Last modified on 15 September 2014, at 09:08

List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  People's Republic of China[1] 4,009,553 Mar 2014[1]
2  Japan 1,276,027 Jul 2014[2]
3  Saudi Arabia 738,817 Jun 2014[3]
4   Switzerland 549,451 Jul 2014[4]
5  Russia 465,228 Sep 2014[5]
6  Republic of China (Taiwan) 428,795 Jul 2014[6]
7  Brazil 376,792 Jul 2014[7]
8  Republic of Korea 366,546 Jun 2014[8]
-  Hong Kong 325,035 Jul 2014[9]
9  India 319,390 Aug 2014[10]
10  Singapore 273,658 Jul 2014[11]
11  Germany 206,275 Aug 2014[12]
12  Mexico 192,893 Jul 2014[13]
13  Algeria 192,500 Dec 2013[14]
14  Thailand 169,424 Jul 2014[15]
15  France 154,877 Jul 2014[16]
16  Italy 152,367 Jul 2014[17]
17  United Kingdom 143,309 Jul 2014[18]
18  United States 142,898 Aug 2014[19]
19  Turkey 132,666 Jul 2014[20]
20  Malaysia 131,824 Jul 2014[21]
21  Libya 120,900 Dec 2013[14]
22  Indonesia 110,542 Jul 2014[22]
23  Poland 101,951 Jun 2014[23]
24  Israel 87,628 Aug 2014[24]
25  Denmark 85,413 Mar 2014[25]
26  Philippines 80,733 Jun 2014[26]
27  Canada 75,466 Jul 2014[27]
28  Iraq 71,240 Dec 2013[14]
29  Iran[2] 68,060 Dec 2013[14]
30  Sweden 66,177 Jun 2014[28]
31  Peru 65,250 Jul 2014[29]
32  Norway 64,196 Jul 2014[30]
33  Australia 58,475 Jul 2014[31]
34  United Arab Emirates 58,040 Dec 2013[14]
35  Czech Republic 57,554 Jul 2014[32]
36  Lebanon 51,950 Dec 2013[14]
37  South Africa 49,891 Jul 2014[33]
38  Spain 47,204 Jul 2014[34]
39  Hungary 47,128 Jul 2014[35]
40  Netherlands 47,037 Jul 2014[36]
41  Romania 45,665 Jul 2014[37]
42  Colombia 45,585 Jul 2014[38]
43  Qatar 41,468 May 2014[39]
44  Chile 40,369 Jul 2014[40]
45  Nigeria 39,001 Mar 2014[41]
46  Angola 37,940 Dec 2013[14]
47  Kuwait 34,350 Dec 2013[14]
48  Vietnam 32,490 Dec 2013[14]
49  Argentina 29,003 Jul 2014[42]
50  Belgium 27,080 Jul 2014[43]
51  Kazakhstan 26,500 Jun 2014[44]
52  Austria 25,759 Jun 2014[45]
53  Turkmenistan 22,350 Dec 2013[14]
54  Bangladesh 22,094 Aug 2014[46]
55  Venezuela 21,150 Dec 2013[14]
56  Bulgaria 19,562 Jun 2014[47]
57  Portugal 19,402 Jul 2014[48]
58  Morocco 19,160 Dec 2013[14]
59  Uruguay 18,181 Jul 2014[49]
60  Oman 17,700 Dec 2013[14]
61  New Zealand 17,463 Jul 2014[50]
62  Uzbekistan 17,000 Dec 2013[14]
63  Croatia 16,602 Jul 2014[51]
64  Egypt 16,289 Jun 2014[52]
65  Ukraine 16,070 Jul 2014[53]
66  Serbia 15,870 Dec 2013[14]
-  Macau 15,369 May 2014[54]
67  Jordan 14,708 Apr 2014[55]
68  Bolivia 14,460 Dec 2013[14]
69  Pakistan 14,304 Jul 2014[56]
70  Azerbaijan 13,080 Dec 2013[14]
71  Finland 11,190 Jul 2014[57]
72  Trinidad and Tobago 10,070 Dec 2013[14]
73  Lithuania 8,430 Jul 2014[58]
74  Burma 8,278 Dec 2013[14]
75  Tunisia 8,113 Dec 2013[14]
76  Botswana 7,933 Dec 2013[14]
77  Costa Rica 7,339 Jul 2014[59]
78  Guatemala 7,129 Jul 2014[60]
79  Greece 6,732 Jul 2014[61]
80  Sri Lanka 6,452 Dec 2013[14]
81  Paraguay 6,336 Dec 2013[14]
82  Belarus 6,211 Jul 2014[62]
83  Ghana 6,016 Dec 2013[14]
84  Afghanistan 5,983 Dec 2013[14]
85  Bahrain 5,933 Dec 2013[14]
86  Kenya 5,541 Dec 2013[14]
87  Yemen 5,538 Dec 2013[14]
88  Cambodia 5,415 Dec 2013[14]
89  Republic of the Congo 5,239 Dec 2013[14]
90  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,002 Dec 2013[14]
91  Cuba 4,993 Dec 2013[14]
92  Dominican Republic 4,379 Dec 2013[14]
93  Tanzania 4,343 Dec 2013[14]
94    Nepal 4,339 Dec 2013[14]
95  Iceland 4,258 Jun 2014[63]
96  Ivory Coast 4,085 Dec 2013[14]
97  Mauritius 4,034 Jul 2014[64]
98  Equatorial Guinea 4,027 Dec 2013[14]
99  Uganda 3,579 Dec 2013[14]
100  Latvia 3,494 Jul 2014[65]
101  Ethiopia 3,382 Dec 2013[14]
102  Cameroon 3,353 Dec 2013[14]
103  Honduras 3,094 Jul 2014[66]
104  Mozambique 2,990 Dec 2013[14]
105  Papua New Guinea 2,926 Dec 2013[14]
106  Zambia 2,833 Dec 2013[14]
107  El Salvador 2,760 Jun 2014[67]
108  Moldova 2,741 Jun 2014[68]
109  Georgia 2,498 Jun 2014[69]
110  Slovakia 2,299 Feb 2014[70]
111  Kyrgyzstan 2,126 Jun 2014[71]
112  Nicaragua 2,076 May 2014[72]
113  Armenia 1,879 Apr 2014[73]
114  Ireland 1,662 Jun 2014[74]
115  Mongolia 1,318 Jun 2014[75]
116  Malta 1,172 Jun 2014[76]
117  Slovenia 1,170 Jun 2014[77]
118  Luxembourg 996 Jun 2014[78]
119  Cyprus 925 Jun 2014[79]
120  Laos 846 Dec 2013[14]
121  Estonia 418 Jul 2014[80]


