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Micronations, sometimes also referred to as model countries and new country projects, are small, self-proclaimed entities that claim to be independent sovereign states but which are not acknowledged as such by any recognised sovereign state, or by any supranational organization. They should not be confused with microstates, which are recognised independent states of a small size, nor should they be confused with unrecognised states, which may have legitimate claim to sovereign state status.:5
Motivations for the creation of micronations include theoretical experimentation, political protest, artistic expression, personal entertainment and the conduct of criminal activity.:4 Micronations can also exist in various forms, including in the physical world (on land, at sea and in outer space), online, in the minds of their creators, or some combination of these. Some micronations issue coins, flags, postage stamps, passports, medals, and other items.
|Official title||Flag (if available)||Founded||Description||Leader||Area||Population|
|Aerican Empire||1987||An eccentric tongue-in-cheek micronation founded by Canadian Eric Lis as a child, and maintained for the several decades since. It claims various terrestrial and interplanetary territories as Aerican land.:102||Eric Lis|
|Aeterna Lucina||1978||An Australian micronation founded by a self-proclaimed baron, who claimed properties he owned in New South Wales as its territory. Several associated businessmen were charged in 1990 with land and visa fraud.||Paul Baron Neuman|
|Akhzivland||declared independence 1970||A non-territorial micronation founded by Eli Avivi in response to the Israeli government's sending two bulldozers to demolish his illegally inhabited house. As a result of a lawsuit brought against Avivi by the State of Israel (which was subsequently rejected by the judge hearing the case), the micronation's legal status has remained ambiguous.||Eli Avivi|
|Aramoana||1980||A small New Zealand community that declared itself independent to protest the building of an aluminium smelter on nearby land.|
|Atlantium||1981||A global sovereignty group based in Australia that was founded in Sydney by George Francis Cruickshank.:102||George Cruickshank|
|Austenasia||2008||A constitutional monarchy comprising several privately owned properties around the world that have declared themselves independent under the leadership of a house in south London.||Jonathan Austen|
|Avram||1980s||A non-territorial micronation founded by an eccentric self-proclaimed duke who was later elected to the Tasmanian state parliament.:144||John Charlton Rudge|
|British West Florida||2005||A micronation intending to revive the former British colony of the same name.:139||Bo Register|
|Bumbunga||1976||An Australian secessionist micronation located on a farm at Bumbunga near Snowtown and Lochiel, (northeast of Adelaide), South Australia during the 1970s and 1980s for approximately a decade.||Alex Brackstone|
|Conch Republic||1982||A group claiming tongue-in-cheek independence from the United States of America in protest at a blockade established by the US Border Patrol at the upper end of the Florida Keys.:130||Dennis Wardlow|
|Copeman Empire||2003||The Copeman Empire is run from a caravan park in Norfolk, England, by its founder Nick Copeman, who changed his name by deed poll to HM King Nicholas I.:70–73||Nick Copeman|
|Coral Sea Islands||2004||Established as a symbolic political protest by a group of gay rights activists, the Coral Sea Islands is a micronation based in southeast Queensland, Australia.:38||Dale Anderson|
|Republic of Counani||1886||In 1886, a long-standing border dispute between Brazil and French Guiana was settled by arbitration, awarding the contested area to Brazil. The French author Jules Gros decided not to accept this result, and declared the region the Republic of Counani. After Gros' death, a number of claimants stepped forward to assert their presidency of Counani, although it is unclear if any had even met Gros or set foot in Counani. The farce was ended once and for all in 1905, when Brazil formally complained to Spain about a Spanish citizen claiming to be an ambassador of Counani. The 'ambassador' was arrested and threatened with extradition. Although nothing came of these threats, the idea of Counani was buried.||Jules Gros|
|Elleore||1944||A tongue-in-cheek micronation founded by a group of school teachers as a summer camp on the island of Elleore, Denmark.:42|
|EnenKio||1994||Claims Wake Atoll, a U.S. territory north of the Marshall Islands, and has been deemed a scam for selling passports and diplomatic papers.|
|Filettino||2011||Mayor Luca Sellari, from the small town with a population around 550, declared the independence from Italy in protest to austerity measures resulting from the European economic crisis. Filettino has printed its own currency, the fiorito.|
