Last modified on 22 November 2014, at 13:07

List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  People's Republic of China[1] 4,055,812 Jun 2014[1]
2  Japan 1,264,405 Sep 2014[2]
3  Saudi Arabia 744,909 Sep 2014[3]
4   Switzerland 530,924 Sep 2014[4]
5  Russia 428,590 Oct 2014[5]
6  Republic of China (Taiwan) 425,750 Sep 2014[6]
7  Brazil 375,513 Sep 2014[7]
8  Republic of Korea 364,407 Sep 2014[8]
-  Hong Kong 325,762 Sep 2014[9]
9  India 313,841 Sep 2014[10]
10  Singapore 266,142 Sep 2014[11]
11  Germany 196,757 Sep 2014[12]
12  Mexico 193,332 Sep 2014[13]
13  Algeria 192,500 Dec 2013[14]
14  Thailand 161,572 Sep 2014[15]
15  Italy 145,485 Sep 2014[16]
16  France 145,389 Sep 2014[17]
17  United Kingdom 138,411 Sep 2014[18]
18  United States 136,473 Oct 2014[19]
19  Turkey 131,840 Sep 2014[20]
20  Malaysia 127,268 Sep 2014[21]
21  Libya 120,900 Dec 2013[14]
22  Indonesia 111,164 Sep 2014[22]
23  Poland 101,722 Sep 2014[23]
24  Israel 86,188 Sep 2014[24]
25  Philippines 79,557 Sep 2014[25]
26  Denmark 76,751 Sep 2014[26]
27  Canada 73,687 Sep 2014[27]
28  Iraq 71,240 Dec 2013[14]
29  Iran[2] 68,060 Dec 2013[14]
30  Norway 66,969 Sep 2014[28]
31  Peru 64,499 Sep 2014[29]
32  Sweden 63,648 Sep 2014[30]
33  United Arab Emirates 58,040 Dec 2013[14]
34  Czech Republic 54,778 Sep 2014[31]
35  Australia 53,292 Sep 2014[32]
36  Lebanon 51,950 Dec 2013[14]
37  South Africa 49,131 Sep 2014[33]
38  Colombia 46,604 Sep 2014[34]
39  Spain 46,159 Sep 2014[35]
40  Hungary 44,901 Sep 2014[36]
41  Netherlands 44,120 Sep 2014[37]
42  Qatar 43,496 Aug 2014[38]
43  Romania 43,112 Sep 2014[39]
44  Chile 40,087 Sep 2014[40]
45  Nigeria 39,521 Sep 2014[41]
46  Angola 37,940 Dec 2013[14]
47  Kuwait 34,350 Dec 2013[14]
48  Vietnam 32,490 Dec 2013[14]
49  Kazakhstan 27,888 Sep 2014[42]
50  Argentina 27,866 Sep 2014[43]
51  Belgium 25,981 Sep 2014[44]
52  Austria 25,748 Sep 2014[45]
53  Turkmenistan 22,350 Dec 2013[14]
54  Bangladesh 21,837 Sep 2014[46]
55  Venezuela 21,150 Dec 2013[14]
56  Bulgaria 19,584 Sep 2014[47]
57  Morocco 19,160 Dec 2013[14]
58  Portugal 18,947 Sep 2014[48]
59  New Zealand 17,933 Sep 2014[49]
60  Uruguay 17,757 Sep 2014[50]
61  Oman 17,700 Dec 2013[14]
62  Uzbekistan 17,000 Dec 2013[14]
63  Egypt 16,408 Sep 2014[51]
64  Ukraine 16,385 Sep 2014[52]
65  Jordan 16,183 Sep 2014[53]
-  Macau 16,153 Sep 2014[54]
66  Serbia 15,870 Dec 2013[14]
67  Croatia 15,360 Sep 2014[55]
68  Bolivia 14,460 Dec 2013[14]
69  Azerbaijan 13,080 Dec 2013[14]
70  Pakistan 12,591 May 2014[56]
71  Finland 10,698 Sep 2014[57]
72  Trinidad and Tobago 10,070 Dec 2013[14]
73  Burma 8,278 Dec 2013[14]
74  Tunisia 8,113 Dec 2013[14]
75  Lithuania 8,111 Sep 2014[58]
76  Botswana 7,933 Dec 2013[14]
77  Costa Rica 7,195 Sep 2014[59]
78  Guatemala 7,145 Sep 2014[60]
79  Sri Lanka 6,452 Dec 2013[14]
80  Paraguay 6,336 Dec 2013[14]
81  Greece 6,310 Sep 2014[61]
82  Ghana 6,016 Dec 2013[14]
83  Belarus 6,005 Sep 2014[62]
84  Afghanistan 5,983 Dec 2013[14]
85  Bahrain 5,933 Dec 2013[14]
86  Kenya 5,541 Dec 2013[14]
87  Yemen 5,538 Dec 2013[14]
88  Cambodia 5,415 Dec 2013[14]
89  Republic of the Congo 5,239 Dec 2013[14]
90  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,002 Dec 2013[14]
91  Cuba 4,993 Dec 2013[14]
92  Iceland 4,489 Sep 2014[63]
93  Dominican Republic 4,379 Dec 2013[14]
94  Tanzania 4,343 Dec 2013[14]
95    Nepal 4,339 Dec 2013[14]
96  Ivory Coast 4,085 Dec 2013[14]
97  Equatorial Guinea 4,027 Dec 2013[14]
98  Mauritius 3,910 Sep 2014[64]
99  Uganda 3,579 Dec 2013[14]
100  Ethiopia 3,382 Dec 2013[14]
101  Cameroon 3,353 Dec 2013[14]
102  Latvia 3,310 Sep 2014[65]
103  El Salvador 3,192 Sep 2014[66]
104  Mozambique 2,990 Dec 2013[14]
105  Honduras 2,973 Sep 2014[67]
106  Papua New Guinea 2,926 Dec 2013[14]
107  Zambia 2,833 Dec 2013[14]
108  Albania 2,827 Dec 2013[14]
109  Macedonia 2,747 Dec 2013[14]
110  Georgia 2,701 Sep 2014[68]
111  Panama 2,666 Dec 2013[14]
112  Moldova 2,653 Sep 2014[69]
113  Ecuador 2,625 Dec 2013[14]
114  Gabon 2,470 Dec 2013[14]
115  Honduras 2,414 Dec 2013[14]
116  Namibia 2,267 Dec 2013[14]
117  Slovakia 2,232 Sep 2014[70]
118  Senegal 2,150 Dec 2013[14]
119  Nicaragua 2,132 Sep 2014[71]
120  Kyrgyzstan 2,017 Sep 2014[72]
121  Jamaica 1,900 Dec 2013[14]
122  Syria 1,895 Dec 2013[14]
123  Armenia 1,663 Sep 2014[73]
124  Ireland 1,585 Sep 2014[74]
125  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,582 Dec 2013[14]
126  Mongolia 1,543 Sep 2014[75]
127  Rwanda 1,354 Dec 2013[14]
128  Haiti 1,335 Dec 2013[14]
129  Chad 1,304 Dec 2013[14]
130  Madagascar 1,249 Dec 2013[14]
131  Burkina Faso 1,115 Dec 2013[14]
132  Tajikistan 1,072 Dec 2013[14]
133  Slovenia 1,037 Sep 2014[76]
134  Suriname 1,008 Dec 2013[14]
135  Fiji 964 Dec 2013[14]
136  Luxembourg 919 Sep 2014[77]
137  Cyprus 870 Sep 2014[78]
138  Lesotho 858 Dec 2013[14]
139  Guyana 855 Dec 2013[14]
140  Laos 846 Dec 2013[14]
141  Bahamas 830 Dec 2013[14]
142  Malta 814 Sep 2014[79]
143  Swaziland 801 Dec 2013[14]
144  Benin 801 Dec 2013[14]
145  Barbados 713 Dec 2013[14]
146  Togo 531 Dec 2013[14]
147  Estonia 478 Sep 2014[80]
148  Zimbabwe 437 Dec 2013[14]
149  Cape Verde 426 Dec 2013[14]
150  Montenegro 400 Dec 2013[14]
151  Malawi 364 Dec 2013[14]
152  Seychelles 362 Dec 2013[14]
153  Maldives 356 Dec 2013[14]
154  Burundi 314 Dec 2013[14]
155  San Marino 309 Dec 2013[14]
156  Belize 273 Dec 2013[14]
157  Gambia 251 Dec 2013[14]
158  Sudan 202 Dec 2013[14]


