the 1800s Christian missionaries from Great Britain and the United States followed traders to the Hawaiian islands. Long-termly, the Anglo-Saxon presence negatively impacted the level of regard Hawaiian royal women held for their own indigenous looks. For centuries prior the arrival of Christians, first nation Hawaiian aesthetics, such as dark skin and ample bodies, had been considered signs of nobility. No matter how much they adapted their mannerisms to Western standard, some of the Anglo-Saxon missionaries were relentless in referring to the indigenous women as "Hawaiian squaws." By the last half of the 19th century, some Hawaiian women began marrying European men who found them exotic. The men, however, selected Hawaiian women who were thinner and paler in complexion.[195]

While some American Pacific Islanders continue traditional cultural endogamy, many within this population now have mixed racial ancestry, sometimes combining European, Native American, as well as East Asian ancestry. The Hawaiians originally described the mixed-race descendants as hapa. The term has evolved to encompass all people of mixed Asian and/or Pacific Islander ancestry. Subsequently, many ethnic Chinese also settled on the islands and married into the Pacific Islander populations.

Eurasian American identityEdit

Main article: Eurasian American

In its original meaning, an Amerasian is a person born in Asia, to a U.S. military father and an Asian mother. Colloquially, the term has sometimes been considered synonymous with Asian American, to describe any person of mixed Asian and American parentage, regardless of the circumstances.

According to the United States Census Bureau, concerning multi-racial families in 1990, the number of children in interracial families grew from less than one-half million in 1970 to about two million in 1990. In 1990, for interracial families with one White partner, the other parent ... was Asian for 45 percent [of all children.][207]

According to James P. Allen and Eugene Turner from California State University, Northridge, by some calculations the largest part white bi-racial population is white/American Indian and Alaskan Native, at 7,015,017; followed by white/black at 737,492; then white/Asian at 727,197; and finally white/Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander at 125,628.[20]

The US Census categorizes Eurasian responses in the "Some other race" section as part of the Asian race.[18] The Eurasian responses which the US Census officially recognizes are Indo-European, Amerasian, and Eurasian.[18]

Afro-Asian American identityEdit

Main article: Afro-Asian

Chinese men entered the United States as laborers, primarily on the West Coast and in western territories. Following the Reconstruction era, as blacks set up independent farms, white planters imported Chinese laborers to satisfy their need for labor. In 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed, and Chinese workers who chose to stay in the U.S. were unable to have their wives join them. In the South, some Chinese married into the black and mulatto communities, as generally discrimination meant they did not take white spouses. They rapidly left working as laborers, and set up groceries in small towns throughout the South. They worked to get their children educated and socially mobile.[226]

As of the census of 2000, there were 106,782 Afro-Asian individuals in the United States.[227]

Hispanic and Latino American identityEdit

A typical Latino American family may have members with a wide range of racial phenotypes, meaning a Hispanic couple may have children who look white and African and/or Native American and/or Asian.[239] Latino Americans have several self-identifications; most Latinos identify as white in terms of race, while others identify as black and/or Native American and/or Asian. Latinos who do not want to identify as one of those identify simply as Hispanic and/or some other race as their race.

Many Latin American migrants have been mestizo, Amerindian, or other mixed race.[240] Multiracial Latinos have limited media appearance; critics have accused the U.S. Hispanic media of overlooking the brown-skinned indigenous and multiracial Hispanic and black Hispanic populations by over-representation of blond and blue/green-eyed white Hispanic and Latino Americans (who resemble Scandinavians and other Northern Europeans rather than they look like white Hispanic and Latino Americans mostly of typical Southern European features), and also light-skinned mulatto and mestizo Hispanic and Latino Americans (often deemed as white persons in U.S. Hispanic and Latino populations if achieving the middle class or higher social status), especially some of the actors on the telenovelas.[241][242][243][244][245][246][247][248][249]

Rosie Perez was born in Brooklyn to two Puerto Rican parents of partial African descent.[250][251][252]

Passing identityEdit

"Passing" is a term for a person whose ancestry is mostly that of the dominant group with some ancestry of a subordinate group, and who is perceived as being part of the majority group, when social conventions would classify the person with the subordinate group.

The phenomenon known as "passing as white" is difficult to explain in other countries or to foreign students. Typical questions are: "Shouldn't Americans say that a person who is passing as white is white, or nearly all white, and has previously been passing as black?" or "To be consistent, shouldn't you say that someone who is one-eighth white is passing as black?" ... A person who is one-fourth or less American Indian or Korean or Filipino is not regarded as passing if he or she intermarries with and joins fully the life of the dominant community, so the minority ancestry need not be hidden. ... It is often suggested that the key reason for this is that the physical differences between these other groups and whites are less pronounced than the physical differences between African blacks and whites, and therefore are less threatening to whites. ... [W]hen ancestry in one of these racial minority groups does not exceed one-fourth, a person is not defined solely as a member of that group.[253]

Laws dating from 17th-century colonial America defined children of African slave mothers as taking the status of their mothers, and born into slavery regardless of the race or status of the father, under partus sequitur ventrem. The association of slavery with a "race" led to slavery as a racial caste. But, most families of free people of color formed in Virginia before the American Revolution were the descendants of unions between white women and African men, who frequently worked and lived together in the looser conditions of the early colonial period.[262] While interracial marriage was later prohibited, white men frequently took sexual advantage of slave women, and numerous generations of multiracial children were born. By the late 1800s it had become common among African Americans to use passing to gain educational opportunities as did the first African-American graduate of Vassar College Anita Florence Hemmings.[263] Some 19th-century categorization schemes defined people by proportion of African ancestry: a person whose parents were black and white was classified as mulatto, with one black grandparent and three white as quadroon, and with one black great-grandparent and the remainder white as octoroon. The latter categories remained within an overall black or colored category, but before the Civil War, in Virginia and some other states, a person of one-eighth or less black ancestry was legally white.[264] Some members of these categories passed temporarily or permanently as white.

