||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (March 2014)|
This is a list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "massacre". Massacre is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "the indiscriminate and brutal slaughter of people or (less commonly) animals; carnage, butchery, slaughter in numbers". It also states that the term is used "in the names of certain massacres of history". The first recorded use in English of the word massacre in the name of an event is "Marlowe (c. 1600) (title) The massacre at Paris", (a reference to the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre). Massacre can also be used as a verb, as "To kill (people or, less commonly, animals) in numbers, esp. brutally and indiscriminately". The first usage of which was "(c. 1588) Men which make no conscience for gaine sake, to breake the law of the æternall, and massaker soules (...) are dangerous subjects", and this usage is not recorded in this list.
Massacre is also used figuratively and idiomatically for events that do not involve any deaths, such as the Saturday Night Massacre, which refers to the firing and resignations of political appointees during the Watergate scandal. Such events are not listed in the table below.
List of eventsEdit
Note: the location column will sort by the following sub regions: Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central America, North America, South America, Eastern Asia, South-eastern Asia, Southern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, and Oceania
|61||Anglesey, Britannia||Menai Massacre||unknown||Gaius Suetonius Paulinus ordered the Roman army to destroy the Celtic Druid stronghold on Anglesey in Britain, sacking Druidic colleges and sacred groves. The massacre helped impose Roman religion on Britain and sent Druidism into a decline from which it never recovered.|
|627||Fortress of Banu Qurayza, Saudi Arabia||Massacre of Banu Qurayza ||600-900||Muhammad ordered his followers to attack the Banu Qurayza because according to Muslim tradition he had been ordered to do so by the angel Gabriel. Prophet Muhammad had a treaty with the tribe which was betrayed. 600-900 members of the Banu Qurayza were beheaded (Tabari, Ibn Ishaq). Al Waqidi influence is in Ibn Ishaqs biography. Stillman and Watt deny the authenticity of al-Waqidi. Al-Waqidi has been frequently criticized by Muslim Ulama, who claim that he is unreliable. A reliable source says all the warriors were killed based on Sa'd ibn Mu'adh judgement whom was appointed by Banu Qurzaya for arbitration. 2 Muslim's were killed|
|390||Thessaloniki, Macedonia||Massacre of Thessaloniki||7,000||Emperor Theodosius I of Rome ordered the executions after the citizens of Thessaloniki murdered a top-level military commander during a violent protest against the arrest of a popular charioteer.|
|782||Verden, Lower Saxony, Germany||Massacre of Verden||4,500||Charlemagne ordered the massacre of 4,500 imprisoned rebel pagan Saxons in response to losing two envoys, four counts, and twenty nobles in battle with the Saxons during his campaign to conquer and Christianize the Saxons during the Saxon Wars.|
|November 13, 1002||various cities, England||St. Brice's Day massacre||unknown||King Ethelred II of England ordered all Danes living in England killed. The Danes were accused of aiding Viking raiders. The King of Denmark, Swein Forkbeard, invaded England and deposed King Ethelred.|
|December 30, 1066||Granada, Al-Andalus||Granada massacre||4,000||Apparently angered by a rumour that Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela intended to assassinate the king and take the throne for himself, a Muslim mob killed him and hung his body on a cross. The mob went on to kill the Jewish population of the city.|
|May 1182||Constantinople, Byzantine Empire||Massacre of the Latins||60,000–80,000||Wholesale massacre of all Latin (Western European) inhabitants of Constantinople by a mob.|
|1209||France||Massacre at Béziers||15,000+||First major military action of the Albigensian Crusade|
|1325||Crow Creek Site, Great Plains, North America||Crow Creek massacre||500||Native Americans indigenous to the area that is now South Dakota killed Central Plains villagers.|
|November 8, 1520||Stockholm, Sweden||Stockholm Massacre
|80–90||Days after his coronation in Stockholm, King Christian II of Denmark – trying to maintain the personal union between Sweden, Norway and Denmark, and thus keep up his claims to the Swedish throne – liquidated nobles and bishops who earlier had opposed him, or who might stir up fresh opposition.|
|1570||Cyprus||Cyprus massacre||30,000–50,000||Ottoman forces capturing Cyprus killed mostly Greek and Armenian Christian inhabitants.|
|August 23, 1572||Paris, France||St. Bartholomew's Day massacre||5,000 - 70,000||A wave of Catholic mob violence against the Huguenots.|
|October 10, 1580||Kerry, Ireland||Smerwick (Dun an Oir) massacre||c600||English troops commanded by Grey de Wilton massacre Papal invasion forces at Dun an Oir in West Kerry|
|March 22, 1622||Jamestown, Virginia||Jamestown Massacre||347||The Powhatans killed 347 settlers, almost one-third of the English population of the Virginia colony.|
|May 26, 1637||Mystic, Connecticut||Mystic Massacre||400-700||English settlers under Captain John Mason and Narragansett and Mohegan allies set fire to a fortified Pequot village near the Mystic River.|
|1641||Ulster, Ireland||Ulster Massacres||~4,000 - ~12,000||The Ulster Massacres were a series of massacres and resulting deaths amongst the ~40,000 Protestant settlers which took place in 1641 during the Irish Rebellion.|
|November 1641||Portadown, Ireland||Portadown Massacre||~100||The Portadown Massacre took place in November 1641 at what is now Portadown, County Armagh. Up to 100 mostly English Protestants were killed in the River Bann by a group of armed Irishmen. This was the biggest massacre of Protestant colonists during the 1641–42 uprising.|
|May 28, 1644||Bolton, England||Bolton Massacre||200–1,600||Royalist forces killed many of the town's defenders and citizens.|
|1645||Yangzhou, China||Yangzhou massacre||Up to 800,000||Qing troops killed residents of Yangzhou as punishment for resistance|
|February 13, 1692||Scotland||Massacre of Glencoe||38||Government soldiers, mainly from Clan Campbell, killed members of the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe.|
|October 16, 1755||Snyder County, Pennsylvania||Penn's Creek Massacre||14||A group of Indians attacked settlers on Penn's Creek|
|May 10, 1768||Southwark in South London||Massacre of St George's Fields||7||British troops fired at a mob that was protesting at the imprisonment of John Wilkes, whose crime was criticizing King George III.|
|March 5, 1770||Boston, Province of Massachusetts Bay||Boston Massacre||5||British troops fired at a mob of colonists. This helped spark the American Revolution even though an all-colonist jury found the soldiers innocent.|
|July 17, 1771||Kugluktuk, Nunavut||Bloody Falls Massacre||20||Chipewyan warriors attacked an Inuit camp, killing men, women and children.|
|September 28, 1778||River Vale, New Jersey||Baylor Massacre||15||British infantry troops attacked sleeping Continental Light Dragoons using bayonets.|
|May 29, 1780||Lancaster, South Carolina||Waxhaw Massacre||113||Loyalist troops under the command of British Colonel Banastre Tarleton slashed and bayoneted fallen American troops during the late stages of the Battle of Waxhaws. Conflicting contemporary accounts claim violation of an American white flag by one or the other of the sides involved.|
|September 11, 1780||Luzerne County, Pennsylvania||Sugarloaf Massacre||15||A group of loyalists and Indians during the American Revolutionary War led by Roland Montour attacked a group of American soldiers.|
|February 24, 1781||Alamance County, North Carolina||Pyle's Massacre||93||Patriot militia leader Colonel Henry Lee deceived Loyalist militia under Dr. John Pyle into thinking he was British commander Banastre Tarleton sent to meet them. Lee's men then opened fire, surprising and scattering Pyle's force.|
|March 8, 1782||Gnadenhutten, Ohio||Gnadenhutten massacre
|96||Pennsylvania militia men attacked a Moravian mission and killed 96 peaceful Christian American Indians there in retaliation for unrelated deaths of several white Pennsylvanians.|
|1792||France||September Massacres||~1440||Popular courts in the French Revolution sentenced prisoners to death, including around 240 priests.|
|1794||Warsaw, Poland||Massacre of Praga||20,000||Inhabitants of the Warsaw district Praga were massacred by pillaging Russian troops following the Battle of Praga.|
|December 1809||Whangaroa, New Zealand||Boyd massacre||66||Whangaroa Māori killed and ate 66 crew and passengers on ship The Boyd.|
|December 9, 1817||Madulla, Central Province, Sri Lanka||Madulla massacre||22||British troops killed 22 unarmed native civilians who were hiding in a cave.|
|1818||Uva Province, Sri Lanka||Uva-Wellassa Massacre||Male population above the age of 18||The 1818 Uva-Wellassa Uprising also known as the Great Rebellion resulted in multiple atrocities against the local Sri Lankans by the British imperialists, including razing and annihilation of villages. The entire Uva region male population above the age of 18 years were killed in revenge for resistance against the British imperialist occupation.|
|August 16, 1819||Manchester, England||Peterloo Massacre||11||Armed cavalry charged a peaceful pro-democracy meeting of 60,000 people.|
|March 1821||Constantinople||Massacre of Constaninopolitan Greeks||See Constantinople Massacre of 1821||Hundreds of Greeks were massacred by the Ottomans, including the Greek patriarch, bishops and officials.|
|September 1821||Peloponnese, Greece||Tripolitsa Massacre||35,000||Up to 30,000 Turks were killed in Tripolitsa and the whole Jewish population was wiped out.|
|August 19, 1821||Navarino, Peloponnese, Greece||Navarino Massacre||3,000||The whole Turkish population of Navarino, which was around 3000, were killed by Greeks.|
|1822||Chios, Greece||Chios massacre||about 20,000||Tens of thousands of Greeks on the island of Chios were slaughtered by Ottoman troops in 1822.|
|January 1838||Waterloo Creek, Australia||Waterloo Creek massacre||100–300||Aboriginal Australians killed by a force of colonial mounted police.|
