|Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz|
|President of Mauritania|
5 August 2009
|Prime Minister||Moulaye Laghdaf
Yahya Ould Hademine
|Preceded by||Ba Mamadou Mbaré (Acting)|
|12th Chairperson of the African Union|
30 January 2014 – 30 January 2015
|Preceded by||Hailemariam Desalegn|
|Succeeded by||Robert Mugabe|
|President of the High Council of State
Acting President of Mauritania
6 August 2008 – 15 April 2009*
|Prime Minister||Moulaye Laghdaf|
|Preceded by||Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi|
|Succeeded by||Ba Mamadou Mbaré (Acting)|
20 December 1956 |
Akjoujt, French West Africa
|Political party||Union for the Republic|
|Years of service||1977–2009|
Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz (born 20 December 1956) is the President of Mauritania, in office since 2009. A career soldier and high-ranking officer, he was a leading figure in the August 2005 coup that deposed President Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya, and in August 2008 he led another coup, which toppled President Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi. Following the 2008 coup, Abdel Aziz became President of the High Council of State as part of what was described as a political transition leading to a new election. He resigned from that post in April 2009 in order to stand as a candidate in the July 2009 presidential election, which he won. He was sworn in on 5 August 2009.
Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz was born in Akjoujt on 20 December 1956. He joined the Royal Military Academy of Meknes, Morocco in 1977 and, after a string of promotions, established the elite BASEP (Presidential Security Battalion). He played a key role in suppressing an attempted coup in June 2003 and a military uprising in August 2004. He received Mauritania's highest military award for his role in stopping the 2004 uprising.
2005 coup leaderEdit
A military coup on 3 August 2005, led by Ely Ould Mohamed Vall, Director-General of the Sûreté Nationale, and Colonel Abdel Aziz, who was commander of the Presidential Guard (BASEP), overthrew President Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya. Colonel Abdel Aziz was said at the time to be one of the main actors in the actual carrying out of this coup. At the time, Abdel Aziz was described by a Western academic as a leader of a Mauritanian Nasserist group, pan-Arab secular nationalists. Western sources, citing Abdel Aziz's background in coming from a traditionally favored Oulad Bou Sbaa Chorfa clan group, questioned the general's commitment to democracy and reversing the history of ethnic and class inequities in the nation.
Contrary to this, the Mauritanian press credited Abdel Aziz for pushing to reduce military rule from 24 to 19 months and for attempting to limit voter fraud in the coming election.
Under President Sidi Ould Cheikh AbdallahiEdit
On 30 August 2007, President Abdallahi named Abdel Aziz his Presidential Chief of Staff (Chef d'Etat-major particulier du Président de la République). Abdel Aziz, now a General, continued to work closely with the President: at the end of February 2008 he served as a personal envoy of the President to King Mohammed VI of Morocco. General Abdel Aziz was also commander of the forces sent to apprehend Salafist militants who had killed four French tourists at Aleg in December 2007.
A May 2008 article contrasted Abdel Aziz's continuing involvement at the centre of political power with Ely Ould Mohamed Vall, who had left public life. Abdel Aziz remained both advisor to the President and General, and was described as being at the nexus of "a small galaxy of other colonels, businessmen and politicians, in an uneasy balance."
A conflict with the President was clearly growing in June 2008. At the end of June, the left-wing UFP party reported that they believed Abdel Aziz and Ould Elghazouani were planning for a coup, but were attempting a strategy of political change by hiving "independent" parliamentarians off from the government, which would replace the President peacefully.
A mass defection in the ranks of the ruling PNDD-ADIL party on 4 August 2008 (two days before the coup) with 25 Parliamentary deputies and 23 senators was reported to have been inspired by military leaders, and would have left the president unable to govern.
2008 coup leaderEdit
6 August coup d'étatEdit
On 6 August 2008, Abdel Aziz was ordered removed by Abdallahi from his command, along with several senior officers including General Muhammad Ould Al-Ghazwani, General Felix Negri, and Brigadier General (Aqid) Ahmad Ould Bakri. The first announcement of the State Council was to annul this decree.