Until the Civil War, racial identity depended on the combination of appearance, African blood fraction, and social circle.[265] After whites regained power in the South following Reconstruction, they established racial segregation to reassert white supremacy, followed by laws defining people with any apparent or known African ancestry as black, under the principle of hypodescent.[264]

However, since several thousand blacks have been crossing the color line each year, millions of white Americans have relatively recent African ancestors (of the last 250 years). A statistical analysis done in 1958 estimated that 21 percent of the white population had some African ancestors. The study concluded that the majority of Americans of African descent were today classified as white and not black.[266]

In fictionEdit

The figure of the "tragic octoroon" was a stock character of abolitionist literature: a mixed-race woman raised as if a white woman in her white father's household, until his bankruptcy or death has her reduced to a menial position[279] She may even be unaware of her status before being reduced to victimization.[280] The first character of this type was the heroine of Lydia Maria Child's "The Quadroons" (1842), a short story.[280] This character allowed abolitionists to draw attention to the sexual exploitation in slavery and, unlike portrayals of the suffering of the field hands, did not allow slaveholders to retort that the sufferings of Northern mill hands were no easier. The Northern mill owner would not sell his own children into slavery.[281]

Abolitionists sometimes featured attractive, escaped mulatto slaves in their public lectures to arouse sentiments against slavery. They showed Northerners those slaves who looked like them rather than an "Other"; this technique collapsed the separation between peoples and made it impossible for the public to ignore the brutality of slavery.[282]

Charles W. Chesnutt, an author of the post-Civil War era, explored stereotypes in his portrayal of multiracial characters in southern society in the postwar years. Even characters who had been free and possibly educated before the war had trouble making a place for themselves in the postwar years. His stories feature mixed-race characters with complex lives. William Faulkner also portrayed the lives of mixed-race people and complex interracial families in the postwar South.

The 21st-century filmmaker Greg Pak suggests that multiracial characters in film have often been portrayed as more driven by instinct that whites. He writes,