|June 10, 1838||Myall Creek, Australia||Myall Creek massacre||28||A mainly white posse (one of whom was a black African) killed Aboriginal Australians. The perpetrators were convicted and sentenced to death.|
|October 30, 1838||Caldwell County, Missouri, United States||Haun's Mill massacre||19||About 240 Livingston County Missouri Regulators militiamen and volunteers killed 18 Mormons and one non-Mormon friend.|
|1840||Gippsland, Australia||Gippsland massacres||~450||A series of massacres spanning several years: 1840 – Nuntin, 1840 – Boney Point, 1841 – Butchers Creek – 30–35, 1841 – Maffra, 1842 – Skull Creek, 1842 – Bruthen Creek – "hundreds killed", 1843 – Warrigal Creek – between 60 and 180 shot, 1844 – Maffra, 1846 – South Gippsland – 14 killed, 1846 – Snowy River – 8 killed, 1846–47 – Central Gippsland – 50 or more shot, 1850 – East Gippsland – 15–20 killed, 1850 – Murrindal – 16 poisoned, 1850 – Brodribb River – 15–20 killed. See also Angus McMillan.|
|January 6, 1842||Afghanistan||Massacre of Elphinstone's Army||16,000||Afghan tribes massacred Elphinstone's British army including some 12,000 civilians.|
|April 8, 1857||Caborca, Sonora, Mexico||Crabb Massacre||84||Mexican rebels fight American rebels at Caborca, Sonora. Out of less than ninety Americans, about thirty were killed in battle and the rest were executed by the Mexicans.|
|September 11, 1857||Mountain Meadows, Utah, United States||Mountain Meadows massacre||120–140||Mormon militia, some dressed as Indians, and Paiute tribesmen killed and plundered unarmed members of the Baker-Fancher emigrant wagon train.|
|January 18, 1863||Madison County, North Carolina, United States||Shelton Laurel Massacre||13||Thirteen boys and men, accused of being Union sympathizers and spies, were summarily executed by members of the 64th North Carolina Regiment of the Confederate Army.|
|January 29, 1863||Washington Territory near present day Preston, Idaho United States||Bear River massacre||~225||3rd Regiment California Volunteer Infantry destroyed a village of Shoshone in southeastern Idaho.|
|August 21, 1863||Lawrence, Kansas, United States||Lawrence Massacre||~150||Pro-Confederate bushwhackers attacked the town of Lawrence, Kansas during the American Civil War in retaliation for the Union attack on Osceola, Missouri.|
|April 12, 1864||Henning, Tennessee, United States||Fort Pillow Massacre||350||After their surrender following the Battle of Fort Pillow, most of the Union garrison – consisting primarily of Black troops – as well as civilians, including women and children, were massacred by Confederate forces under the command of General Nathan Bedford Forrest.|
|November 29, 1864||Kiowa County, Colorado, United States||Sand Creek massacre||~200||Colorado Territory 90-day militia destroyed a peaceful village of Cheyenne and Arapaho on the eastern plains.|
|November 27, 1868||Indian Territory, United States||Washita Massacre
(Battle of Washita River)
|29–150||Lt. Col. G.A.Custer's 7th cavalry attacked a village of sleeping Cheyenne led by Black Kettle. Custer reported 103 – later revised to 140 – warriors, "some" women and "few" children killed, and 53 women and children taken hostage. Other casualty estimates by cavalry members, scouts and Indians vary widely, with the number of men killed ranging as low as 11 and the numbers of women and children ranging as high as 75. Before returning to their base, the cavalry killed several hundred Indian ponies and burned the village.|
|April 30, 1876||Batak Ottoman Empire||Batak massacre||3,000–5,000||Ottoman army irregulars killed Bulgarian civilians barricaded in Batak's church.|
|April 2, 1885||Frog Lake, North-West Territories, Canada||Frog Lake Massacre||9||Cree warriors, dissatisfied with the lack of support from the Canadian Government for Treaty Indians, and exacerbated by food shortages resulting from the near-extinction of bison, killed nine white settlers, including Indian agent Thomas Quinn.|
|September 2, 1885||Rock Springs, Wyoming, United States||Rock Springs massacre||28||Rioting white immigrant miners killed 28 Chinese miners, wounded 15, and 75 Chinese homes burned.|
|December 29, 1890||Wounded Knee, South Dakota, United States||Wounded Knee Massacre||200–300||The U.S. 7th Cavalry intercepted a band of Lakota people on their way to the Pine Ridge Reservation for shelter from the winter; as they were disarming them, a gun was fired, and the soldiers turned their artillery on the Lakota, killing men women and children.|
|1894–1896||Anatolia, Ottoman Empire||Hamidian massacres||100,000–300,000|
|September 10, 1897||Pennsylvania, United States||Lattimer massacre||19||Unarmed striking miners were shot in the back: many were wounded and 19 were killed.|
|January 18, 1900||Guaymas, Mexico||Mazocoba Massacre||~400||Mexican Army troops attack Yaqui hostiles west of Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico.|
|January 31, 1902||Leliefontein, Northern Cape, South Africa||Leliefontein massacre||35||During the Second Boer War, Boer forces under Manie Maritz massacred 35 Khoikhoi for being British sympathisers.|
|March 10, 1906||Bud Dajo, Jolo Island, Philippines||Moro Crater massacre||800–1,000||A U.S. Army force of 540 soldiers under the command of Major General Leonard Wood, accompanied by a naval detachment and with a detachment of native constabulary, armed with artillery and small firearms, attacked a Muslim village hidden in the crater of a dormant volcano.|
|December 21, 1907||Chile||Santa María School massacre||citation needed]2,200–3,600[||Was a massacre of striking workers, mostly saltpeter (nitrate) miners, along with wives and children, committed by the Chilean Army in Iquique, Chile. It occurred during the peak of the nitrate mining era, which coincided with the Parliamentary Period in Chilean political history (1891–1925). With the massacre and an ensuing reign of terror, not only was the strike broken, but the workers' movement was thrown into limbo for over a decade.|
|April–May 1909||Adana Province, Anatolia, Ottoman Empire||Adana massacre||15,000–30,000||In April 1909, a religious-ethnic clash in the city of Adana, amidst governmental upheaval, resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district, resulting in an estimated 15,000 to 30,000 deaths.|
|April 20, 1914||Ludlow, Colorado, United States||Ludlow massacre||20||Twenty people, 11 of them children, died during an attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families at Ludlow, Colorado. The event led to wider conflict quelled only by Federal troops sent in by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson.|
|April 13, 1919||Amritsar, India||Jallianwala Bagh massacre||[broken citation]379–1526||90 British Indian Army soldiers, led by Brigadier Reginald Dyer, opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and children. The firing lasted for 10 to 15 minutes, until they ran out of ammunition.|
|November 21, 1920||Dublin, Ireland||Croke Park Massacre||23||British Auxiliary police and Black and Tans fired at Gaelic football spectators at Croke Park.|
|January 1923||Rosewood, Florida, United States||Rosewood Massacre||8||Several days of violence by white mobs, ranging in size up to 400 people, resulted in the deaths of six blacks and two whites and the destruction of the town of Rosewood, which was abandoned after the incident.|
|May 18, 1927||Bath Township, Michigan, United States||Bath School massacre
(Bath School disaster)
|45||37 children and a 30 year-old teacher at Bathtown elementary school were killed by a major explosion set off by school board treasurer Andrew Kehoe. About a half hour after the explosion, Kehoe then detonated dynamite in his truck, killing himself and five others, including a fourth grader and four adults. Also, some hours before the event, Kehoe killed his wife at their Bath Township home. This event was the deadliest mass murder in a school in United States history.|
|February 14, 1929||Chicago, United States||Saint Valentine's Day massacre||7||Al Capone's gang shot rival gang members and their associates.|
|August 1929||Hebron, Mandatory Palestine||1929 Hebron massacre||69||Arabs kill 69 Jews after being incited by religious leaders. Survivors were relocated to Jerusalem, "leaving Hebron barren of Jews for the first time in hundreds of years."|
|August 1929||Safed, Mandatory Palestine||1929 Safed massacre||18||Arabs killed 18 Jews, wounded around 40, and some 200 houses were burned and looted.|
|April 23, 1930||Peshawar, British Raj||Qissa Khwani bazaar massacre||200–250||Soldiers of the British Raj fired on unarmed non-violent protestors of the Khudai Khidmatgar with machine guns during the Indian independence movement|
|July 1930||Van Province, Turkey||Zilan massacre|| - 47,0004,500||Turkish troops massacred Kurdish residents during the Ararat rebellion.|
|August 1933||Iraq||Simele massacre||3,000||Iraqi Army killed 3,000 Assyrian men women and children. The massacre amongst other things included rape, cars running over children and bayoneting pregnant women and children.|
|March 21, 1937||Ponce, Puerto Rico||Ponce massacre||19||The Insular Police fired on unarmed Nationalist demonstrators peacefully marching to commemorate the ending of slavery in Puerto Rico. It was the biggest massacre in Puerto Rican history.|
|1937–1938||Tunceli Province, Turkey||Dersim Massacre||-70,00013,160||Turkish troops massacred Alevi residents during the Dersim Rebellion.|
|December 1937 – January 1938||Nanjing, China||Nanking Massacre
||as many as if not more than 300,000||The Imperial Japanese Army pillaged and burned Nanking while, at the same time, murdering, enslaving, and torturing prisoners of war and civilians.|
|April–May 1940||Katyn, Soviet Union||Katyn massacre||21,857–25,700||Soviet NKVD executed Polish intelligentsia, POWs and reserve officers.|
|June–October 1941||Soviet Union, Baltic states||NKVD prisoner massacres||9,000–100,000||The Soviet People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del, or NKVD) executed thousands of political prisoners in the initial stages of Operation Barbarossa.|
|September 29, 1941||Ukraine||Babi Yar massacre||30,000||Nazi Einsatzgruppen killed the Jewish population of Kiev.|