NotesEdit

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The time-series data of International Investment Position of China, Quarterly". State Administration of Foreign Exchange. 
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)". Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Monthly values | Bank of Russia
  6. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)". 
  7. ^ IMF - Brazil
  8. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  9. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  10. ^ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity - INDIA
  11. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  12. ^ IMF - Germany
  13. ^ Banco de Mexico - Information structure details
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  15. ^ Bank of Thailand - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  16. ^ IMF - Italy
  17. ^ IMF - France
  18. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  19. ^ IMF - United States
  20. ^ IMF - Turkey
  21. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  22. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  23. ^ IMF - Poland
  24. ^ Bank of Israel - Press Releases - Foreign exchange reserves, foreign currency market
  25. ^ Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas - INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY
  26. ^ IMF - Denmark
  27. ^ IMF - Canada
  28. ^ International reserves and foreign currency liquidity - monthly - Tables - SSB (Statistics Norway)
  29. ^ Central Reserve Bank of Peru - Reserves Management Reports
  30. ^ IMF - Sweden
  31. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  32. ^ IMF - Australia
  33. ^ IMF - South Africa
  34. ^ IMF - Colombia
  35. ^ IMF - Spain
  36. ^ IMF - Hungary
  37. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  38. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  39. ^ IMF - Romania
  40. ^ IMF - Chile
  41. ^ "Central Bank of Nigeria - Movement in Foreign Reserves". 
  42. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  43. ^ IMF - Argentina
  44. ^ IMF - Belgium
  45. ^ IMF - Austria
  46. ^ Bangladesh Bank - Central Bank of Bangladesh
  47. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  48. ^ IMF - Portugal
  49. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  50. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  51. ^ Central Bank Of Egypt - "International Reserves and Reserve Template"
  52. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  53. ^ IMF - Jordan
  54. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  55. ^ IMF - Croatia
  56. ^ State Bank of Pakistan - The Central Bank: New template for the reserve assets
  57. ^ IMF - Finland
  58. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  59. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  60. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  61. ^ IMF - Greece
  62. ^ IMF - Belarus
  63. ^ IMF - Iceland
  64. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  65. ^ IMF - Latvia
  66. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  67. ^ IMF - Honduras
  68. ^ IMF - Georgia
  69. ^ IMF - Moldova
  70. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  71. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  72. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  73. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  74. ^ IMF - Ireland
  75. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  76. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  77. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  78. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  79. ^ IMF - Malta
  80. ^ IMF - Estonia

External linksEdit