Multiracial characters have often been depicted as 'Wild Half-Castes', sexually destructive antagonists explicitly or implicitly perceived as unable to control the instinctive urges of their non-white heritage. Media which portrays multiracials as the 'half-breed' predator... [and] 'halfbreed' temptress perpetuates the association of multiraciality with sexual aberration and violence. Another recurring stereotype is the 'Tragic Mulatto', a typically female character who tries to pass for white but finds disaster when her non-white heritage is revealed... [T]he 'Half Breed Hero' provides a more 'empowering' stereotype... the 'Half Breed Hero' seemingly inspires identification as he actively resists white racism.[283]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The Philadelphia Inquirer, Mirror on the Mall Obama reflects America's growing biracial identity, January 16 2009 "Mixed-race Americans are growing in number and more visible in the culture all the time".."Barack Obama".."Jimi Hendrix".."Tiger Woods".."Derek Jeter".
  2. ^ USA Today, Attitudes toward multiracial Americans evolving, June 15 2008
  3. ^ 2010 census, based on self-identification
  4. ^ Jones, Nicholas A.; Amy Symens Smith. "The Two or More Races Population: 2000. Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  5. ^ "B02001. RACE – Universe: TOTAL POPULATION". 2006 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-30.  has 6.1 million (2.0%)
  6. ^ a b c Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Faces of America: How 12 Extraordinary Americans Reclaimed Their Pasts (New York University Press, 2010)
  7. ^ Root, Multiracial Experience, pp. xv–xviii
  8. ^ Obama raises profile of mixed-race Americans San Francisco Chronicle 21 July 2008.
  9. ^ Paul Heinegg, Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware, 1995–2010
  10. ^ Paul Heinegg, Free African Americans in Virginia, North Carolin, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware, 1995–2012
  11. ^ "Campaigners From History: Olaudah Equiano". Anti-Slavery International. 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-06-03. Retrieved 2008-06-18. 
  12. ^ Peter Kolchin, Slavery in America, 1619–1877, Hill and Wang, 1993
  13. ^ PBS (May 1999). "Jefferson’s Blood: Mixed Race America". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved 2008-06-18. 
  14. ^ a b Yuen Thompson, Beverly (2006). The Politics of Bisexual/Biracial Identity: A Study of Bisexual and Mixed Race Women of Asian/Pacific Islander Descent (Reprint ed.). Snakegirl Press. pp. 25–26. OCLC 654851035. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  15. ^ a b Nitardy, Charlotte (2008-05-14). "Identity Problems in Biracial Youth". University of Minnesota. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  16. ^ Lang, Susan S. (2005-11-02). "Interracial relationships are on the increase in U.S., but decline with age, Cornell study finds". Chronicle Online. Cornell University. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  17. ^ Rodriguez, Cindy (2000-12-16). "The US Census now recognizes multiracial entries". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  18. ^ a b c "Census 1990: Ancestry Codes". University of Michigan. Archived from the original on 2008-05-02. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  19. ^ Tate, Eric (1997-07-08). "Multiracial Group Views Change to Census as a Victory". The Multiracial Activist. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  20. ^ a b http://www.csupomona.edu/~mreibel/2000_Census_Files/Allen-Turner.doc
  21. ^ Cohn, D'Vera. "Multi-Race and the 2010 Census". Retrieved 2011-04-26. 
  22. ^ Multiracial Children
  23. ^ Root, Maria P. P. (2001). Love's Revolution: Interracial Marriage. Temple University Press. p. 202. ISBN 1-56639-826-6. Retrieved 2008-07-14.  at p. 138.
  24. ^ The Rise of Intermarriage
  25. ^ "Thandie Newton – Actress". Mixed-Race Celebrities. Intermix. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  26. ^ Johnson, Kevin R. (August 2000). "Multiracialism: The Final Piece of the Puzzle". How Did You Get to Be Mexican, A White/Brown Man's Search for Identity. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  27. ^ Leland, John; Beals, Gregory (2008-02-01). "In Living Colors". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  28. ^ Thiphavong, Chris. "Recognizing the Legitimacy of Multiracial Individuals Through Hapa Issues Forum and the UCLA Hapa Club". UCLA Hapa Club. Retrieved 2008-07-26. [dead link]
  29. ^ "Keanu Reeves Film Reference biography". Film Reference. Retrieved May 10, 2008. 
  30. ^ Hoover, Will (August 18, 2002). "Rooted in Kuli'ou'ou Valley". Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved December 8, 2010. 
  31. ^ "NEHGS – Articles". Newenglandancestors.org. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Most Beautiful 2010 16 of 17". People. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  33. ^ Cripps, Charlotte (2006-04-28). "Fall Out Boy: This is hardcore". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2011-02-05. 
  34. ^ Pete Wentz, by Shannon Moore, 10/6/2009, Celebrity News Service, All Headline News
  35. ^ "Post-election pop cultural round-up", CBC News, Wednesday, November 5, 2008
  36. ^ http://www.altpress.com/features/entry/exclusive_interview_pete_wentz_black_cards_fall_out_boy/
  37. ^ "Frances A. 'Fay' Lewis, 67, dies; was expert in African studies, officer at Meridian Center". The Washington Post. 2010-10-06. 
  38. ^ [1]
  39. ^ [2]
  40. ^ http://159.54.226.237/08_issues/081214/081214fallout-boy.html
  41. ^ Myself When I am Real: The Life and Music of Charles Mingus, Gene Santoro (Oxford University Press, 1994) ISBN 0-19-509733-5
  42. ^ Mingus, Charles: Beneath the Underdog: His Life as Composed by Mingus. New York, NY: Vintage, 1991.
  43. ^ Mitchell, John L. "Racial issues take a back seat in 37th, 'Multiracial support has Laura Richardson poised to represent a largely Latino district. Her take: `We are a new America, very diverse,'" Los Angeles Times. July 3, 2007. Accessed July 16, 2007.
  44. ^ Sarah Warn (December 2003). "Jennifer Beals Tackles Issues of Race, Sexuality on The L Word". AfterEllen. Retrieved 2011-02-27. 
  45. ^ "Social Security Death Index". SSDI.Rootsweb.Ancestry.com. Retrieved 2011-04-26. 
  46. ^ Goodman, Dean (2009-06-08). "Guitarist Slash's mother dies in Los Angeles". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-04-26. 
  47. ^ Slash & Bozza 2008, p. 1
  48. ^ Kubernik, Harvey (2009). Canyon of Dreams: The Magic and the Music of Laurel Canyon. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. p. 233. ISBN 978-1-4027-6589-6. 
  49. ^ :The Daily Star: Internet Edition
  50. ^ Kahn, Salma. "Hollywood's first Indian actress: Merle Oberon". SAPNA Magazine Winter 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
  51. ^ "Beyoncé Knowles' Biography". Fox News. April 15, 2008. Archived from the original on January 30, 2012. 
  52. ^ Smolenyak, Megan (January 12, 2012). "A Peek into Blue Ivy Carter's Past". The Huffington Post. AOL. Retrieved January 30, 2012. 
  53. ^ William Ruhlmann (2008). "Artist: Lena Horne Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-08-010. 
  54. ^ The Economist (May 20, 2010). "Lena Horne, entertainer, died on May 9th, aged 92". BlackAmericaWeb. Retrieved 2010-07-23. 