|October 20–21, 1941||Serbia||Kragujevac massacre||2,796-5,000||Nazi soldiers massacred Serb and Roma hostages in retaliation for attacks on the occupying forces.|
|October 22–24, 1941||Odessa, Soviet Union||Odessa Massacre||25,000–34,000||Romanian and German troops, supported by local authorities, massacred Jews in Odessa and the surrounding towns in Transnistria after a bomb detonated in the Romanian HQ.|
|November 25 and 29, 1941||Kaunas, Lithuania||Ninth Fort massacres of November 1941||4,934||The first systematic mass killings of German Jews during the Holocaust.|
|February 1942||Laha Airfield, Ambon Island||Laha massacre||~300||The Japanese killed surrendered Australian soldiers.|
|June 10, 1942||Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia||Lidice massacre||340||Nazis killed 192 men, and sent the women and children to Nazi concentration camps where many died.|
|1943||Volhynia, Ukraine||Massacres of Poles in Volhynia||50,000-100,000||The murders of Polish citizens of the Wołyń Voivodeship, orchestrated, and conducted in most part by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) supported by the civil Ukrainian peasants in years 1943-1947. The peak of the massacres took place in July and August 1943 when a senior UPA commander, Dmytro Klyachkivsky, ordered the extermination of the entire Polish population between 16 and 60 years of age.|
|September 21, 1943||Kefalonia, Greece||Massacre of the Acqui Division||5,000||Wehrmacht troops executed POWs from the Italian 33 Infantry Division Acqui.|
|October 7, 1943||Wake Island||Wake Island massacre||98||Japanese forces under Rear Admiral Shigematsu Sakaibara massacred the remaining 98 U.S. civilians in fear of the anticipation U.S. invasion of Wake Island two days after a U.S. air raid on the island.|
|December 13, 1943||Kalavryta, Greece||Massacre of Kalavryta||511-1200||The extermination of the male population and the subsequent total destruction of the town of Kalavryta, in Greece, by German occupying forces during World War II on 13 December 1943. It is the most serious case of war crimes committed during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.|
|January 27, 1944||Chechnya, Soviet Union||Khaibakh massacre||700||The Khaibakh massacre refers to a report of mass execution of the ethnically Chechen population of the aul of Khaibakh, in the mountainous part of Chechnya, by Soviet forces under a NKVD colonel Mikhail Gveshiani.|
|April 1, 1944||Ascq, France||Ascq massacre||86||The Waffen-SS killed 86 men after a bomb attack in the gare d'Ascq.|
|June 10, 1944||Oradour-sur-Glane, France||Oradour-sur-Glane massacre||642||The Waffen-SS killed 642 men, women and children without giving any specific reasons for their actions.|
|June 10, 1944||Distomo, Greece||Distomo massacre||218||Nazi war crime perpetrated by members of the Waffen-SS in the village of Distomo, Greece, during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.|
|August 8, 1944||Warsaw, Poland||Wola massacre||40,000–100,000||Special groups of SS and German soldiers of the Wehrmacht went from house to house in Warsaw district Wola, rounding-up and shooting all inhabitants.|
|August 12, 1944||Sant'Anna di Stazzema, Italy||Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre||560||Retreating SS-men of the II Battallion of SS-Panzergrenadier–Regiment 35 of 16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS, rounded up 560 villagers and refugees — mostly women, children and older men — shot them and then burned their bodies.|
|August 1944||Warsaw, Poland||Ochota massacre||10,000||Mass murders of citizens of Warsaw district Ochota in August 1944, committed by Waffen-SS.|
|August 26, 1944||Rüsselsheim, Germany||Rüsselsheim massacre||6||The townspeople of Rüsselsheim killed six American POWs who were walking through the bombed-out town while escorted by two German guards.|
|October 1944||Italy||Marzabotto massacre||700–1,800||The SS killed Italian civilians in reprisal for support given to the resistance movement.|
|December 1944||Malmedy, Belgium||Malmedy massacre||88||Nazi Waffen SS soldiers shot American POWs (43 escaped).|
|January 1945||Chenogne, Belgium||Chenogne massacre||60||German prisoners of war were shot by American soldiers in an unauthorized retaliation for the Malmedy Massacre.|
|February 1945||Manila, Philippines||Manila massacre||100,000||Japanese occupying forces massacred an estimated 100,000 Filipino civilians during the Battle of Manila.|
|April 10, 1945||Celle, Germany||Celler Hasenjagd||300||The Celler Hasenjagd ("hare chase of Celle") was a massacre of concentration camp inmates that took place in Celle at the end of the Second World War.|
|May 15, 1945||Bleiburg, Austria||Bleiburg massacre||tens of thousands||Fleeing Croatian soldiers, members of the Chetnik movement and Slovene Home Guard associated with the fascist Ustaše Regime of Croatia were apprehended by Yugoslav Partisans at the Austrian border. Among those killed were an unknown number of civilians.|
|May 1945||Sétif, Algeria||Sétif massacre||6,000||Muslim villages were bombed by French aircraft and the cruiser Duguay-Trouin standing off the coast, in the Gulf of Bougie, shelled Kerrata. Pied noir vigilantes lynched prisoners taken from local gaols or randomly shot Muslims|
|July 31, 1945||Ústí nad Labem, today Czech republic||Ústí massacre||80-2700||The Ústí massacre (Czech: Ústecký masakr, German: Massaker von Aussig) was a lynching of ethnic Germans in Ústí nad Labem (German: Aussig an der Elbe), a largely ethnic German city in northern Bohemia ("Sudetenland") shortly after the end of the World War II, on July 31, 1945.|
|February 28, 1947||Taiwan||228 Incident||18,000~28,000||It was an anti-government uprising in Taiwan, and was violently suppressed by the Kuomintang government.|
|May 1, 1947||Piana degli Albanesi, Italy||Portella della Ginestra massacre||11||11 people were killed and 27 wounded during May Day celebrations in Sicily on May 1, 1947, in the municipality of Piana degli Albanesi, by the bandit and separatist leader Salvatore Giuliano and his band.|
|December 30, 1947||Haifa, Mandatory Palestine||Haifa Oil Refinery massacre||45||Zionist group Irgun throws a bomb on a group of 100 Palestinian refinery workers, killing 6 and wounding 42. Palestinian workers then attack Jewish refinery workers in retaliation, resulting in 39 deaths and 49 injuries,|
|December 31, 1947||Haifa, Mandatory Palestine||Balad al-Shaykh massacre||17-71||Haganah attacks residents of Palestinian Balad al-Shaykh village, killing 21 while residents were asleep.|
|April 3, 1948||Jeju island, South Korea||Jeju massacre||-60,00014,000||Brutal suppression of an uprising. Many Communist sympathizer civilians were killed by South Korean troops whilst putting down the rebellion. Between 14,000 to 60,000 people died during the uprising.|
|April 9, 1948||Deir Yassin, Mandatory Palestine||Deir Yassin Massacre||107||The Deir Yassin massacre took place when the Irgun and Lehi Zionist terrorist groups attacked the Palestinian Arab village of Deir Yassin near Jerusalem, population of 750. Villagers had signed an non-aggression pact with Zionist forces and were asleep at the time of the attack. Arab fatalities estimate 107 included civilian men, women, and children.|
|April 13, 1948||Mount Scopus, Mandatory Palestine||Hadassah medical convoy massacre||79||Convoy, escorted by Haganah militia, bringing medical and fortification supplies and personnel to Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus was ambushed by Arab forces. 78 Jews, mainly doctors and nurses, were killed in the ambush.|
|May 13, 1948||Kfar Etzion, Mandatory Palestine||Kfar Etzion massacre||157||Arab armed forces attacked a Jewish kibbutz the day before the Declaration of Independence of the state of Israel|
|July 11, 1948||Lydda, Mandatory Palestine||Lydda massacre (Dahamsh Mosque massacre)||250-426||Over 150 Palestinian civilians had taken shelter in the Dahamsh Mosque during the Israeli conquest of Lydda (today's Lod) when an Israeli soldier dug a hole in the wall of the mosque and shot an anti-tank shell through it. All were crushed against the walls by the pressure from the blast and killed. Also killed were 20 more after cleaning up the scene of the massacre. More civilians were killed as Israeli soldiers of the 89th Brigade, led by Moshe Dayan, throw grenades inside Palestinian houses, and those who fled to the streets were shot at by Zionist militants. Almost the entire population of Lydda, about 50,000 civilians at the time, which included many refugees, were then expelled and hundreds of men, women and children died due to dehydration, exhaustion and disease during a "death march" to the Arab front lines.|
|October 30, 1948||Eilabun, Israel||Eilabun massacre||14||Israeli army kills 14 Palestinian Christians from the Eilaboun village, in north Israel, and expels the rest of the residents to Lebanon. Part of the community returns some months thereafter, due to pressure from the United Nations and the Vatican.|
|October 31 – November 1, 1948||Hula, Lebanon||Hula massacre||35-58||The Hula massacre took place October 31 – November 1, 1948. Hula is a Lebanese Shi'a Muslim village near the Lebanese Litani River. It was captured by the Carmeli Brigade of the Israel Defense Forces without any resistance. 35–58 captured men were reportedly shot down in a house which was later blown up on top of them. Two officers were responsible for the massacre; one served a one year prison sentence and later received presidential amnesty. Shmuel Lahis was later to become Director General of the Jewish Agency.|
|Saliha, Mandatory Palestine||Saliha massacre||94||94 Palestinian villagers are packed inside an abode, which was then blown up over their heads by the Zionist Seventh Brigade.|
|December 12, 1948||Batang Kali, Malaya||Batang Kali massacre||24||Villagers were purportedly shot by British troops before the village was burnt.|
|December 24, 1949||Mungyeong, South Korea||Mungyeong massacre||86-88||Communist sympathizer civilians were killed by South Korean troops.|
|June 28, 1950||South Korea||Bodo League massacre||4,934||During the Korean War, communist sympathizer civilians or prisoners were killed by South Korean troops. Some scholars insist that the number of victims is between 100,000 and 200,000, but the confirmed number by Truth and Reconciliation Commission(2005) is 4,934.|
