Last modified on 1 February 2015, at 04:52

List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  People's Republic of China[1] 3,945,932 Sep 2014[1]
2  Japan 1,260,548 Dec 2014[2]
3  Saudi Arabia 732,353 Dec 2014[3]
4   Switzerland 526,172 Nov 2014[4]
5  Republic of China (Taiwan) 423,851 Dec 2014[5]
6  Russia 385,460 Dec 2014[6][7][8]
7  Brazil 363,551 Dec 2014[9]
8  Republic of Korea 363,095 Nov 2014[10]
-  Hong Kong 328,510 Dec 2014[11]
9  India 320,649 Dec 2014[12][13]
10  Singapore 256,860 Dec 2014[14]
11  Mexico 195,682 Dec 2014[15]
12  Germany 192,732 Dec 2014[16]
13  Algeria 192,500 Dec 2013[17]
14  Thailand 157,108 Dec 2014[18]
15  France 141,944 Nov 2014[19]
16  Italy 141,609 Nov 2014[20]
17  United Kingdom 135,589 Dec 2014[21]
18  United States 128,800 Jan 9, 2015[22]
19  Turkey 127,312 Dec 2014[23]
20  Malaysia 125,731 Nov 2014[24]
21  Libya 120,900 Dec 2013[17]
22  Indonesia 111,144 Nov 2014[25]
23  Poland 100,438 Dec 2014[26]
24  Israel 86,105 Dec 2014[27][28]
25  Philippines 79,541 Dec 2014[29]
26  Denmark 76,259 Oct 2014[30]
27  Canada 74,700 Dec 2014[31]
28  Iraq 71,240 Dec 2013[17]
29  Iran[2] 68,060 Dec 2013[17]
30  Norway 66,683 Nov 2014[32][33]
31  Sweden 62,533 Dec 2014[34]
32  Peru 60,219 Jan 15, 2015[35]
33  United Arab Emirates 58,040 Dec 2013[17]
34  Czech Republic 54,569 Dec 2014[36]
35  Australia 53,891 Dec 2014[37]
36  Lebanon 51,950 Dec 2013[17]
37  Spain 50,347 Dec 2014[38]
38  South Africa 48,541 Nov 2014[39]
39  Colombia 46,874 Nov 2014[40]
40  Qatar 46,457 Nov 2014[41]
41  Romania 43,107 Dec 2014[42]
42  Netherlands 42,921 Dec 2014[43]
43  Hungary 41,982 Dec 2014[44]
44  Chile 40,453 Dec 2014[45]
45  Angola 37,940 Dec 2013[17]
46  Nigeria 36,804 Nov 2014[46]
47  Kuwait 34,350 Dec 2013[17]
48  Vietnam 32,490 Dec 2013[17]
49  Argentina 31,408 Dec 2014[47]
50  Kazakhstan 28,640 Nov 2014[48]
51  Belgium 25,388 Dec 2014[49]
52  Austria 24,940 Dec 2014[50]
53  Turkmenistan 22,350 Dec 2013[17]
54  Bangladesh 22,310 Dec 2014[51]
55  Venezuela 21,150 Dec 2013[17]
56  Bulgaria 20,074 Dec 2014[52]
57  Morocco 19,160 Dec 2013[17]
58  Portugal 18,548 Oct 2014[53]
59  New Zealand 18,252 Nov 2014[54]
60  Oman 17,700 Dec 2013[17]
61  Uruguay 17,441 Nov 2014[55]
62  Uzbekistan 17,000 Dec 2013[17]
63  Macau 16,443 Dec 2014[56]
-  Jordan 16,070 Nov 2014[57]
64  Serbia 15,870 Dec 2013[17]
65  Croatia 15,529 Nov 2014[58]
66  Egypt 14,877 Dec 2014[59]
67  Bolivia 14,460 Dec 2013[17]
68  Pakistan 14,351 Dec 2014[60]
69  Azerbaijan 13,080 Dec 2013[17]
70  Trinidad and Tobago 11,317 Dec 2014[61]
71  Finland 10,471 Nov 2014[62]
72  Ukraine 9,966 Nov 2014[63]
73  Lithuania 8,728 Dec 2014[64]
74  Burma 8,278 Dec 2013[17]
75  Tunisia 8,113 Dec 2013[17]
76  Botswana 7,933 Dec 2013[17]
77  Costa Rica 7,211 Dec 2014[65]
78  Guatemala 7,050 Nov 2014[66]
79  Sri Lanka 6,452 Dec 2013[17]
80  Paraguay 6,336 Dec 2013[17]
81  Greece 6,213 Dec 2014[67]
82  Ghana 6,016 Dec 2013[17]
83  Afghanistan 5,983 Dec 2013[17]
84  Bahrain 5,933 Dec 2013[17]
85  Kenya 5,541 Dec 2013[17]
86  Yemen 5,538 Dec 2013[17]
87  Cambodia 5,415 Dec 2013[17]
88  Republic of the Congo 5,239 Dec 2013[17]
89  Belarus 5,059 Dec 2014[68]
90  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,002 Dec 2013[17]