  55. ^ "Halle Berry, "Black Pearl" to win Oscar's Best Actress".
  56. ^ Kors, Michael (July 2004). "Carly Simon: romance, pain, anticipation—if it's a human impulse, then Carly Simon has sung about it.". Interview. [dead link]
    Kors, Michael (July 2004). "Carly in INTERVIEW 2004". Interview (Carly Simon Online). Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  57. ^ Jessica Cumberbatch Anderson (2013-02-17). "Vanessa Williams Ancestry Traced Through Mail-Order DNA Test: What She Found". Huffington Post (New York). Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  58. ^ "Senators: Ensign". Ancestry.com. Retrieved June 17, 2009. 
  59. ^ Rafael, Dan (May 6, 2009). "My postfight sit-in with Pacquiao" (interview article). ESPN.com:Boxing. ESPN Internet Ventures. Retrieved May 11, 2009. "Turns out Ensign is a huge boxing fan and one-eighth Filipino, so he was excited to meet Pacquiao and have him pose for a photo with him and his kids." 
  60. ^ "Ensign Commemorates Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month". Retrieved June 17, 2009. 
  61. ^ Tony Batt (April 30, 2008). "Ensign stands firm on vote: Senator opposed Filipino veterans benefits increase". Las Vegas Review Journal. Retrieved June 17, 2010. 
  62. ^ Barshad, Amos (June 2010). "Drake: The Heeb Interview". Heeb. Retrieved June 7, 2010. 
  63. ^ "Interview with Drake – July 12th 2006". HipHopCanada.com. Retrieved February 21, 2011. 
  64. ^ Jones, Jen (December 2006). "School's In for Degrassi". JVibe (Jewish Family & Life). Retrieved December 15, 2006. 
  65. ^ "Rob Schneider Biography (1963–2008)". filmreference.com. Retrieved September 18, 2007. 
  66. ^ Shister, Gail (August 5, 1996). "SCHNEIDER GETS NO TIME OFF FOR GOOD BEHAVIOR". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 11, 2009. 
  67. ^ http://www.interfaithfamily.com/site/apps/nl/content2.asp?c=ekLSK5MLIrG&b=297403&ct=1490277
  68. ^ Gray Streeter, Leslie (December 11, 2002). "HOW ROB SCHNEIDER BECAME THE HOT CHICK". Palm Beach Post. Retrieved October 11, 2009. 
  69. ^ ": The New Face of Politics…An Interview with Kamala Harris". DesiClub. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  70. ^ "PM Golding congratulates Kamala Harris-daughter of Jamaican – on appointment as California's First Woman Attorney General". Jamaican Information Service. December 2, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2011. 
  71. ^ Miller, Jonathan (2003, 2004). Stripped: Depeche Mode. Omnibus Press. pp. 318–319. ISBN 1-84449-415-2. 
  72. ^ Heawood, Sophie (January 25, 2008). "The face". The Times (London). Retrieved May 7, 2010. 
  73. ^ Marlow Stern (2011-08-29). "Lenny Kravitz’s ‘Black & White’ Album: Funk, Soul & R&B, With Jay-Z". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2012-03-31. 
  74. ^ Sumathi Reddy (2008-09-28). "Young man moves up". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2013-09-09. 
  75. ^ Sailer, Steve (May 8, 2002). "Analysis: White prof finds he's not -- 2". United Press International, Inc. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 
  76. ^ a b c Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families – The van Salee Family". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  77. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Black". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  78. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Cheswell". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  79. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Newell". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  80. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Battis". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  81. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Boston". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  82. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Elding". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  83. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Stafford". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  84. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Gibson". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  85. ^ a b Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families – Pendarvis". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  86. ^ "Slavery and the Making of America - Emmanuel Driggus". Educational Broadcasting Corporation. 
  87. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Drigger". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  88. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Galphin". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  89. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Fairfax". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  90. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Greenstead". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  91. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Pico". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  92. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Yturria". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  93. ^ Valdes y Cocom, Mario de. "Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Bush". WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  94. ^ "Colored White Boy". Door Knob Films. Retrieved October 1, 2012. 
  95. ^ "The Sanders Women". Lianig. Retrieved October 1, 2012. 
  96. ^ Hattenstone, Simon (12 June 2010). "Who, me? Why everyone is talking about Rebecca Hall". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 27 September 2010. 
  97. ^ a b Isenberg, Barbara (8 November 1992). "MUSIC No-Risk Opera? Not Even Close Maria Ewing, one of the most celebrated sopranos in opera, leaps again into the role of Tosca, keeping alive her streak of acclaimed performances while remaining true to herself". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  98. ^ McLellan, Joseph (15 November 1990). "Article: Extra-Sensuous Perception;Soprano Maria Ewing, a Steamy `Salome'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  99. ^ Marsh, Robert C. (18 December 1988). "Growth of Maria Ewing continues with `Salome' // Role of princess proves crowning achievement". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  100. ^ "Inside The Actors Studio – Johnny Depp". YouTube. Retrieved October 6, 2012. 
  101. ^ [3]
  102. ^ Breznican, Anthony (May 8, 2011). "Johnny Depp on 'The Lone Ranger'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  103. ^ http://corporate.ancestry.com/press/press-releases/2013/06/unmasking-the-lone-rangers-leading-men-/
  104. ^ Meilke, Denis (2004). Johnny Depp: A Kind of Illusion (Second ed.). Richmond: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN 9781905287048. Retrieved July 27, 2010. 
  105. ^ a b "Carol Channing reveals her father was Black". Jet. November 4, 2002. Retrieved April 21, 2008. 
  106. ^ "Multiracial American". Claim to Fame: Known as the Mother of Civil Rights in California. Find a Grave. Retrieved August 15, 2010. 
  107. ^ a b c d e Mary A. Dempsey (1996). "The Indian connection". American Visions. Retrieved 2008-09-19. [dead link]
  108. ^ a b Daniel (2002) p. 128f.
  109. ^ writing in Dreams from My Father that he had resolved to