|June 28, 1950||Seoul, South Korea||Seoul National University Hospital Massacre||900||During the Korean War, medical personnels, inpatients and wounded soldiers were killed by North Korean troops. The victims were 900|
|July 26–29, 1950||No Gun Ri, South Korea||No Gun Ri Massacre||163-400||Early in the Korean War, South Korean refugees trying to cross U.S. lines at No Gun Ri were killed by U.S. troops fearing North Korean infiltrators. In 2005, the South Korean government certified the names of 150 dead, 13 missing and 55 wounded, some of whom died of wounds, and said reports on many more victims were not filed. Survivors estimated 400 dead.|
|August 14, 1950||Waegwan, South Korea||Hill 303 massacre||41||During the Korean War, American POWs were massacred by North Korean Army on August 14, 1950.|
|October 1950 – early 1951||Namyangju, North Korea||Namyangju Massacre||460||During the Korean War, South Korean citizens were massacred by South Korean Police between October 1950 to early 1951.|
|October 9–31, 1950||Goyang, South Korea||Goyang Geumjeong Cave Massacre||153||During the Korean War, South Korean citizens were massacred by South Korean Police between October 9 to October 31, 1950.|
|October 17 – December 7, 1950||Sinchon, North Korea||Sinchon Massacre||30,000||The North Korean government claims that North Korean citizens were massacred by United States forces between October 17 to December 7, 1950. This is widely disputed.|
|January 6–9, 1951||Ganghwa, South Korea||Ganghwa massacre||-1,300212||During the Korean War, Communist collabolator civilians were massacred by South Korean forces, South Korean Police forces and pro-South Korea forces Militia.|
|February 7, 1951||Sancheong and Hamyang, South Korea||Sancheong and Hamyang massacre||705||During the Korean War, Communist sympathizer civilians were massacred by South Korean Army on February 7, 1951.|
|February 9–11, 1951||Geochang, South Korea||Geochang massacre||719||During the Korean War, Communist sympathizer civilians were massacred by South Korean Army between February 9 and February 11, 1951.|
|March 26, 1953||Lari near Nairobi, Kenya||Lari Massacre||~150||About 150 Kikuyu were killed by fellow tribesmen.|
|October 29, 1956||Kafr Qasim, Israel||Kafr Qasim massacre||48-49||Israeli Border Police shoot Israeli Arab farmers returning to their village from work, unaware of a curfew imposed on it. The police command ordered that civilians caught disobeying the curfew be shot. Over half the casualties were women and children.|
|March 21, 1960||Sharpeville, South Africa||Sharpeville massacre||72–90||South African police shot down black protesters.|
|June 16, 1960||Mueda, Mozambique||Mueda massacre||200–325||Makonde nationalists organized a demonstration in front of the Mueda District headquarters on the Mueda town square demanding independence from Portugal, apparently the district administrator had invited them to present their grievances. The administrator ordered the leaders arrested, and the crowd protested. The Portuguese administrator ordered his pre-assembled troops to fire on the crowd, and then many more were thrown to their death into a ravine. The number of dead is in dispute. However, resentment generated by these events led ultimately to independentist guerrilla FRELIMO gaining needed momentum in the outset of the Mozambican War of Independence.|
|October 17, 1961||Paris, France||Paris massacre of 1961||200–325||French police, commanded by Maurice Papon, crushed a pacific demonstration of Algerians independentists.|
|June 2, 1962||Novocherkassk, Soviet Union||Novocherkassk massacre||23–70||The MVD open fire on a crowd of protesters demonstrating against inflation.|
|July 5, 1962||Oran, Algeria||Oran massacre of 1962||95–548||Massacre of European, mostly French—civilians by the Algerian FLN, at the end of the Algerian War (1954–62).|
|January 18–21, 1964||Zanzibar||Massacres during the Zanzibar Revolution||8,000–17,000||Following the overthrow of the Sultan, thousands of Arabs and Indians were massacred by John Okello's forces.|
|February 12 – March 17, 1966||Tay Vinh massacre village in Tây Sơn District
of Bình Định Province, South Vietnam
|Tay Vinh massacre||1,200||South Korean soldiers killed 1,200 South Vietnamese villagers.|
|February 26, 1966||Gò Dài hamlet, Binh An village in Tây Sơn District
of Bình Định Province, South Vietnam
|Gò Dài massacre||380||South Korean soldiers killed 380 unarmed South Vietnamese villagers.|
|August 1, 1966||Austin, Texas, United States||University of Texas massacre||16||University of Texas at Austin was the site of a massacre by Charles Whitman, who killed his mother and wife at their homes before killing 15 and wounding 32 others at the University atop the university tower before the police killed him.|
|October 9, 1966||Binh Tai village in Phước Bình District of Sông Bé Province, South Vietnam||Binh Tai Massacre||68||South Korean soldiers killed 68 South Vietnamese villagers.|
|October 9–10, 1966||Tinh Son village, Quảng Ngãi Province, South Vietnam||Diên Niên - Phước Bình massacre||280||South Korean soldiers killed 280 South Vietnamese villagers.|
|December 3–6, 1966||Binh Hoa village in Quảng Ngãi Province, South Vietnam||Bình Hòa massacre||422-430||South Korean soldiers killed South Vietnamese villagers.|
|January 31 – February 28, 1968||Huế, South Vietnam||Huế massacre||2,800–6,000||During the Vietnam War, unarmed South Vietnamese civilians were massacred by Vietnam People's Army and Vietcong.|
|1968 1968||Corregidor, Philippines||Jabidah Massacre||11-200|||
|February 12, 1968||Phong Nhi and Phong Nhat hamlets,
Dien Ban District of Quảng Nam Province, South Vietnam
|Phong Nhi and Phong Nhat massacre||79||South Korean soldiers killed unarmed South Vietnamese villagers.|
|February 25, 1968||Hà My village, Quảng Nam Province, South Vietnam||Hà My massacre||135||South Korean soldiers killed unarmed South Vietnamese villagers.|
|March 16, 1968||Mỹ Lai and Mỹ Khê hamlets,
Sơn Mỹ, Quảng Ngãi, South Vietnam
|My Lai Massacre||504||U.S. soldiers murdered, tortured and assaulted 347–504 unarmed South Vietnamese villagers–suspected of aiding Vietcong–ranging in ages from 1 to 81 years, mostly women and children.|
|October 2, 1968||Mexico City, Mexico||Tlatelolco massacre||25–250||Government troops massacred between 25 (officially) and 250 (according to human rights activists, CIA documents and independent investigations) students 10 days before the 1968 Summer Olympics taking place in Mexico City, and then tried to wash the blood away, along with evidence of the massacre.|
|May 4, 1970||Kent State University, Ohio, United States||Kent State massacre||4||29 members of the Ohio National Guard opened fire on unarmed students protesting the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia on the Kent State University college campus, killing 4 and wounding 9, one of whom was permanently paralyzed.|
|May 15, 1971||Barisal District, East Pakistan||Ketnar Bil massacre||More than 500||Massacre of unarmed Bengali Hindus in Ketnar Bil region of Barisal District by the Pakistan Occupation Army.|
|June 10, 1971||Mexico City, Mexico||Corpus Christi massacre||? (officially)-120 (according to independent investigations)||Similar to the Tlatelolco Massacre, the Corpus Christi Massacre took place on Thursday, June 10, 1971 when a student march got brutally attacked by a shock group called Los Halcones.|
|January 30, 1972||Derry, Northern Ireland||Bogside Massacre
|14||British paratroopers fired on unarmed civil rights protesters, killing 14. The government sponsored Saville Report, released in June 2010, found all those killed were innocent civil rights demonstrators, prompting an apology by UK Prime Minister David Cameron. As of that time, no one had been prosecuted for the killings.|
|May 30, 1972||Lod, Israel||Lod Airport massacre||26||Three members of the Japanese Red Army, on behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, killed 26 people and injured 80 others at Tel Aviv's Lod airport (now Ben Gurion International Airport).|
|September 5, 1972||Munich, Germany||Munich Massacre||12||Members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and killed by the Palestinian Black September group. A West German police officer was also killed.|
|May 25, 1973||Ezeiza, Argentina||Ezeiza Massacre||13||Members of the right wing of the Peronist party shot and killed at least 13 after Peron's return to Argentina.|
|May 15, 1974||Ma'alot, Israel||Ma'alot massacre||29||Members of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine infiltrate Israel from Lebanon, shoot and kill a Christian Arab woman and a Jewish couple and their 4-year-old son, and then take hostage and kill 22 high school students and three of their adult escorts.|
|August 14, 1974||Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda, Cyprus||Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda massacre||126||EOKA-B gunmen massacred the Turkish Cypriot inhabitants of the villages of Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda.|
|July 31, 1975||Northern Ireland||Miami Showband massacre||5||Members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) killed three members of pop group the Miami Showband in a gun and bomb attack. Two UVF members also died when the bomb exploded prematurely.|
|January 5, 1976||Northern Ireland||Kingsmill massacre||10||Irish republicans shot ten Protestant workers dead outside the village of Kingsmill in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.|
|January 18, 1976||Lebanon||Karantina massacre||1,500||Lebanese Christian militias overrun the Karantina district in East Beirut and kill up to 1,500 Palestinians and Muslims during the Lebanese Civil War.|
|January 20, 1976||Lebanon||Damour massacre||582||Palestinian militia aligned with the Lebanese National Movement kill 150 to 582 Christian civilians in the village of Damour during the Lebanese Civil War, in retaliation for the Karantina massacre.|
|August 12, 1976||Lebanon||Tel al-Zaatar massacre||1,500 to 3000||Lebanese Christian militias enter the Tel al-Zaatar refugee camp and kill up to 3,000 people during the Lebanese Civil War.|