By 9:20 local time, BASEP troops seized the President, Prime Minister, and Interior Minister in the capital, Nouakchott. Mauritania television was taken off the air earlier, but Arabia-based al-Arabiya television played an announcement said to be from the new junta. According to an official statement released on 7 August Abdallahi's powers were terminated and Mauritania would be governed on a transitional basis by an 11-member High Council of State, with Abdel Aziz as the President of the Council, until a new presidential election was held "as soon as possible".
Public reaction to the 2008 coup by western governments in the days after 6 August were hostile, with particularly harsh condemnation coming from former colonial power and past economic supporter France. In the two weeks following the coup, Abdel Aziz met with a number of foreign delegations, made personal phone calls to foreign leaders, and gave a number of press interviews to the international media. In these he stated that his actions were legal, a response to "anti-constitutional" oppression by the previous government, and that although "forced to take power" he had no desire for power. He did not rule out running in the promised elections, however. A Saudi-based newspaper claimed that the General was motivated by a combination of disgust at the corruption of those close to Abdallahi, but also over legal threats against Abdel Aziz and others by the president regarding the behavior of the Mauritanian military during the mass expulsion of black Africans in 1989.
Abdel Aziz's initial list of names for the High Council of State included five civilians, released on 7 August along with a statement that former government ministers could retain their jobs. By the end of the same day, this list had been revised, without public explanation, to include all military figures. Two small demonstrations were held on the day following the coup: one opposing the seizure of power, which was dispersed by the police with tear gas, and one march supporting the military, at which Abdel Aziz spoke. At that demonstration, marchers already carried life size photographs of Abdel Aziz in military uniform. Within a week, a majority of the Mauritanian parliament voted to authorise the coup, and on the 13th, Abdel Aziz signed a decree appointing Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf as Prime Minister of Mauritania. The Council stated that Abdel Aziz had the power to appoint the prime minister, military officials and civil servants in Mauritania.
Neighboring support was somewhat forthcoming, with Morocco's government press calling Abdel Aziz a patriot an advisor of the Moroccan king coming to Nouakchott to meet with Abdul Aziz, and Libya and Senegal eventually pronounced their support for the new government. In contrast, the Algerian government has stridently opposed the coup, even while quietly receiving a visit from Abdel Aziz's close ally and the new Mauritanian Chief of Armed Forces, Muhammad Ould Al-Ghazwani, and has attempted to rally the African Union and Arab states against Abdelaziz.
The United States has consistently issued press releases from the Department of State condemning the coup d’état as illegal and unconstitutional. The African Union has issued condemnation of General Aziz as well as travel bans and the freezing of assets of Aziz and those connected with the coup and the illegal seizure of the Mauritanian government.
The BBC has pointed out that the General, who was previously seen as a supporting player in the 2005 coup, is now seen as having been the power behind the previous junta. It was also noted that the General, never seen without his military uniform, is already addressed by government staff as "president". An ally of Abdel Aziz was quoted saying "He's a simple man, who likes order." Apart from deriding corruption and government inaction, Abdel Aziz stressed his opposition to Islamic fundamentalism. An internet threat, released on 12 August, alleged to be from Al-Qaeda threatened the coup leaders, and General Abdel Aziz took the opportunity to stress his fidelity to the anti-terrorist operation which the United States government had funded in Mauritania since 2003 but suspended following the 6 August coup.
2009 presidential electionEdit
The coup government of General Ould Abdel Aziz promised that it would hold a free and fair election for President on 6 June 2009. On 5 February 2009, Mauritanian state media reported that the General would stand as a candidate for president in that election. Despite this attempt to legitimise the post-coup government, the African Union carried out a sanctions regime first agreed on 22 December 2008, and continued to recognise Abdallahi as the Mauritanian Head of State. The largest opposition parties initially refused to take part in the election, calling it "predetermined" and a "farce". Ould Abdel Aziz headed a list of sanctions targets by the African Union which was put into effect on 6 February 2009. The sanctions against government and military officials who backed the August coup prevent travel to AU nations, the issuing of visas or travel documents to these individuals, and the seizure of bank assets within AU nations.