    "never emulate white men and brown men whose fates didn't speak to my own. It was into my father’s image, the black man, son of Africa, that I’d packed all the attributes I sought in myself, the attributes of Martin and Malcolm, DuBois and Mandela."

  110. ^ 61% of Hispanics and 55% of White Americans classify Obama as biracial when they are told that he has a white mother, while 66% of African Americans consider him black. ("Williams/Zogby Poll: Americans' Attitudes Changing Towards Multiracial Candidates". BBSNews.com. 2006-12-22. Archived from the original on 2007-04-03. Retrieved 2007-09-23. ) Obama describes himself as "black" or "African American", using both terms interchangeably ("Transcript excerpt: Senator Barack Obama on Sixty Minutes". CBS News. 2007-02-11. Retrieved 2008-01-29. )
  111. ^ Shriver, Mark D. et al. "Skin pigmentation, biogeographical ancestry and admixture mapping", Human Genetics (2003) 112: 387–399.
  112. ^ Collins-Schramm, Heather E.; Kittles, Rick A.; Operario, Darwin J.; Weber James L.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Cooper, Richard S.; Seldin, Michael F. (December 2002). "Markers that discriminate Between European and African Ancestry show Limited Variation Within Africa". Human Genetics (Berlin: Springer) 111 (6): 566–9. doi:10.1007/s00439-002-0818-z. ISSN 0340-6717. PMID 12436248. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  113. ^ Sherrel Wheeler Stewart (2008). "More Blacks are Exploring the African-American/Native American Connection". BlackAmericaWeb.com. Retrieved 2008-08-06. [dead link]
  114. ^ a b c ScienceDaily (2008). "Genetic Ancestral Testing Cannot Deliver On Its Promise, Study Warns". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2008-10-02. 
  115. ^ a b c Troy Duster (2008). "Deep Roots and Tangled Branches". Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 2008-10-02. 
  116. ^ Brett Lee Shelton, J.D. and Jonathan Marks, Ph.D. (2008). "Genetic Markers Not a Valid Test of Native Identity". Counsel for Responsible Genetics. Retrieved 2008-10-02. 
  117. ^ [4] Finding Oprah's Roots: Finding Your Own, by Henry Louis Gates, page 154, at Google Books
  118. ^ Houston, Cissy (September 2, 2009). "Visionary Project Video Interview (bottom of page) – Cissy Houston: My Family, go to the 1:00 mark". Retrieved February 11, 2012. 
  119. ^ Bak, Richard (1998). Joe Louis: The Great Black Hope. New York: Perseus Publishing. ISBN 978-0-306-80879-1. 
  120. ^ Black and Blue: The Redd Foxx Story
  121. ^ James Bone (2008-04-11). "Legendary seductress Eartha Kitt — The Original Pussycat Doll". The Times (London). Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  122. ^ "News From Indian Country – Eartha Kitt, Chanteuse, Cherokee, and a seducer of audiences, Walked On at 81". Indiancountrynews.net. 1927-01-17. Retrieved 2010-07-11. 
  123. ^ Douglas Brinkley, Rosa Parks, Chapter 1, excerpted from the book published by Lipper/Viking (2000), ISBN 0-670-89160-6. Chapter excerpted on the site of the New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2008
  124. ^ James Webb, "Why You Need to Know the Scots-Irish", Parade, October 3, 2004. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
  125. ^ Her mother was white and her father was black.
  126. ^ Victoria Rowell Biography (1960?-)
  127. ^ Parr, James L. & Swope, Kevin A. (2009). Framingham: Legends and Lore. The History Press. p. 44. 
  128. ^ a b McNamara, Eileen (2001-11-11). "The Day". Black Indians learn to embrace 2 worlds. The Day. 
  129. ^ "Estimating African American Admixture Proportions by Use of Population-Specific Alleles." Am. J. Hum. Genet. 63:1839–1851, 1998
  130. ^ Population structure of Y chromosome SNP haplogroups in the United States and forensic implications for constructing Y chromosome STR databases. Forensic Science International. Received August 17, 2005. Received in a revised form and accepted November 8, 2005.
  131. ^ Paul Heinegg, Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware, 2005, accessed Feb 15, 2008.
  132. ^ a b c d Dorothy A. Mays (2008). Women in early America. ABC-CLIO. p. 214. Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  133. ^ Ariela Gross, "Of Portuguese Origin": Litigating Identity and Citizenship among the 'Little Races' in Nineteenth-Century America", Law and History Review, Vol.25 (3), The History Cooperative. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
  134. ^ Sweet, Frank W. Legal History of the Color Line. 2005, p. 11.
  135. ^ a b D'Souza, Dinesh. The End of Racism. 1996, p. 181.
  136. ^ a b http://thegrio.com/2011/01/13/dna-used-to-reveal-mlk-and-garveys-african-lineage/
  137. ^ http://www.africanancestry.com/blog/category/partners/
  138. ^ Bagley, Edyth Scott (2012). Desert Rose: The Life and Legacy of Coretta Scott King. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-8173-1765-2. 
  139. ^ Reddick, Lawrence Dunbar (1959). Crusader without violence: a biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Harper. p. 95. 
  140. ^ Bruns, Roger (2006). Martin Luther King, Jr: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 25. ISBN 0313336865. 
  141. ^ Jessica McElrath. "Remembering the Career of Ethel Waters". Retrieved July 23, 2009. 
  142. ^ Bullock, Zelma (1993). Tina Turner: Girl from Nutbush (video). Strand Video Entertainment. 
  143. ^ http://www.contactmusic.com/news/happy-birthday-tina-turner_1123815
  144. ^ "Celebrities of Native American Heritage". U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Retrieved 2010-02-09. 
  145. ^ "African American Lives". 
  146. ^ Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (2008-02-13). "The Past Is Another Country". African American Lives 2. Episode 4. PBS. http://www.pbs.org/previews/aalives2/.
  147. ^ Faith Berry, Langston Hughes, Before and Beyond Harlem, Westport, CT: Lawrence Hill & Co., 1983; reprint, Citadel Press, 1992, p. 1, accessdate 24 July 2010
  148. ^ "Ali has Irish ancestry". BBC News. February 9, 2002. Retrieved August 5, 2009. 
  149. ^ Treese, Ragsdale (1996), p. 105
  150. ^ James Earl Jones on his 'racist grandmother', interview with Stephen Sackur, BBC News, December 7, 2011.