|March 11, 1978||Israel||Coastal Road massacre||35||Palestinian Fatah members based in Lebanon land on a beach north of Tel Aviv, kill an American photographer, and hijack an inter-city bus driving along Israel's Coastal Highway. 35 civilians are killed and 80 wounded.|
|January 31, 1979||Marichjhapi, West Bengal, India||Marichjhapi massacre||10,000-15000||Marichjhapi massacre refers to the forcible eviction of Bengali Hindu refugees and their subsequent death by starvation, exhaustion and police firing in the period between January to June, 1979. The Hindu refugees who had fled East Pakistan in the sixties, had settled in Dandakaranya. In the seventies, the Left Front leaders launched a campaign for the return of the Bengali Hindu refugees to their native land. By April, 1978, around 30,000 Bengali Hindu refugees had settled in the island of Marichjhapi in the Sundarbans. The Left Front government imposed economic sanctions on Marichjhapi and cordoned off the island with police. When the inhabitants tried to swim across to other islands, they were shot dead. Out of the 14,388 families that had settled in the island 4,128 died of starvation, exhaustion and police firing.|
|May 18, 1980||South Korea||Gwangju massacre||165||An escalated popular uprising in the city of Gwangju, South Korea during which some of the civilian protesters armed themselves by raiding police stations and military depots led to the South Korean army violently ending the protests, causing 165(maximum estimated)of deaths(including 24 soldiers, 4 policemen).|
|June 27, 1980||Palmyra, Syria||Tadmor Prison massacre||about 1,000||The massacre occurred the day after a failed attempt to assassinate Syrian president Hafez el-Assad. Members of the units of the Defence Brigades, under the command of Rifaat El Assad, brother of the president, entered in Tadmor Prison and assassinated about a thousand prisoners in the cells and the dormitories.|
|December 11, 1981||El Salvador||El Mozote Massacre||1,000||The El Mozote Massacre took place in the village of El Mozote, in Morazán department, El Salvador, on December 11, 1981, when Salvadoran armed forces trained by the United States military killed at least 1000 civilians in an anti-guerrilla campaign.|
|January 14, 1982||Mexico||Tula Massacre||13||13 tortured bodies were found at Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico at the time of Arturo Durazo Moreno Administration|
|February 2, 1982||Syria||Hama massacre||7,000–35,000||The Syrian Army killed an estimated 30,000 people in the city of Hama. Instances of mass execution and torture by the Syrian military were documented during the attacks.|
|September 16–18, 1982||Lebanon||Sabra and Shatila massacre||700–3,500||Residents of Sabra and Shatila, mostly Palestinian refugees and Lebanese Shia, are killed by the Christian Lebanese Forces militia in the refugee camps, with the help of Israeli forces that encircled the area. The United Nations General Assembly condemned the massacre and declared it to be an act of genocide.|
|April 3, 1983||Peru||Lucanamarca massacre||69||Maoist Shining Path guerrillas massacre 69 men, women and children with axes, machetes and guns in and around the town of Lucanamarca, Peru.|
|July 24, 1983||Sri Lanka||Black July||3000||Sri Lankan mobs and armed gangs supported partially by the Government of Sri Lanka massacre thousands of Tamils all over the country.|
|July 18, 1984||San Diego, United States||San Ysidro McDonald's Massacre||21||Gunman James Oliver Huberty killed 21 people in a McDonald's restaurant before being fatally shot by a SWAT team sniper.|
|October 31–November 3, 1984||India||1984 Sikh Massacre||2,700–20,000||Mobs composed primarily of Indian National Congress workers and local hoodlums chase down and lynch Sikhs in northern India following the assassination of India PM, Indira Gandhi, at the hands of her Sikh guards.|
|March 23, 1985||Iraq||Dujail Massacre||
(33 died in detention before trial)
|Dujail was the site of an unsuccessful assassination attempt against then Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein by the Shiite Dawa Party, on July 8, 1982. Saddam Hussein ordered his special security and military forces to arrest all Dawa members and their families, imprisoning 787 men, women and children. In March 1985, 96 of the 148 who had confessed to having taken part in the assassination attempt were executed.|
|May 14, 1985||Sri Lanka||Anuradhapura massacre||146||Tamil Tiger gunmen shoot dead 146 Sinhalese civilians including Buddhist nuns and monks and injure 85 others as they were praying at Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi, a sacred Buddhist shrine in Anuradhapura.|
|August 14, 1985||Peru||Accomarca massacre||47–74||An army massacre of campesinos (including six children) in Accomarca, Ayacucho.|
|June 2, 1987||Sri Lanka||Aranthalawa Massacre||32||Tamil Tigers stop a bus carrying Buddhist monks in Arantalawa and massacre all except of one monk. Killed in the massacre are Chief Priest Ven. Hegoda Indrasara and several novice monks (under the age of 18)|
|August 9, 1987||Clifton Hill, Victoria, Australia||Hoddle Street massacre||7||The Hoddle Street massacre of 9 August 1987 was a killing spree which claimed the lives of 7 people and wounded 19 others at Hoddle Street in Clifton Hill in north-eastern Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.|
|August 19, 1987||Hungerford, England||Hungerford massacre||16||A gunman armed with semi-automatic rifles and a handgun killed 16 people before committing suicide.|
|November 8, 1987||Enniskillen, Northern Ireland||Remembrance Day bombing
(Poppy Day Massacre)
|12||Provisional IRA bombing at the town's cenotaph on Remembrance Sunday.|
|December 8, 1987||Melbourne, Victoria, Australia||Queen Street massacre||8||The Queen Street massacre of 8 December 1987 was a killing spree which claimed the lives of 8 people and wounded 5 others in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.|
|March 16, 1988||Belfast, Northern Ireland||Milltown massacre||3||Ulster Defence Association (UDA) member Michael Stone kills three people and injures 60 others in a gun and grenade attack at the funeral of three IRA members being held in Milltown Cemetery, Belfast.|
|June 4, 1989||Tiananmen Square, Beijing, China||Tiananmen Square Massacre||400–3,000||The mourning of Hu Yaobang eventually evolved into a large-scale anti-corruption and democratic demonstration, which was ended in a violent suppression by state-controlled army. The actual number of deaths is still unknown.|
|December 6, 1989||École Polytechnique, Montreal, Canada||École Polytechnique massacre||14||Marc Lépine, a misogynist and anti-feminist, shot and killed 14 female students of the École Polytechnique de Montréal and wounded 14 other people before turning his gun on himself. The event led to stricter gun control laws and changes in police tactical response to shootings in Canada.|
|September 5, 1990||Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka||Eastern University massacre,||158||Eastern University massacre is the massacre of 158 minority Sri Lankan Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in the eastern Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka.|
|September 9, 1990||Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka||Sathurukondan massacre||184||Sathurukondan massacre, also known as the 1990 Batticaloa massacre is the massacre of 184 minority Sri Lankan Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in the eastern Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka.|
|November 13, 1990||Aramoana, New Zealand||Aramoana massacre||13||Lone gunman David Malcolm Gray began shooting indiscriminately at people, killing 13 people before being killed by police himself, allegedly after a dispute with his next door neighbor. It remains New Zealand's deadliest criminal shooting.|
|October 16, 1991||Killeen, Texas, United States||Luby's shooting||22||George Jo Hennard drove his pickup truck into a Luby's Cafeteria and shot and killed 22 people, wounded another 20 and then committed suicide by shooting himself.|
|November 3, 1991||Lima, Peru||Barrios Altos massacre||22||Fifteen people were killed and four injured when Grupo Colina, the anticommunist paramilitary squad, opened fire on a neighborhood barbecue which they had mistaken for a gathering of Maoist Shining Path rebels.|
|November 18–21, 1991||Vukovar, Croatia||Vukovar massacre||264||Members of the Serb militias, aided by the Yugoslav People's Army, killed Croat civilians and POWs.|
|February 26, 1992||Khojaly, Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan||Khojaly Massacre||613||Armenian armed forces, reportedly with help of the Russian 366th Motor Rifle Regiment, raided the town of Khojaly and massacred its Muslim civilian population. The death toll according to the Government of Azerbaijan was 613 civilians, of whom 106 were women and 83 were children.|
|June 17, 1992||Boipatong, South Africa||Boipatong massacre||45||45 African National Congress (ANC) supporters were killed by members of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP).|
|July 18, 1992||Lima, Peru||La Cantuta massacre||45||9 students and a professor on La Cantuta University were kidnapped and killed by Grupo Colina, an anticommunist paramilitary group.|
|September 7, 1992||Bisho, Ciskei/South Africa||Bisho massacre||29||28 African National Congress (ANC) supporters and one soldier were shot dead by the Ciskei Defence Force during a protest march.|
|October 2, 1992||São Paulo, Brazil||Carandiru massacre||111||The massacre was triggered by a prisoner revolt within the prison. The police made little if any effort to negotiate with the prisoners before the military police stormed the building, as the prison riot became more difficult for prison guards to control. The resulting casualties were of 111 prisoners killed.|
|January 8, 1993||Palatine, Illinois, United States||Brown's Chicken massacre||7||Seven people were murdered at the Brown's Chicken and Pasta in Palatine|
|1992-1993||Autonomous republic of Abkhazia, Georgia||Ethnic cleansing of Georgians||17,000-22,000||The ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia',
 also known as the "massacres of Georgians in Abkhazia" and "genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia" — refers to ethnic cleansing, massacres and forced mass expulsion of thousands of ethnic Georgians.