|Flandrensis||2008||A micronation with claims over some territories of Antarctica, which has been founded in 2008 by Niels Vermeersch, who declared himself as a Grand Duke Niels I.||Niels Vermeersch|
|Forvik||2008||An islet in Shetland, Scotland, declared an independent Crown dependency by Stuart Hill, who claims that the United Kingdom has breached the 1469 deal with Denmark, which transferred the Shetland Islands to the Scottish crown.||Stuart Hill|
|Republic of Fredonia||1826||The Fredonian Rebellion (December 21, 1826 – January 23, 1827) was the first attempt by Anglo settlers in Texas to secede from Mexico. One of these carpetbaggers, Haden Edwards, infuriated many settlers in 1825 by producing a contract he had extracted from the Mexican government. In December of 1826, his brother Benjamin Edwards led a group of thirty men into Texas. They seized control of the town of Nacogdoches, and declared eastern Texas the Republic of Fredonia.|
|Principality of Freedonia||1997||The Principality of Freedonia was a micronation based on libertarian principles. It was supposedly established as a "hypothetical project" by a group of U.S. teenagers in 1992, before becoming a new country project in 1997 and attempting to purchase territory. It was headed by a Texas university student named John Alexander Kyle, who uses the title Prince John I. In his search to purchase actual territory, Mr. Kyle considered several viable options, but no one was real. The Freedonia project is unactive from 2004.||John Alexander Kyle|
|Freetown Christiania||1971||Christiania, also known as Freetown Christiania (Danish: Fristaden Christiania) is a self-proclaimed autonomous neighbourhood of about 850 residents, covering 34 hectares (84 acres) in the borough of Christianshavn in the Danish capital Copenhagen.|
|Frestonia||1977||Freston Road in west London staged a "secession" from the United Kingdom as Frestonia. In a legal dispute regarding the unauthorised performance of his play The Immortalist, Heathcote Williams won a ruling from the UK courts that Frestonia was for this purpose not part of the UK.|
|Ganienkeh||1974||The 1970s saw a number of highly publicized confrontations between the U.S. government and Native Americans, such as the Oglala Nation's standoff at Wounded Knee and the Alcatraz occupation. Another clash occurred at Moss Lake in upstate New York. After the federal Indian Claims Commission refused to consider compensation to the Mohawk Nation, saying that its jurisdiction only covered western tribes, a group of Mohawk activists declared 600 acres near Moss Lake the sovereign Mohawk territory of Ganienkeh, and further laid claim to all of northeastern New York. After a firefight between the Mohawks and local vigilantes, the state government started eviction proceedings. When the federal courts refused to hear the matter, Assistant State Attorney General Mario Cuomo was dispatched to negotiate a settlement. In May of 1977, the Mohawks accepted a smaller land grant and the crisis was ended.|
|Glacier Republic||2014||Founded by Greenpeace activists in a disputed border region of the Andes between Chile and Argentina, for the purpose of drawing attention to Chile's lack of environmental protection for glaciers.|
|Global Country of World Peace||2000||"A country without borders for peace loving people everywhere" created by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, with capitals at MERU, Holland and Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa.||Maharaja Adhiraj Rajaraam|
|Hajdučka Republika Mijata Tomića||2002||A protest project (based on Vran mountain, in Blidinje Nature Park, Bosnia and Herzegovina) started by a local because of inefficiency of problems with the local electricity supply.||Vinko Vukoja Lastvić|
|Hay-on-Wye||1977||A town in Wales that was declared independent by bibliophile Richard Booth as a publicity stunt. Booth's success in promoting Hay as a "town of books" was recognised with the award of an MBE in the 2004 Queen's New Year Honours.||Richard Booth|
|Humanity||1878||A former micronation, occupying the Spratly Islands, which merged into the Republic of Morac-Songhrati-Meads in September 1963.||James George Meads|
|Hutt River||1970||A large farming area in Western Australia that unilaterally seceded from the Commonwealth and declared itself to be a sovereign nation. It was known as the Hutt River Province until 2007.:22||Leonard Casley||75 km2|