  151. ^ Levesque, Carl (August 1, 2002). "Unconventional wisdom: James Earl Jones speaks out". Association Management (The Gale Group). Retrieved February 20, 2008. 
  152. ^ a b c Debra J. Dickerson (22 January 2007). Colorblind – Barack Obama would be the great black hope in the next presidential race – if he were actually black. salon.com. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  153. ^ a b Ehrenstein, David (March 19, 2007). "Obama the 'Magic Negro'". The Los Angeles Times. 
  154. ^ a b "?". [dead link]
  155. ^ "Nicolas Sarkozy Mistakes Condoleezza Rice for Recent Immigrant". Fox News. November 7, 2007. 
  156. ^ Elisabeth Bumiller (December 22, 2007). "Book Excerpt: Condoleezza Rice: An American Life". Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  157. ^ ""White Native Americans", A First Nations Perspective". Galafilm. Retrieved 2008-02-05. 
  158. ^ Bego 2004, p. 11: Sarkisian's profession; Berman 2001, p. 17: Sarkisian's nationality and personal problems, Crouch's profession; Cheever 1993: Crouch's ancestry.
  159. ^ Anderson, Jack (April 12, 2013). "Maria Tallchief, a Dazzling Ballerina and Muse for Balanchine, Dies at 88". New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2013. 
  160. ^ "How much Cherokee is he?: Editor's Note. Cherokee Phoenix". June 1, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2011. 
  161. ^ "Frontline: Locklear". Pbs.org. Retrieved April 8, 2010. 
  162. ^ Miller, John. "Idaho tribe: ‘Mrs. Swing’ was Indian." Associated Press via The Wenatchee World. 16 March 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  163. ^ "Kansapedia: Charles Curtis". Kansas Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2012. 
  164. ^ McClanahan, Rue (2007). palm eBook store: Excerpt from My First Five Husbands ... And the Ones Who Got Away. Broadway Group, Doubleday Books, Random House. ISBN 978-0-7679-2694-2. 
  165. ^ Ava Gardner 1940s, The Pop History Dig
  166. ^ Ava Gardner, TCM website
  167. ^ "Burt Reynolds". Inside the Actors Studio. Bravo.; can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YY3cuILM698
  168. ^ La Bella, Laura. Carrie Underwood, New York: Rosen Publishing, 2008: 15. ISBN 978-1-4042-1370-8. (retrieved through Google Books, 5.April.2009)
  169. ^ "Creek Nation Tribal Member Carrie Underwood Wins Grammy", Free Press. 14.Feb.2007 (retrieved 5.April.2009)
  170. ^ Dundy 2004, pp. 13, 16, 20–22, 26.
  171. ^ "". "The JONAS Brothers talk purity rings & their Irish roots". YouTube. Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  172. ^ "Jonas Brothers Irish" on YouTube; June 11, 2009. Retrieved 2010-07-17.
  173. ^ "10 Celebrities You Might Not Know Are Irish". Thefw.com. 2012-03-16. Retrieved 2013-01-21. 
  174. ^ "Native Americans: Early Contact". Students on Site. Retrieved 2009-05-19. [dead link]
  175. ^ Ellinghaus, Katherine (2006). Taking assimilation to heart. ISBN 978-0-8032-1829-1. 
  176. ^ "Virginia Magazine of History and Biography". Virginia Historical Society. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  177. ^ William Loren Katz (2008). "Black Indians". AfricanAmericans.com. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  178. ^ Muslims in American History : A Forgotten Legacy by Dr. Jerald F. Dirks. ISBN 1-59008-044-0 Page 204.
  179. ^ Bell, et. al, Steve. "IndiVisible: African-Native American Lives in the Americans – Shared Spirits". Billy Bowlegs III (1862–1965) This Seminole Indian elder and historian, said to be a descendant of African American intermarriage with the Seminole, adopted the name of the legendary resistance fighter Billy Bowlegs II (1810–64). The “patchwork” pattern covering his turban expresses the influence of African ovpispisi (bits and pieces)—sewing typical of the Suriname Maroons and Ashanti who married into the tribe. Smithsonian Institute: National Museum of the American Indian. Retrieved 7 May 2012. 
  180. ^ Jonathan Lethem (December 24, 2010). "Being James Brown: Rolling Stone's 2006 Story". Rolling Stone Magazine. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  181. ^ Contact Music (2004). "James Brown — James Brown's Indian Heritage". Contact Music. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  182. ^ Wolfe, 12
  183. ^ African American Registry: George Bonga, an early settler in Minnesota
  184. ^ http://www.blackpast.org/?q=perspectives/blood-entertainers-life-and-times-jimi-hendrixs-paternal-grandparents
  185. ^ "Being and Belonging – Indivisble – African-Native American Lives in the Americas". National Museum of the American Indian. Retrieved 2012-01-16. 
  186. ^ Shapiro, Harry; Glebbeek, Caesar (1995 Updated edition). Jimi Hendrix: Electric Gypsy. St. Martin's Press. pp. 5–6, 13. ISBN 0-312-13062-7. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  187. ^ Biography ramillacody.net. Accessed 2010-07-15.
  188. ^ “Curriculum Vitae.” . Retrieved 10 July 2010.[dead link]
  189. ^ Hilary de Vries (14 June 1998). "Della Reese: Earning Her Wings". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-12-27. 
  190. ^ MSN (2008). "Ananda Lewis:Overview". MSN. Retrieved 2008-11-04. 
  191. ^ H.W. Wilson (2008). "Cover Biography for June 2005 Ananda Lewis, Television personality". The HW Wilson Company. Retrieved 2008-11-04. [dead link]
  192. ^ Katz WL 1997 p103
  193. ^ Angela Y. Walton-Raji (2008). "Tri-Racials: Black Indians of the Upper South". Design. Retrieved 2008-08-20. 
  194. ^ a b Nomad Winterhawk (1997). "Black indians want a place in history". Djembe Magazine. Retrieved 2009-05-29. 
  195. ^ Karina Kahananui Green (2002). "Colonialism's Daughters". In Paul R. Spickard, Joanne L. Rondilla, Debbie Hippolite Wright. Pacific Diaspora: Island Peoples in the United States and Across the Pacific. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 242–248. ISBN 0-8248-2619-1. 
  196. ^ "Keisha Castle-Hughes Biography". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved 2012-06-06. 
  197. ^ Ralph S. Kuykendall (1967). Hawaiian Kingdom 1874–1893, the Kalakaua Dynastism. University of Hawaii Press. p. 477. ISBN 978-0-87022-433-1. 