|April 19, 1993||Waco, Texas, United States||Waco massacre||82||Seventy-six members of the Branch Davidian church died after a 51 day siege in a fire started either accidentally or by church members after a Federal Bureau of Investigation tank attack upon the main building. Earlier, on February 28, 1993, six others died by gunfire after the original Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms raid.|
|June – July 1993||Brazil||Yanomami Massacre||16–73||Garimpeiros (illegal gold miners) killed Yanomami people.|
|July 2, 1993||Sivas, Turkey||Sivas massacre||33||33 Alevi intellectuals were killed when a mob of radical Islamists set fire to the hotel where the group had assembled.|
|July 25, 1993||Cape Town, South Africa||St James Church massacre||11||11 People were killed during a church service by Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA) armed with assault rifles and grenades.|
|October 30, 1993||Greysteel, Northern Ireland||Greysteel massacre||8||Ulster Defence Association (UDA) opened fire in a crowded bar using an AK-47 and automatic pistol. Eight civilians were killed and thirteen wounded.|
|February 25, 1994||West Bank||Cave of the Patriarchs massacre
(Ibrahimi Mosque massacre)
|29||Israeli settler Baruch Goldstein opens fire with an assault rifle against Palestinian Muslims, killing 29 and wounding 150 at prayer in the Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron before being subdued and beaten to death by survivors.|
|1994 et seq.||Algeria||Algerian Village Massacres of the 1990s||10,000||During the 1990s, many large-scale massacres of villagers in Algeria were perpetrated by groups attacking villages at night and cutting the throats of the inhabitants. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) has avowed its responsibility for many of them. The massacres peaked in 1997 (with a smaller peak in 1994). According to a few reports former Algerian army officer, Habib Souaidia testified to his government's involvement in the massacres. The differing accounts are not yet reconciled. The academic consensus is that at least the majority of the massacres were carried out by Islamist radicals, however, the government notably failed to intervene in a number of these massacres.|
|March 28, 1994||Johannesburg, South Africa||Shell House massacre||19||Security guards of the African National Congress (ANC) fired on 20,000 Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) marchers.|
|June 18, 1994||Loughinisland, Northern Ireland||Loughinisland massacre||6||Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) opened fire in a crowded bar using assault rifles, killing six civilians and wounding five.|
|January 22, 1995||Israel||Beit Lid massacre||22||First suicide attack by Palestinian Islamic Jihad, killing 22 and wounding 69. Carried out by two bombers; the second waited until emergency crews arrived to assist the wounded and dying before detonating his bomb.|
|April 19, 1995||Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States||Oklahoma City massacre (Oklahoma City bombing)||167||The Oklahoma City bombing was a terrorist bomb attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995. It would remain the most destructive act of terrorism on American soil until the September 11, 2001 attacks. The Oklahoma blast claimed 167 lives, including 19 children under the age of 6, and injured more than 680 people.|
|March 13, 1996||Scotland||Dunblane massacre||17||A gunman opened fire in a primary school, killing sixteen children and one teacher before killing himself.|
|April 29, 1996||Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia||Port Arthur massacre||35||The Port Arthur massacre of 28 April 1996 was a killing spree which claimed the lives of 35 people and wounded 21 others mainly at the historic tourist site Port Arthur in south-eastern Tasmania, Australia. It later emerged that the gunman had severe intellectual disability. The massacre remains Australia's deadliest mass killing spree and remains one of the deadliest such incidents worldwide in recent times.|
|April 18, 1996||Lebanon||First Qana Massacre||106||Israeli artillery struck the Unifil Headquarters in Qana which was providing shelter to approximately two hundred Lebanese civilians. The Israeli military said the strike was in error and that they were not targeting the UN shelter. An amateur film was released showing that, contrary to Israeli assertions, an Israeli drone was spying on the UN compound just before it was shelling. The UN concluded that the attack was intentional. Amnesty International also concluded, "the IDF intentionally attacked the UN compound.|
|February 5, 1997||Ghulja, China||Ghulja Incident||9||After two days of protests during which the protesters had marched shouting "God is great" and "independence for Xinjiang" the demonstrations were crushed by the People's Liberation Army. Official reports put the death toll at 9 while dissident reports estimated the number killed at more than 100.|
|November 17, 1997||Luxor, Egypt||Luxor massacre||64||Massacre carried out by Egyptian Islamist militants, in which 64 people (including 59 visiting tourists) were killed using automatic weapons and machetes.|
|December 22, 1997||Acteal, Mexico||Acteal Massacre||45||Massacre carried out by paramilitary forces of 45 people attending a prayer meeting of indigenous townspeople, who were members of the pacifist group Las Abejas ("The Bees"), in the village of Acteal, municipality of Chenalhó, in the Mexican state of Chiapas.|
|August 15, 1998||Omagh, Northern Ireland||Omagh bombing||29||The Omagh bombing was a car bomb attack carried out by the Real Irish Republican Army, a splinter group of former Provisional Irish Republican Army members opposed to the Good Friday Agreement. Twenty-nine people died and approximately 220 people were injured.The attack was described by the BBC as "Northern Ireland's worst single terrorist atrocity".|
|April 20, 1999||Littleton, Colorado, United States||Columbine High School massacre||15||Two teenagers, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold open fire on their classmates on April 20, 1999 at Columbine High School, killing 12 students a teacher and injuring 21 others before committing suicide in the schools library.|
|July 27, 2000||West Bengal, India||Nanoor massacre||11||Killing of 11 landless labourers allegedly by activists of Communist Party of India (Marxist), a political party in India, in Suchpur, near Nanoor and under Nanoor police station, in Birbhum district in the Indian state of West Bengal.|
|January 17, 2002||Hadera, Israel||Bat Mitzvah massacre||6||An attack carried out in January 2002 by al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades in which a Palestinian gunman hurling grenades killed six and wounded 33 in a Bat Mitzvah celebration, a traditional Jewish celebration held for a 12-year-old girl.|
|March 27, 2002||Netanya, Israel||Passover massacre||30||Killing of 30 guests at the Park Hotel in Netanya, Israel, sitting down to the traditional Passover Seder meal. Another 143 were injured. Hamas claimed responsibility.|
|February 28, 2002||Ahmedabad, India||Gulbarg Society massacre||69||During the 2002 Gujarat riots, a mob attacked the Gulbarg Society, a lower middle-class Muslim neighbourhood in Chamanpura, Ahmedabad. Most of the houses were burnt, and at least 35 victims including a former Congress, Member of Parliament, Ehsan Jafri, were burnt alive, while 31 others went missing after the incident, later presumed dead, bringing the total of the dead to 69.|
|September 1, 2004||Beslan, Russian Federation||Beslan school hostage crisis||334||Armed Chechen separatists took more than 1,200 people hostage at a school. 334 civilians were killed, including 186 school children, and hundreds wounded.|
|March 5, 2005||near Rehoboth, Namibia||Kareeboomvloer massacre||8||Brothers Sylvester and Gavin Beukes murder the owners' couple of farm Kareeboomvloer and execute all witnesses, including two children. The motive was revenge for a previous theft charge laid by the farm owner.|
|May 13, 2005||Andijan, Uzbekistan||Andijan massacre||187–1,500||Uzbek Interior Ministry and National Security Service troops fired into a crowd of protesters.|
|August 4, 2005||Shefa-Amr, Israel||Shefa-Amr massacre||4||In protest of Ariel Sharon's government evacuation of Gaza colonies, Jewish IDF soldier Eden Natan-Zada travels to Israeli Arab city Shefa-Amr and unloads his gun against residents of a Druze neighborhood.|
|November 19, 2005||Haditha, Iraq||Haditha massacre||24||US Marines slaughter 24 unarmed Iraqi civilians, among whom numerous children and the elderly. Though the unit's commander, Staff Sgt Frank Wuterich, claimed his forces came under attack just before the rampage, no weapons were found in the area.|
|March 25, 2006||Seattle, United States||Capitol Hill massacre||6||28-year-old Kyle Aaron Huff entered a rave afterparty in the southeast part of Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood and opened fire, killing six and wounding two, before committing suicide.|
|July 30, 2006||Lebanon||Qana airstrike||28||Airstrike by the Israeli Air Forces on three-storey kill 28 civilians, including 16 children. The Israeli military alleged the compound was used by Hezbollah to store weapons but international observers and journalists denied military equipment was found on the rubble of the building from where the bodies of the victims, civilians in their pajamas were taken.|