|Icaria||1912||Icaria is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean. To put it lightly, tensions in the region were high during the early twentieth century. The Ottomans were in retreat everywhere, the newly independent nations of the Balkans were united against them, and Italy had in 1911 declared war, seizing Libya. In 1912, the Italians swept the Aegean of Ottoman warships and seized Rhodes. The inhabitants of Icaria took advantage of the war to declare themselves independent on July 12, 1912. The Balkan alliance declared war in July, reducing the Ottoman holdings in Europe to a tiny foothold. The island was annexed to Greece in November.|
|Republic of Jamtland||1963||A Swedish province, formerly a part of Norway||Ewert Ljusberg|
|Kugelmugel||1984||A ball-shaped house built by artist Edwin Lipburger, located in the Vienna Prater.:82–83||Edwin Lipburger||7.68m in diameter||1 (in exile)|
|Ladonia||1980||A micronation created by Swedish artist Lars Vilks as the home to sculptures created by him in the Kullaberg nature reserve in north-west Skåne.:136|
|Lagoan Isles||2005||The creation of a self-styled Grand Duke Louis, who claims that three tiny islands in a Portsmouth pond are not owned by the local council, and so has declared them an independent state.:86||Louis Stephans|
|L'Anse-Saint-Jean||1997||A micronation started to promote tourism in a small Quebec town.||Denys Tremblay|
|Libertatia||1694||Libertatia (also known as Libertalia) was a possibly fictional anarchist colony founded in the late 17th century in Madagascar by pirates under the leadership of Captain James Misson. Whether or not Libertatia actually existed is disputed. It is described in the book A General History of the Pyrates by Captain Charles Johnson, an otherwise unknown individual who may have been a pseudonym of Daniel Defoe. According to Johnson's description, Libertatia lasted for about 25 years. The precise location of Libertatia is not known.||James Misson|
|Llanrwst||1276||A town in North Wales declared a "free borough" by a Welsh prince which unsuccessfully applied to the United Nations in 1947.||Llywelyn the Last|
|Kingdom of Lovely||2004||An Internet-based micronation founded by Danny Wallace as part of the BBC TV series How to Start Your Own Country, claiming the flat of its creator as sovereign territory.:28||Danny Wallace||?|| ?
(58,000 registered online)
|Marlborough||1993||A short lived micronation in Australia whose creator declared his farm an independent country to try to avoid eviction after bankruptcy. He was evicted less than a week later by police, was later prosecuted and has since abandoned any claim of independence.||George Muirhead|
|Melchizedek||1986||The Dominion of Melchizedek (DoM) is a micronation known largely for facilitating large scale banking fraud in many parts of the world.||Richard James McDonald|
|Acting Witan of Mercia||2003||The Acting Witan of Mercia is an attempt at reviving the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy-era kingdom of Mercia as an "autonomous and sustainable bioregion within an English federation". They see Mercia as having been ruled over by an authoritarian state since the Norman conquest, and believe that the United Kingdom as an illegtimate state.||Jeff Kent|
|Minerva||1973||An attempt to build an artificial island and form a new libertarian country. The new land was located on Minerva Reef, south of Fiji, but the island was seized and annexed by Tonga shortly afterward.:14||Morris C. Davis|
|Molossia||1977||A micronation founded by Kevin Baugh, occupying his semi-rural residential acreage in Nevada. It is run humorously as a dictatorial banana-republic.:62||Kevin Baugh||3 (Kevin Baugh, First Lady, and son Carson)|
|Morac-Songhrati-Meads||1959||A micronation that claims to occupy the Spratly Islands. The territory is under de facto military control by China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam, since the discovery of oil in 1968.||Christopher Schneider|
|Naminara Republic||2006||An island in the Han River in Chuncheon city of Gangwon-do, South Korea. Issues its own passport, currency, phone cards. Part of the movie Winter Sonata was filmed here. The island received 1.5 million visitors yearly.|
|Neue Slowenische Kunst||1984||A nation created by a number of Slovene artists.:128–129|
|Republic of New Atlantis||1964||The Republic of New Atlantis was a micronation created by Leicester Hemingway, the younger brother and biographer of writer Ernest Hemingway. As the location of what he would later describe as "the world's smallest political entity", Hemingway chose a site above a small seamount in what were then international waters, 12.87 kilometres southwest of Jamaica. At the time of its foundation, on 4 July 1964, the territorial pretensions of New Atlantis anticipated the future construction of a large, habitable man-made island; in practice they were limited to a 2.44 x 9.14 metre steel and bamboo raft, which Hemingway anchored to the floor of the Caribbean Sea with the aid of an old Ford engine block. The project came to an abrupt end in 1966, when the raft was destroyed during a tropical storm.