  198. ^ Brecher, Elinor J. (October 25, 2008). Grandmother of 'The Rock,' promoter. The Miami Herald. 
  199. ^ Crow, Jonathan (March 12, 2008). "Through The Years – Dwayne 'Not Just The Rock' Johnson". Yahoo Movies. Retrieved March 13, 2009. 
  200. ^ Young, Graham (April 10, 2010). "The Rock's on a roll in Hollywood". The Birmingham Post. Retrieved November 10, 2010. 
  201. ^ Morgan, Kaya. "Dwayne Johnson – How The Rock Transformed from Pro Wrestler to Bankable Movie Star". Island Connections. Retrieved December 29, 2006. 
  202. ^ "Abigail Kuaihelani Maipinepine". Our Family History and Ancestry. Families of Old Hawaii. Retrieved 2010-03-25. 
  203. ^ "The Return of the Native". Starweek Magazine. 1999.  ; no longer online, transcript at http://www.ritchievalens.org/thereturnofthenative.html
  204. ^ Second Generation
  205. ^ Honeycutt, Kirk (1990-08-19). "Lou Diamond Phillips: From Young Gun to Young Writer". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  206. ^ Kamehameha III#Family Tree
  207. ^ U.S. Census Bureau, 2000
  208. ^ "Meg Tilly is Asian Irish", Asiance magazineMarch 2011,
  209. ^ BankrollBoost.com. "Jennifer Tilly – Poker Pro Bio, Pictures and Poker Videos". Bankrollboost.com. Retrieved February 15, 2011. 
  210. ^ "Jennifer Tilly: Little voice, big talent". The Independent (London). November 19, 2004. 
  211. ^ "Official Meg Tilly Website". Officialmegtilly.com. Retrieved February 15, 2011. 
  212. ^ http://www.womenshealthexperience.com/pdf/WHT_Christ_WIN09.pdf
  213. ^ "BrainyQuote". 
  214. ^ "Asia Carrera: Why I do porn". 
  215. ^ "Nichi Bei Times". Nichi Bei Times. September 10, 2009. Retrieved October 18, 2011. 
  216. ^ "Loving Prize". Mxroots.org. June 11, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2011. 
  217. ^ http://geogweb.berkeley.edu/ProjectsResources/CaliforniaThinkers/profiles/fulbeck.html
  218. ^ My Complex: Adam Goldberg
  219. ^ http://iamkoream.com/rising-moon/
  220. ^ Dekel, Jonathan (2010-10-08). "Sean Lennon on Singing John's Songs, Making Music and Yoko Ono's Legacy". Spinner. 
  221. ^ Tequila, T (2008). Hooking Up With Tila Tequila. Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group. p. 6. 
  222. ^ Farley, Christopher John. "‘Daily Show’ Correspondent Olivia Munn on Joining the Program", The Wall Street Journal, June 5, 2010
  223. ^ Tokyo Dance Trooper with G4TV's Olivia Munn from ZimBio.com
  224. ^ "MediaNetBio". DisneyChannelMediaNet. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  225. ^ "Mixed Race: America's Fastest Growing Population". Marie Claire. 
  226. ^ "The United States". Chinese Blacks in the Americas. Color Q World. Retrieved 2008-07-21. 
  227. ^ Le, C. N. "Multiracial/Hapa Asian Americans". Asian-Nation: The Landscape of Asian America. Retrieved 2008-07-21. "According to the 2000 census, out of the 281,421,906 people living in the U.S., 10,242,998 of them identified themselves as entirely of Asian race (3.6%). Additionally, there were 1,655,830 people who identified themselves as being part Asian and part one or more other races. Asian and Black/African American ... 106,782 ... 0.64% (percentage of total multiracial Asians)" 
  228. ^ McGarry, Kevin (2009) "The New Queen Bee | Meet Nicki Minaj", New York Times, June 4, 2009
  229. ^ "Girls". Complex Magazine. 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2012. 
  230. ^ "Ne-Yo: Grammy-winning singer to perform at Halenbeck Hall". St. Cloud State University. 2008-09-25. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  231. ^ Silvestre, Edmund (November 8, 2008). "Fil-Am elected to US Congress". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2008-11-08. "Another US congressman who has Filipino roots is Rep. Robert Scott, an African-American representing Virginia’s third District. The Harvard-educated Democrat’s maternal grandfather, Valentin Cortez Hamlin, is from the Philippine." (sic., final word should read "Philippines")" [dead link]
  232. ^ Robert Michael Poole (October 16, 2009). "Crystal Kay is having a ball". Japan Times. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  233. ^ "Kelis". MTV UK. MTV Networks Europe. Retrieved February 27, 2011. 
  234. ^ Selvin, Joel (2006-12-12). "The fire killed her husband and destroyed everything. But not Sugar Pie's spirit.". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2012-03-31. "Her Filipino father worked making mattresses. Her African American mother was from Philadelphia." 
  235. ^ Chang, Wah-Ming Chang. "Interview with ‘The Wire’s’ Sonja Sohn: Not ‘Your Typical Black Girl’". Racialicious. Retrieved 2012-03-31. "A husky-voiced woman of African American and Korean parentage, Sohn (who’s straight, in case you’re wondering) got her start in the New York slam-poetry circuit (including the Def Poetry Jam) before moving on to the TV and movie game (check her out in Shaft)." 
  236. ^ Japanese enka star to perform at DC festival, Associated Press, March 28, 2009
  237. ^ "What is the ethnicity of the singer Ashanti". Wiki.answers.com. Retrieved 2013-03-18. 
  238. ^ Calloway, Sway (2001-05-29). "Foxy Brown - Outspoken (Part 4)". MTV News. Retrieved 2006-05-09. 
  239. ^ "For Latinos "being white" is more of a state of mind than skin tone", Politics in Color
  240. ^ "A CULTURAL IDENTITY: An essay on the meaning of the Hispanic label", PBS, Richard Rodriguez.
  241. ^ Quinonez, Ernesto (2003-06-19). "Y Tu Black Mama Tambien". Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  242. ^ "The Blond, Blue-Eyed Face of Spanish TV"
  243. ^ "Blonde, Blue-Eyed Euro-Cute Latinos on Spanish TV"
  244. ^ "Latinos Not Reflected on Spanish TV"
  245. ^ "What are Telenovelas? – Hispanic Culture"
  246. ^ Racial Bias Charged On Spanish-Language TV
  247. ^ Black Electorate
  248. ^ "Skin tone consciousness in Asian and Latin American populations", Boston Globe
  249. ^ "Corpus: A Home Movie For Selena", PBS
  250. ^ Weinraub, Bernard (March 22, 1994). "Quake or No Quake, the Show Must Go On". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  251. ^ "Rosie Helped Mom, Aids Groups Say". Daily News (New York). July 8, 2000. [dead link]