|April 16, 2007||Blacksburg, Virginia, United States||Virginia Tech Massacre||32||Gunman Seung-Hui Cho, killed 32 people and wounded many others before committing suicide. The massacre is the deadliest peacetime shooting incident by a single gunman in United States history, on or off a school campus.|
|September 28, 2009||Conakry, Guinea||28 September Massacre||157||Guinean uniformed security forces opened fire on a political rally trapped in the 28 September Stadium.|
|November 5, 2009||Ft. Hood, Texas, United States||Fort Hood shooting||13||Gunman Malik Nadal Hasan, a Major in the U.S. Army, killed 12 soldiers and one civilian, and wounded at least 30 on the base at Ft. Hood. Initial reports indicate Hassan was upset at being deployed to Iraq.|
|November 23, 2009||Ampatuan, Maguindanao, Philippines||Maguindanao massacre||57||A group of 100 armed men, alleged to include police and private militia led by Andal Ampatuan, Jr., stopped a convoy of five cars transporting Genalyn Tiamzon-Mangudadatu, the wife of Esmael Mangudadatu, who is running for provincial governor in the 2010 Philippine elections. She was en route to the town of Shariff Aguak to file a certificate of candidacy for her husband, accompanied by his sisters, other supporters, and members of the press. The attackers kidnapped and later killed all members of the Mangudadatu group; reports state that women in the group were raped before being killed. Five other people not part of the group, in a car behind the convoy, were also kidnapped and killed.|
|January 8, 2011||Tucson, Arizona, United States||2011 Tucson shooting||6||One man, Jared Lee Loughner, attacked a group of people outside a supermarket in Tucson, Arizona. His intent was to kill U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords only, but he ended up killing 6 and wounding 19 – though grievously wounded (and despite initial reports to the contrary), Giffords herself survived. Those killed in the incident included United States District Court for the District of Arizona Chief Judge John Roll and one of Gifford's staffers.|
|July 22, 2011||Utøya, Buskerud, Norway||2011 Utøya shooting||69||One man, Anders Behring Breivik, went to the island of Utøya on July 22, 2011, right after the devastating bomb in Oslo. Wearing a fake police uniform, he shot and killed 69 youths at the annual labour youth party, and injured several more. It is still unknown how long the massacre lasted. According to police logs, it took an hour from the first calls until the response team arrested him. The defenseless people had nowhere to run. Many tried to swim away from the island to shore, some made it, and some did not.|
|October 5, 2011||Chiang Khong, Chiang Rai, Thailand||Mekong River massacre||13||Two Chinese cargo ships were attacked on a stretch of the Mekong River in the Golden Triangle area. All 13 crew members were killed and dumped in the river. It is the deadliest assault on Chinese nationals abroad in modern times.|
|March 11, 2012||Kandahar, Afghanistan||Kandahar massacre||17||17 Afghan civilians were killed by U.S. Army Soldier Robert Bales. Some witnesses have indicated more than one person was involved.|
|May 25, 2012||Houla, Syria||Houla massacre||108||Approximately 108 people were killed with knives in the Syrian town of Houla. Approximately 25 men, 49 children and 34 women were among the victims.|
- List of events named pogrom
- List of genocides
- List of battles and other violent events by death toll
- List of mass car bombings
- List of massacres at sea
- List of murderers by number of victims
- List of postal killings
- List of rampage killers
- List of school-related attacks
- Mass murder
- School shooting
- Spree killer
- List of Algerian massacres of the 1990s
- List of massacres in India
- List of massacres in the Kosovo War
- List of massacres of Indigenous Australians
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- Lauritz Weibull. "Nordisk historia. Forskningar och undersökningar. Del III. Från Erik den helige till Karl XII", Stockholm 1949, p. 160–163
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- Massacre of Smerwick article, The Enyclopedia of Irealand, p. 998, Gill & Macmillan, 2003
- Janell Broyles, A Timeline of the Jamestown Colony, p. 22, The Rosen Publishing Group, 2004
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- Witness statements from Irish rebellion and massacres of 1641 go online
- 1641 Rebellion
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- Patrician Buckley Ebrey ''Chinese Civilization: a sourcebook'': Simon and Schuster (1993) ISBN 0-02-908752-X. Books.google.com. 2009-11-24. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
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- Oxford English Dictionary Cites "a1715 BP. G. BURNET Hist. Own Time (1734) II. 156 The Massacre in Glencoe, made still a great noise." and "1957 ‘H. MACDIARMID’ Battle Continues 1 Franco has made no more horrible shambles Than this poem of Campbell's, The foulest outrage his breed has to show Since the massacre of Glencoe!"
- Glencoe, engraved by W. Miller after J.M.W. Turner, Edinburgh University library
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- William St. Clair, That Greece Might Still Be Free The Philhellenes in the War of Independence, Oxford University Press, London, 1972 p.43 ISBN 0-19-215194-0
- National Centre for History Education (Australia)
- "Frontier Conflict: The Australian Experience", Bruce Elder, Sydney Morning Herald, March 29, 2003
- "Myall Creek Massacre", Parliament of New South Wales Hansard, June 8, 2000
- FAQ "What was the Haun's Mill Massacre?" – Brigham Young University website (abstracted from "Haun's Mill Massacre", in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, ed. Daniel H. Ludlow, New York: Macmillan, 1992)
- Historical Record, Jenson, Vol. 7 & 8, p 671.
- History of the Church, Vol. III, pp 182–186.
- Gardner, P.D. (2001), Gippsland massacres: the destruction of the Kurnai tribes, 1800-1860, Ngarak Press, Essay, Victoria ISBN 1-875254-31-5
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- Thompson, Jacob (1860). Message of the President of the United States: communicating, in compliance with a resolution of the Senate, information in relation to the massacre at Mountain Meadows, and other massacres in Utah Territory, 36th Congress, 1st Session, Exec. Doc. No. 42. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior..
- *Bagley, Will (2002). Blood of the Prophets: Brigham Young and the Massacre at Mountain Meadows. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3426-7..
- Paludan, Philip S. 1981. Victims: A True Story of the Civil War. Knoxville, Tennessee: The University of Tennessee Press. 144 p.
- Brigham D. Madsen (with forward by Charles S. Peterson), The Shoshoni Frontier and the Bear River Massacre, University of Utah Press (1985-hardcover 1995-paperback), trade paperback, 286 pages, pp. 190–192, ISBN 0-87480-494-9
- Pages 183 to 194, The Shoshoni Frontier and the Bear River Massacre, by Brigham D. Madsen, forward by Charles S. Peterson, University of Utah Press (1985-hardcover 1995-paperback), trade paperback, 286 pages, ISBN 0-87480-494-9
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- "Chapter 14 Winning the West The Army in the Indian Wars". American Military History, Volume I. United States Army Center of Military History. 2005. CMH Pub 30-21.
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- Andrist, Ralph K., The Long Death: The Last Days of the Plains Indians, University of Oklahoma Press, 2001, 371 pages, pp 157–162, ISBN 978-0-8061-3308-9
- Brown, Dee, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, Henry Holt and Co., 2007, 487 pages, pp 167–169, ISBN 978-0-8050-8684-3
- Churchill, Ward, A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, 1492 to the Present, City Lights, 1997, 381 pages, p 236, ISBN 978-0-87286-323-1
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- The Saint Francis Herald, "Cherry Creek Massacre recognized in magazine", St. Francis, Kansas, November 17, 2005
- Zeman, Scott C., Chronology of the American West from 23,000 B.C.E. through the Twentieth Century, ABC-CLIO, 2002, 381 pages, p 155, ISBN 978-1-57607-207-3
- Greenway, Paul. (2002). Bulgaria: Centuries of History Ripe for Discovery. P141. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-86450-148-0
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- John Chaput (2007). "Frog Lake Massacre". The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. University of Regina and Canadian Plains Research Center. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
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- Camp Pilot Butte, National Register of Historic Places.
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- Daniels, Asian America, pp. 61–63.
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- National Historic Landmarks Program: Wounded Knee National Park Service. Retrieved on 19 February 2008.
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- Charny, Israel W. (1999). Encyclopedia of genocide (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-87436-928-1. ISBN 0-87436-928-2. "also known as the Hamidian Massacres, after the sultan", distinguishing the current name from what the events were previously known as: the Armenian Massacres.