NotesEdit

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The time-series data of International Investment Position of China, Quarterly". State Administration of Foreign Exchange. 
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)". Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation. Monthly values as of the beginning of accounting date| Bank of Russia
  6. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)". 
  7. ^ IMF - Brazil
  8. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  9. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  10. ^ Reserve Bank of India
  11. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  12. ^ IMF - Germany
  13. ^ IMF - México
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  15. ^ IMF - Thailand
  16. ^ IMF - France
  17. ^ IMF - Italy
  18. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  19. ^ IMF - United States of America
  20. ^ IMF - Turkey
  21. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  22. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  23. ^ IMF - Poland
  24. ^ Bank of Israel - Press Releases - Foreign exchange reserves, foreign currency market
  25. ^ IMF - Denmark
  26. ^ IMF - Philippines
  27. ^ IMF - Canada
  28. ^ IMF - Sweden
  29. ^ Central Reserve Bank of Peru - Reserves Management Reports
  30. ^ IMF - Norway
  31. ^ IMF - Australia
  32. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  33. ^ IMF - South Africa
  34. ^ IMF - Spain
  35. ^ IMF - Hungary
  36. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  37. ^ IMF - Romania
  38. ^ IMF - Colombia
  39. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  40. ^ IMF - Chile
  41. ^ "Central Bank of Nigeria - Movement in Foreign Reserves". 
  42. ^ IMF - Argentina
  43. ^ IMF - Belgium
  44. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  45. ^ IMF - Austria
  46. ^ Bangladesh Bank - Central Bank of Bangladesh
  47. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  48. ^ IMF - Portugal
  49. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  50. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  51. ^ IMF - Croatia
  52. ^ IMF - Egypt
  53. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  54. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  55. ^ IMF - Jordan
  56. ^ State Bank of Pakistan - The Central Bank: New template for the reserve assets
  57. ^ IMF - Finland
  58. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  59. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  60. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  61. ^ IMF - Greece
  62. ^ IMF - Belarus
  63. ^ IMF - Iceland
  64. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  65. ^ IMF - Latvia
  66. ^ IMF - Honduras
  67. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  68. ^ IMF - Moldova
  69. ^ IMF - Georgia
  70. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  71. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  72. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  73. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  74. ^ IMF - Ireland
  75. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  76. ^ IMF - Malta
  77. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  78. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  79. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  80. ^ IMF - Estonia

External linksEdit