91  Cuba 4,993 Dec 2013[17]
92  Iceland 4,573 Nov 2014[69]
93  Dominican Republic 4,379 Dec 2013[17]
94  Tanzania 4,343 Dec 2013[17]
95    Nepal 4,339 Dec 2013[17]
96  Ivory Coast 4,085 Dec 2013[17]
97  Equatorial Guinea 4,027 Dec 2013[17]
98  Mauritius 3,796 Nov 2014[70]
99  Uganda 3,579 Dec 2013[17]
100  Ethiopia 3,382 Dec 2013[17]
101  Cameroon 3,353 Dec 2013[17]
102  Latvia 3,226 Dec 2014[71]
103  El Salvador 3,011 Nov 2014[72]
104  Honduras 3,009 Nov 2014[73]
105  Mozambique 2,990 Dec 2013[17]
106  Papua New Guinea 2,926 Dec 2013[17]
107  Zambia 2,833 Dec 2013[17]
108  Albania 2,827 Dec 2013[17]
109  Macedonia 2,747 Dec 2013[17]
110  Georgia 2,699 Dec 2014[74]
111  Panama 2,666 Dec 2013[17]
112  Ecuador 2,625 Dec 2013[17]
113  Slovakia 2,509 Nov 2014[75]
114  Gabon 2,470 Dec 2013[17]
115  Nicaragua 2,276 Dec 2014[76]
116  Namibia 2,267 Dec 2013[17]
117  Moldova 2,157 Dec 2014[77]
118  Senegal 2,150 Dec 2013[17]
119  Jamaica 1,900 Dec 2013[17]
120  Syria 1,895 Dec 2013[17]
121  Kyrgyzstan 1,867 Nov 2014[78]
122  Ireland 1,808 Nov 2014[79]
123  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,582 Dec 2013[17]
124  Armenia 1,538 Nov 2014[80]
125  Rwanda 1,354 Dec 2013[17]
126  Mongolia 1,352 Nov 2014[81]
127  Haiti 1,335 Dec 2013[17]
128  Chad 1,304 Dec 2013[17]
129  Madagascar 1,249 Dec 2013[17]
130  Burkina Faso 1,115 Dec 2013[17]
131  Tajikistan 1,072 Dec 2013[17]
132  Slovenia 1,017 Dec 2014[82]
133  Suriname 1,008 Dec 2013[17]
134  Fiji 964 Dec 2013[17]
135  Luxembourg 909 Nov 2014[83]
136  Lesotho 858 Dec 2013[17]
137  Guyana 855 Dec 2013[17]
138  Cyprus 855 Nov 2014[84]
139  Laos 846 Dec 2013[17]
140  Bahamas 830 Dec 2013[17]
141  Swaziland 801 Dec 2013[17]
142  Benin 801 Dec 2013[17]
143  Barbados 713 Dec 2013[17]
144  Malta 631 Nov 2014[85]
145  Togo 531 Dec 2013[17]
146  Estonia 437 Dec 2014[86]
147  Zimbabwe 437 Dec 2013[17]
148  Cape Verde 426 Dec 2013[17]
149  Montenegro 400 Dec 2013[17]
150  Malawi 364 Dec 2013[17]
151  Seychelles 362 Dec 2013[17]
152  Maldives 356 Dec 2013[17]
153  Burundi 314 Dec 2013[17]
154  San Marino 309 Dec 2013[17]
155  Belize 273 Dec 2013[17]
156  Gambia 251 Dec 2013[17]
157  Sudan 202 Dec 2013[17]
158  Eritrea 193 Dec 2013[17]
159  Guinea 183 Dec 2013[17]
160  Vanuatu 174 Dec 2013[17]
161  Samoa 169 Dec 2013[17]
162  Tonga 147 Dec 2013[17]
163  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 115 Dec 2013[17]
164  Dominica 90 Dec 2013[17]
165  Federated States of Micronesia 75 Dec 2013[17]
166  São Tomé and Príncipe 47 Dec 2013[17]
167  Montserrat 32 Dec 2013[17]


NotesEdit

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The time-series data of International Investment Position of China, Quarterly". State Administration of Foreign Exchange. 
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)". Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)". 
  6. ^ IMF - Russia
  7. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Monthly values | Bank of Russia
  8. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Weekly values | Bank of Russia
  9. ^ IMF - Brazil
  10. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  11. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  12. ^ IMF - India