- Cohan, Sara (October 2005). "A Brief History of the Armenian Genocide". Social Education (National Science Teachers Association, 1840 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22201-3000) v69 (n6): 333. ISSN 0037-7724. "They are now known as the Hamidian Massacres"
- Totten, Samuel; Paul Robert Bartrop; Steven L. Jacobs (2008). Dictionary of genocide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-313-34642-2. ISBN 0-313-34642-9. "they are now often called the Hamidian massacres to distinguish them from the greater atrocities associated with the 1915 Armenian Genocide"
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- American Troops Killing Muslims: A Massacre to Remember, by Christine Gibson, AmericanHeritage.com, March 8, 2006
- Byler, Charles A. Pacifying the Moros; Military Review, May–June, 2005
- Creelman, James (August 22, 1909). "The Slaughter of Christians In Asia Minor". The New York Times.
- Akcam, Taner. A Shameful Act. 2006, pp. 69–70: "fifteen to twenty thousand Armenians were killed"
- "30,000 Killed in Massacres". The New York Times. April 25, 1909.
- Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views By Samuel. Totten, William S. Parsons, Israel W. Charny
- Walker, 1980, pp. 182–88
- American Experience|The Rockefellers|Special Features|The Ludlow Massacre (PBS)
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- Zinn, H. "The Ludlow Massacre", Excerpt from A People's History of the United States. pgs 346–349.
- Report of Commissioners, Vol 1, New Delhi, p. 105
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- T. Ryle Dwyer, The Squad and the intelligence operations of Michael Collins, Dublin, 2005
- David Leeson, "Death in the Afternoon: The Croke Park Massacre, 21 November 1920", Canadian Journal of History, vol. 38, no. 1 (April 2003)
- Florida Department of State, State Library & Archives of Florida, Rosewood Bibliography http://dlis.dos.state.fl.us/fgils/rosewood_bib.html
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- Schoenberg, Shira, "The Hebron Massacre of 1929", Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved March 3, 2010.
- "Safed Victims Put at 70 Killed and Wounded", New York Times, September 1, 1929
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- Habib, Irfan (September–October 1997). "Civil Disobedience 1930–31". Social Scientist 25 (9–10): 43–66. doi:10.2307/3517680. JSTOR 3517680.
- Johansen, Robert C. (1997). "Radical Islam and Nonviolence: A Case Study of Religious Empowerment and Constraint Among Pashtuns". Journal of Peace Research 34 (1): 53–71. doi:10.1177/0022343397034001005.
- "Der Krieg am Ararat" (Telegramm unseres Korrespondenten) Berliner Tageblatt, October 3, 1930, "... die Türken in der Gegend von Zilan 220 Dörfer zerstört und 4500 Frauen und Greise massakriert". (German)
- M. Kalman, Belge, tanık ve yaşayanlarıyla Ağrı Direnişi 1926-1930, Pêrî Yayınları, Istanbul, 1997, ISBN 975-8245-01-5, p. 105. (Turkish)
- Martin Tamcke (2004-01-01). Syriaca II. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 289, 290. ISBN 3-8258-7834-1.
- 19 Were killed including 2 policemen caught in the cross-fire The Washington Post. Tuesday, December 28, 1999; Page A03. Apology Isn't Enough for Puerto Rico Spy Victims'.' Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- Biggest Massacre in Puerto Rican History. Retrieved July 14, 2009.
- "Resmi raporlarda Dersim katliamı: 13 bin kişi öldürüldü", Radikal, November 19, 2009. (Turkish)
- Honda Katsuichi, The Nanjing Massacre, M.E. Sharp 1998
- Fordham University webpage: Modern History Sourcebook
- Matthew White Nanking Massacre, Accessed December 17, 2007. Cites eight sources directly and another ten indirectly. Lowest estimate Spence, The Search for Modern China: 42,000. Highest estimate Iris Chang, The Rape of Nanking (1997), citing James Yin & Shi Young: 400,000
- Justin Harmon Student-Run Conference to Examine Nanking Massacre, Princeton University, November 12, 1997
- John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr. In Denial: Historians, Communism, and Espionage. Encounter Books, 2003. ISBN 1-893554-72-4 p. 22
- Aleksandr Shelepin's March 3, 1959 note to Khrushchev, with information about the execution of 21,857 Poles and with the proposal to destroy their personal files. Online
- Beria's March 1940 proposal to shoot 25,700 Poles from Kozelsk, Ostashkov, and Starobels camps, and from certain prisons of Western Ukraine and Belarus bearing Stalin's signature (among others). proposal online
- Fischer, Benjamin B., "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field", Studies in Intelligence, Winter 1999–2000
- "Katyn Massacre", Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 23, 2007.
- Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, 2007 ISBN 1-4000-4005-1 p. 391
- Richard Rhodes (2002). Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40900-9.
- The Holocaust Chronicle: Massacre at Babi Yar, The Holocaust Chronicle web site. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
- Victoria Khiterer (2004). "Babi Yar: The tragedy of Kiev's Jews" (PDF). Brandeis Graduate Journal 2: 1–16. Archived from the original on November 28, 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- "A survivor of the Babi Yar massacre". Heritage: Civilization and the Jews. Public Broadcasting System (PBS). Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- Wolfram Wette (2006). The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality. Harvard University Press. p. 112. "The massacre at Babi Yar, near Kiev, which claimed the lives of more than thirty thousand Jewish victims on September 29 and 30, 1941, was the largest single mass killing for which the German army was responsible during its campaign against the Soviet Union."
- Jill Dougherty and Jim Bittermann (2001-06-25). "Pope visits Jewish massacre site". CNN. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- "Marcu Rozen ->>>The Holocaust in Romania Under the Antonescu Government (24)". Holocaustremembrance.net. 1943-09-01. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- Saff Fall of Ambon: Massacred at Laha, Australia's War 1939-145 An Australian government website.
- Peter Stanley The defence of the 'Malay barrier': Rabaul and Ambon, January 1942 principal historian to Australian War Memorial
- Katerina Zachovalova. War Crime To War Game, Time, September 17
- David Vaughan. The Lidice massacre – atrocity and courage website of Czech Radio, 11 June 2002
- "Lidice memorial". Lidice-memorial.cz. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- Matthew J. Gibney, Randall Hansen, Immigration and Asylum, page 204. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- Timothy Snyder. (2003)The Causes of Ukrainian-Polish Ethnic Cleansing 1943, The Past and Present Society: Oxford University Press. pg. 220
- Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's holocaust. Published by McFarland. Page 247
- Massacre on Wake Island
- Matthew M. Burke (January 22, 2012). "Search for closure, accurate account of Wake Island massacre continues". Stars and Stripes.
- "Oradour Info – Oradour-sur-Glane 10th June 1944". Oradour.info. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- "The Second World War – The massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane". Secondworldwar.co.uk. 1944-06-10. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- "– Robin Mackness's book, 'Oradour Massacre and Aftermath'". Oradour.info. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- "Amazon – Massacre at Oradour – by Robin Mackness – ISBN 978-0-394-57002-0". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- "Oxford Journals – Massacre at Oradour, France, 1944 by Stephanie Hare-Cuming". Fh.oxfordjournals.org. 2013-03-01. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- "Martyred Village: Commemorating the 1944 Massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane. Sarah Farmer, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. xvii + 300 pp. ISBN 978-0-520-21186-5". H-net.msu.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- Italy convicts Nazis of massacre BBC, January 13, 2007
- Richard Owen. "Ten convicted for 1944 massacre", The Times (London), January 15, 2007
- The Malmedy Massacre Revisited – Henri Rogister, Joseph Dejardin and Emile Jamar
- Goldstein, Donald M.; J. Michael Wenger; Katherine V. Dillon (1997). Nuts! the Battle of the Bulge (illustrated ed.). Brassey's. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-57488-279-7. ISBN 1-57488-279-1.
- *A 1961 Massacre of Algerians in Paris When the Media Failed the Test James J. Napoli
- Yves Courrière, La guerre d'Algérie, tome 1 (Les fils de la Toussaint), Fayard, Paris 1969, ISBN 2-213-61118-1
- * Jean Louis Planche, Sétif 1945, histoire d'un massacre annoncé, Perrin, Paris 2006
- de Zayas, Alfred M.: A terrible Revenge. Palgrave/Macmillan, New York, 1994.
- Naimark, Norman: Fires of Hatred. Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth - Century Europe. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2001.
- Prausser Steffen and Rees, Arfon: The Expulsion of the "German Communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second World War. Florence, Italy, European University Institute, 2004.
- Commission of enquiry report, Palestine Post, 20 Feb 1948.
- 제주4.3사건 희생자·유족 추가신고 받는다
- Ghosts Of Cheju Newsweek
- Kana'ana and Zeitawi, 1987.
- "Hadassah Convoy Massacre". Zionism-israel.com. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- Allon, Yigal, (1970) "Shield of David - The Story of Israel's Armed Forces". Weidenfeld and Nicolson. SBN 297 00133 7. Page 196.
- Gilbert, Martin (1977) "Jerusalem - Illustrated History Atlas". Published in conjunction with the Board of Deputies of British Jews. Map 50, page 93.
- Shehadeh, Raja (October 16, 2012). "The Nakba, Then and Now". The New York Times.
- # B. Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, Cambridge University Press, 2004. pp481,487,501,502.
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