Hemingway went on to found a second, similar micronation, at a different location, in 1973: the Republic of Tierra del Mar. Its putative territory consisted of a 91 metre-long sandbar situated some 15 kilometres west of Gold Cay, in the Bahamas.
|New Utopia||1990s||A proposed micronation based on libertarian principles to be built on platforms in the Caribbean Sea. It was founded by American entrepreneur Lazarus Long. The project's status as of 2006 is in question.:15||Lazarus Long|
|North Dumpling Island||1986||An island in the Fishers Island Sound, declared independent after its owner David Kamen was denied permission to build a wind turbine on the island. It is carbon neutral, and holds a non-aggression pact with the United States signed by former President George H. W. Bush.||Dean Kamen||2 acres (8,000 m2)|
|Kingdom of North Sudan||2014||The declaration of independence was made by one Jeremiah Heaton, a former Democratic Party Congressional hopeful from Abingdon, Virginia, who made a 14-hour overland trek via desert caravan to a remote, disputed shard of territory between Sudan and Egypt, planted a flag, and declared it, provisionally, “the Heaton Kingdom” and later, officially, on a suggestion from his children, the Kingdom of North Sudan. The piece of land in question is Bir Tawil, an 800-square-mile lozenge of desert. The reason Heaton has made himself king of North Sudan is to fulfill a promise to his seven-year-old daughter, Emily Heaton. As the self-styled monarch told the press, “Over the winter, Emily and I were playing, and she has a fixation on princesses. She asked me, in all seriousness, if she’d be a real princess someday. And I said she would.”||Jeremiah Heaton|
|Nova Roma||1998||An international organ of Roman revivalists who claim to be a modern Roman nation and have the administrative structure of the ancient Roman Republic. Nova Roma explicitly states that they aren't a micronation but a "civitas" or "res publica"; their organ, however, fits all the requirements for being classified as such.|
|Outer Baldonia||c. 1950||A micronation on Outer Bald Tusket Island, Nova Scotia, used for seasonal fishing. It had an eccentric constitution and women were banned from the island.||Russell Arundel||4 acres (16,000 m2)||c. 69|
|Other World Kingdom||1996||An absolute monarchy/matriarchy with strong BDSM themes, in which women rule over all men. It is located in the Czech Republic.||Queen Patrica I|
|Perloja||1918||Established in the aftermath of World War I, the Republic of Perloja had its own court, police, prison, currency (Perloja litas), and an army of 300 men.||Jonas Česnulevičius|
|Peščenica||1990s||Peščenica is a satirical-parodical project of a dictator-ruled republic by famous Croatian maverick traveller Željko Malnar. It is located in Zagreb, Croatia.||Željko Malnar|
|Republic of Ploiești||1870||It was a two days protest against the Romanian monarchy. The plotters occupied the firehouse, the telegraph station and the post office in Ploiești in the evening of August 8, 1870. The chief of police and the prefect were arrested. On the evening of 9 August, soldiers from Bucharest arrived at the Ploieşti train station and arrested the new "administration", most of whom declared that they were not actually revolting, thinking it was just a party. Thirty-six of the leaders of the movement were accused of "revolt against the government". The trials of the civilians who took part in the revolt were eventually moved to Târgovişte and, on October 17, 1870, they were found not guilty.||Alexandru Candiano-Popescu|
|Rainbow Creek||1979||Founded by a farmer who "seceded" from Victoria State, Australia, over damage to farmlands caused by flooding he claimed was exacerbated due to incompetence of the state government water management agency.:145||Thomas Barnes|
|Redonda||1865||A small uninhabited island in the Caribbean sea, now legally part of Antigua and Barbuda. In 1865, a citizen of Montserrat was supposedly permitted by Queen Victoria to claim the title of King of Redonda, as long as he did not incite any revolt against colonial authority.:108||Matthew Dowdy Shiell|