In order to stand as a candidate in the presidential election, Abdel Aziz was required to step down as Head of State. He did so on 15 April, as expected, and the President of the Senate, Ba Mamadou Mbare, succeeded him in an interim capacity. Members of the opposition decried the move, saying the General was retaining real power. Mohamed Ould Mouloud, a leader in the National Front for the Defence of Democracy (FNDD) opposition coalition, was quoted in the foreign press as saying: "It's a false resignation, a pretend resignation that the general is doing to trick public opinion and have people accept the putsch."
The Union for the Republic political party elected Abdel Aziz as its President at the party's constituent assembly on 5 May 2009. In the presidential election held on 18 July 2009, Abdel Aziz won a first-round majority of 52.58%. He then resigned as party leader on 2 August 2009, as the President of Mauritania cannot be a member of any party.
Abdel Aziz was sworn in as President at a ceremony held in Nouakchott on 5 August 2009.
Abdel Aziz was non-fatally shot on 13 October 2012. Reports are conflicting as to where on his body Abdel Aziz was shot and whether the incident was an accident or an assassination attempt. The country's Communications Minister, Hamdi Ould Mahjoub, reported that the president was shot in the arm, while Reuters medical sources said it was in the abdomen. Initially, Mauritanian radio reported that Abdel Aziz survived an assassination attempt, but Abdel Aziz subsequently said that he was accidentally shot by an army unit and was successfully operated on for minor injuries. Witnesses claim Abdel Aziz was directly targeted by men who ran away after the shooting. Abdel Aziz received an initial operation at a military hospital in the Mauritanian capital of Nouakchott, and then, according to the French defense ministry, would be transferred to Percy-Clamart military hospital in Paris for additional treatment.
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- "Le Haut Conseil d'Etat rend public un nouveau communiqué", AMI, 7 August 2008 (French).
- "Mauritarian coup leader sworn in as president", AFP, 5 August 2009.
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- Biographie du nouveau Président mauritanien, Taqadoumy – 6 August 2008
- Ethan Zuckerman (3 August 2005) Mauritanians report on today's coup, Global Voices Online
- Boubacar N’Diaye (2006). "Mauritania, August 2005: Justice and democracy, or just another coup?". African Affairs 105 (420): 421. doi:10.1093/afraf/adi126.
- The Tribes and their ministries, themoornextdoor.wordpress.com (26 May 2008)
- Mohammed ould Abdelaziz: Curriculum Vitae. w-sahara.blogspot.com (6 August 2008).
- Political transition in Mauritania: Assessment and horizons: Middle East/North Africa Report N°53 (EXECUTIVE SUMMARY). International Crisis Group, 24 April 2005.
"That Ould Mohamed Vall and Ould Abdel Aziz belong to the same tribal group, one which was highly privileged under the old regime, raises the question whether they truly intend to change its clientelist patterns and could fuel political tensions before long."
- Ould Abdel Aziz Chef d’état major particulier et Ould Mbarek médiateur de la république, Al Akhbar, 30 August 2007
- L’ère des généraux après celle des colonels..., Ahmed Ould Soueidi, Le journal Challenge, 2007.
- Revue de Presse des Quotidiens Remarque: La revue de presse de lundi intègre celles de samedi et de dimanche. Celles des jours fériés sont inclues dans la Revue du jour ouvré suivant. 27 February 2008
- Why Jihadis Heart Mauritania (Bled l-Moops), aqoul.com, 25 May 2008
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- Communiqué relatif à la situation en Mauritanie, President of France, Publié le 8 August 2007
Mauritania: the European Union warns the military junta of the serious risk of isolation in the international arena, French Foreign Ministry (13 August 2008)
- L'UE met en garde la junte en Mauritanie contre un risque d'"isolement", 13 August 2008 – AFP
Mauritania coup commander leads march in capital By AHMED MOHAMED and TODD PITMAN Associated Press Writers, 8 August 2008
Mauritanian general defends coup, The Age, 11 August 2008
Early Mauritania poll promised, Interview, Al Jazeera, 10 August 2008
- Mohamed Ould Abdelaziz: « Nous avons été contraints de prendre le pouvoir ».10 August 2008 interviewed by Marianne Meunier. The General has given interviews to the BBC, French press, a number of North African publications, Senegalese publications, and even released candid photos of him speaking on the telephone with President of Senegal Abdoulaye Wade.