  13. ^ Reserve Bank of India
  14. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  15. ^ Banco de Mexico - Information structure details
  16. ^ IMF - Germany
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  18. ^ Bank of Thailand - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  19. ^ IMF - France
  20. ^ IMF - Italy
  21. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  22. ^ IMF - United States
  23. ^ IMF - Turkey
  24. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  25. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  26. ^ IMF - Poland
  27. ^ IMF - Israel
  28. ^ Bank of Israel - Press Releases - Foreign exchange reserves, foreign currency market
  29. ^ Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas - INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY
  30. ^ IMF - Denmark
  31. ^ IMF - Canada
  32. ^ IMF - Norway
  33. ^ International reserves and foreign currency liquidity - monthly - Tables - SSB (Statistics Norway)
  34. ^ IMF - Sweden
  35. ^ IMF- Peru
  36. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  37. ^ IMF - Australia
  38. ^ IMF - Spain
  39. ^ IMF - South Africa
  40. ^ IMF - Colombia
  41. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  42. ^ IMF - Romania
  43. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  44. ^ IMF - Hungary
  45. ^ IMF - Chile
  46. ^ "Central Bank of Nigeria - Movement in Foreign Reserves". 
  47. ^ IMF - Argentina
  48. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  49. ^ IMF - Belgium
  50. ^ IMF - Austria
  51. ^ Bangladesh Bank - Central Bank of Bangladesh
  52. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  53. ^ IMF - Portugal
  54. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  55. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  56. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  57. ^ IMF - Jordan
  58. ^ IMF - Croatia
  59. ^ Central Bank Of Egypt - "International Reserves and Reserve Template"
  60. ^ State Bank of Pakistan - The Central Bank: New template for the reserve assets
  61. ^ Foreign Reserves Monthly | Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago
  62. ^ IMF - Finland
  63. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  64. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  65. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  66. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  67. ^ IMF - Greece
  68. ^ IMF - Belarus
  69. ^ IMF - Iceland
  70. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  71. ^ IMF - Latvia
  72. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  73. ^ IMF - Honduras
  74. ^ IMF - Georgia
  75. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  76. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  77. ^ IMF - Moldova
  78. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  79. ^ IMF - Ireland
  80. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  81. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  82. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  83. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  84. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  85. ^ IMF - Malta
  86. ^ IMF - Estonia

External linksEdit