|Rose Island||1968||An attempt to create a sovereign state on an offshore platform in international waters near the Italian city of Rimini. It was completed, but shortly afterward seized by the Italian government and destroyed with explosives.||Giorgio Rosa|
|Russian Empire||2011||Located on the coral atoll Suwarrow near the Cook Islands in the Pacific Ocean, it was founded by Russian businessman Anton Bakov. By the Constitution of the Russian Empire, it is a federal constitutional monarchy and the successor of the Empire founded by Peter I. This claim is denied by Cook Islands news.||Anton Bakov|
|Saugeais||1947||An officially sanctioned tongue-in-cheek micronation located in eastern France, in the département of Doubs.:122–124||Georgette Bertin-Pourchet|
|Repubblica di Sbarre Centrali||1970||A self-proclaimed Republic by people from Sbarre district in Reggio city (southern Italy) during the Reggio revolt. This micronation disappeared after the end of the revolt.|
|Sealand||1967||A World War II military facility consisting of a man-made structure located off the English coast that was occupied and declared to be an independent state by Paddy Roy Bates.:8–13||Paddy Roy Bates||550 m2||4
|Seborga||954||A town in the Italian region of Liguria that claims never to have been a part of the modern Italian state.:55||Marcello I||15 km2|
|Talossa||1979||A micronation founded as a bedroom kingdom by Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America resident Robert Ben Madison. Madison claims to have coined the term "micronation".[nb 1]:101||John Woolley||13 km2||239|
|Principality of Trinidad||1893||The Principality of Trinidad was declared in 1893, when the American James Harden-Hickey claimed the uninhabited island Trindade and Martim Vaz in the South Atlantic and declared himself as James I, Prince of Trinidad. In July 1895, the British tried to take possession of this strategic position in the Atlantic, basing their claim on the 1700 visit by English astronomer Edmund Halley. However, Brazilian diplomatic efforts, pressed a successful claim to Brazilian sovereignty, based on the island's discovery in 1502 by Portuguese navigators. Harden-Hickey fell into deep depression and committed suicide in February 9, 1898.||James Harden-Hickey|
|Užupis||1997||Užupis is a neighborhood in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, largely located in Vilnius' old town. In 1997, the residents of the area declared a Republic of Užupis, with its own flag, currency, president, and constitution.|
|Vikesland||2005||A micronation located in Manitoba, Canada that was founded for the purposes of a TV documentary about micronations. It claims two properties in and near the town of Brandon.:90–93|
|Wallachia||1997||A tongue-in-cheek micronation founded in 1997 as an "elaborate practical joke", located is in the northeast corner of the Czech Republic. It has since become one of the Czech Republic's biggest tourist attractions.||Vladimir II|
|Wanstonia||1994||Wanstonia was created by protesters against the M11 motorway link road through Wanstead in north-east London.|
|Waveland||1997||A micronation sited on a rocky islet in the North Atlantic, known as Rockall. Greenpeace occupied Rockall, declaring it an independent nation, to protest oil drilling in the area.|
|Wendland||1980||A German anti-nuclear protest in the Wendland, reoccupied by thousands of policemen after a few weeks.|
|Westarctica||1989||Micronation founded by Travis McHenry, subsequently dubbed the Grand Duchy of Westarctica, claiming a piece of Marie Byrd Land, the last slice in Antarctica unclaimed by any nation.||Travis McHenry||1,610,000 km2||0 ?
(proposed rebuilding of Byrd Station)
|Whangamomona Republic||1989||A tongue-in-cheek micronation created as a tourism booster, and based in the rural New Zealand town of the same name. Past elected presidents have included a goat.:34–37||Murt Kennard|
|Wirtland||2008||Wirtland is an experiment into legitimacy and self-sustainability of a country without its own soil, which transcends national borders without breaching or lessening the sovereignty of any involved.|
|Wy||2004||Established by Paul Delprat after a dispute with the local council of Mosman Municipality in Sydney over the construction of a driveway into his property.||Prince Paul of Wy|
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