- Coup in Mauritanian: The Final Moments, Asharq Al-Awsat, 9 August 2008.
- Le "Conseil d’Etat" laisse les ministres mauritaniens en place. apanews.net[dead link]
- Mauritanie : Accueil Actualité à la Une. Cridem.org. Retrieved on 12 July 2013.
- Ould Daddah pose des conditions ; M'baré et Ould Boulkheir sur la réserve. taqadoumy.com (7 August 2008)
- Un nouveau membre du HCE. taqadoumy.com (11 August 2008)
- Caricature du jour. Liste des membres du Haut Conseil d'Etat. taqadoumy.com (7 August 2008)
- Caricature du jour. Ould Boulkheir refuse de reconnaitre le Haut Conseil d'Etat. taqadoumy.com (11 August 2008)
- Ahmed Mohammed (7 August 2008) Mauritania coup chief leads march through capital, Mail & Guardian. mg.co.za
- Supporters carry a poster of coup-leader Abdelaziz in Mauritania's capital Nouakchott, Reuters wire photos (2008).
- Mauritanie: la junte nomme un diplomate Premier ministre, 8 jours après le putsch, 14 August 2008– NOUAKCHOTT (AFP).
- Une majorité de parlementaires et de maires soutiennent le coup d'Etat. 13 août 2008 – AFP
- Dangerous flirtations, Gamal Nkrumah, Al-Ahram Weekly, Issue No. 910, 14–20 August 2008.
junta issues decree specifying powers, Kuwait Times, 13 August 2008
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- Le Maroc, vers la reconnaissance des Généraux?, Bladi & Aujourd'hui le Maroc, 13 August.
- Bouteflika n'a jamais refusé de voir les émissaires mauritaniens 13 August 2008
- U.S. Welcomes African Union's Call to Action on Mauritania. Gordon Duguid. Acting Deputy Department Spokesman, Office of the Spokesman. Bureau of Public Affairs. Washington, DC. 26 March 2009
- Mauritania strongman steps forward, James Copnall BBC, 14 August 2008.
- "Al-Qaeda 'warning' for Mauritania". BBC News. 13 August 2008. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- Donna Miles (16 May 2005). "New Counterterrorism Initiative to Focus on Saharan Africa". American Forces Press Service. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- Phillip Ulmer (8 March 2004). "Special Forces Support Pan Sahel Initiative in Africa". American Forces Press Service. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- David Gollust (7 August 2008). "US Cuts Non-Humanitarian Aid to Mauritania After Coup". Voice of America. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- "Mauritanie: Le général Ould Abdel Aziz candidat aux élections présidentielles prochaines". Agence Nouakchott d'Information. 5 February 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
- Opposition slam Mauritania poll. AFP. 14 April 2009.
- "L'Union africaine décide de sanctions contre les membres de la junte". Agence France Presse. 6 February 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
- Ahmed Mohamed, "Mauritania coup leader cedes power to seek office", Associated Press, 15 April 2009.
- 'It's a pretend resignation'. AFP. 16 April 2009.
- "Le parti de l'Union pour la République procède à l'élection de M. Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz au poste de président", AMI, 5 May 2009 (French).
- "Mauritania's president-elect resigns as party leader", Xinhua, 3 August 2009.
- Amir, Ahmed (14 October 2012). "Mauritania's president heads to France for treatment after shooting". CNN.
- "Mauritania President Abdelaziz shot". BBC News. 13 October 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- Prieur, Laurent (14 October 2012). "Mauritanian leader flown to France after shooting". Reuters.
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- Political transition in Mauritania: Assessment and horizons. Middle East/North Africa Report N°53. International Crisis Group (ICG) 24 April 2006.