  252. ^ "ROSIE, HER MOM & AIDS Activist Perez shuns mom who's dying of the disease". Daily News (New York). July 7, 2000. [dead link]
  253. ^ Davis, F. James. "Who is Black? One Nation's Definition". Frontline (PBS). Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  254. ^ Margaret Hope Bacon, But One Race: The Life of Robert Purvis, Albany: State University of New York, 2007, pp.7–8
  255. ^ Bob Bankard, "The Passage to Freedom: The Underground Railroad", 3 March 2008 [5], accessed 3 May 2008
  256. ^ [6] "ROBERT PURVIS DEAD.; Anti-Slavery Leader Expires in Philadelphia, Aged 87 --His Work for the Black Race", New York Times, 16 April 1898, accessed 3 May 2008
  257. ^ Boxer, Sarah (July 7, 2007). "Herriman: Cartoonist who equalled Cervantes". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2009-02-03. "In 1971, however, the Krazy world changed. While researching an article on Herriman for the Dictionary of American Biography, the sociologist Arthur Asa Berger got a copy of Herriman’s birth certificate. Although Herriman died listed as Caucasian in 1944 in Los Angeles, he was classified as "colored" when born to two mixed-race or Creole parents in New Orleans in 1880, which had legal segregation. In 1880 Herriman would have been considered a mulatto. By the turn of the century, when he was a fledgling cartoonist, the newspaper bullpens "were open to immigrants but not to blacks"." 
  258. ^ A summary of the ethnic self-identity of the Healys, taken from various sources, is available in A.D. Powell, Passing for Who You Really Are (Palm Coast FL, 2005) ISBN 0-939479-22-2.
  259. ^ Fay M. Jackson, "I don't want to pass because I can't stand insincerities and shams. I am just as much Negro as any of the others identified with the race., (1911–1950), Pittsburgh, Pa.: Apr 14, 1934
  260. ^ ""Negro Singers Who Refuse to Pass", pp. 62–64". Jet Magazine. 
  261. ^ M. Boniface Adams, "The Gift of Religious Leadership: Henriette Delille and the Foundation of the Holy Family Sisters," Glenn R. Conrad, ed., Cross, Crozier, and Crucible: A Volume Celebrating the Bicentennial of a Catholic Diocese in Louisiana (New Orleans: The Archdiocese in cooperation with the Center for Louisiana Studies, 1993), 360–74.
  262. ^ Paul Heinegg, Free African Americans in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware, 1995–2005
  263. ^ Mancini, Olivia (2001). "Passing as White: Anita Hemmings 1897". "There were large numbers of African Americans at that time and into the turn of the century [for whom passing] was a means to gain opportunities in education," said Bickerstaff, who is now working on a book about the Hemmings family, tentatively titled Dark Beauty. "The country was under laws of segregation, and those families who had risen to that level of educational aspiration or economics were still excluded from most of the elite institutions.". Vassar College. Retrieved September 30, 2012. 
  264. ^ a b Winthrop Jordan, Black Over White, ch. IV, "The Fruits of Passion."
  265. ^ See "Chapter 9. How the Law Decided if You Were Black or White: The Early 1800s" in Legal History of the Color Line: The Rise and Triumph of the One-Drop Rule by Frank W. Sweet, ISBN 0-939479-23-0. A summary of this chapter, with endnotes, is available online at How the Law Decided if You Were Black or White: The Early 1800s.
  266. ^ AFRICAN ANCESTRY OF THE WHITE AMERICAN POPULATION, Ohio State University
  267. ^ *Fleischner, Jennifer (2003). Mrs. Lincoln and Mrs. Keckley: The Remarkable Story of the Friendship between a First Lady and a Former Slave. Broadway Books. pp. 29, 88. ISBN 0-7679-0259-9. 
  268. ^ {{cite book
  269. ^ "California Birth Index, 1905-1995 - online database on-line". United States: The Generations Network. 2005. Retrieved 2009-11-23. 
  270. ^ "Fifteenth Census of the United States (1930) [database on-line], Berkeley (Health District 2), Alameda County, California, Enumeration District: 1-280, Page: 16A, Lines: 1-6, household of Alex J. Veliotes". United States: The Generations Network. 1930-04-10. Retrieved 2009-11-23. 
  271. ^ Dahl, Bill. "Johnny Otis". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. 
  272. ^ "Johnny Otis" entry at Soulbot.com"
  273. ^ Powers, Ann (2007-03-27)."Will the real Stone rise up?". Los Angeles Times.
  274. ^ Johnny Otis, with preface by George Lipsitz (1968). Listen to the Lambs, p. xiii. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-6531-0.
  275. ^ Browner, Stephanie P. "Charles W. Chesnutt, "Race Prejudice; Its Causes and Its Cure"". The Charles Chesnutt Digital Archive. Berea College. Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
  276. ^ Campbell University
  277. ^ Walter White, A Man Called White
  278. ^ {{Cite book
  279. ^ Ariela J. Gross, What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trial in America, p 61 ISBN 978-0-674-03130-2
  280. ^ a b Kathy Davis. "Headnote to Lydia Maria Child's 'The Quadroons' and 'Slavery's Pleasant Homes'," Bucknell University, Summer 1997, accessed 4 June 2012
  281. ^ Werner Sollors, Interracialism, p. 285 ISBN 0-19-512856-7
  282. ^ Lawrence R. Tenzer,"White Slaves", Multiracial.com
  283. ^ Pak, Greg (23–24 September 2003). "Mulattoes, Half-Breeds, and Hapas: Multiracial Representation in the Movies". Matters of Race (PBS). Retrieved 2008-07-21. 
  • Nickson, Chris (1995). Mariah Carey: her story. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0-312-13121-0. 
  • Perry, Bruce (1991). Malcolm: The Life of a Man Who Changed Black America. Barrytown, N.Y.: Station Hill. ISBN 978-0-88268-103-0. 

LiteratureEdit

  • G. Reginald Daniel, More Than Black?: Multiracial Identity and the New Racial Order, Temple University Press (2002) ISBN 978-1-56639-909-8.
  • Teja Arboleda, In the Shadow of Race: Growing Up As a Multiethnic, Multicultural, and Multiracial American (1998) ISBN 978-0-585-11477-4.
  • Yo Jackson, Yolanda Kaye Jackson, Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology (2006), ISBN 978-1-4129-0948-8.
  • Joel Perlmann, Mary C. Waters, The New Race Question: How the Census Counts Multiracial Individuals (2005), ISBN 978-0-87154-658-6.

External linksEdit