Last modified on 29 August 2014, at 11:06

List of countries' copyright lengths

Worldwide map of copyright term length

This is a list of countries and their copyright terms, the lengths of their standard copyrights, in years. When a work's copyright term ends, the work passes into the public domain.

The list also includes entries for non-country entities: the European Union, Berne Convention, and the Universal Copyright Convention, which set minimum terms for their member states or signatories. The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), though not included, requires a copyright length of at least 50 years after death.

LegendEdit

  • 0, no copyright = Not copyrighted
  • Life + xx years = Copyrighted for authors' lifetime plus xx years after their deaths
  • xx years after publication, creation, etc. = copyrighted for xx years since publication, creation, etc., of works
  • Until year end = Copyrighted until the end of a calendar year, i.e. December 31
  • Berne = Country has signed the Berne Convention, see Berne in the "Countries, ..." column
  • TRIPS = The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international agreement administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) that sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation as applied to nationals of other WTO Members.
  • WCT = The World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty, (WIPO Copyright Treaty or WCT), is an international treaty on copyright law adopted by the member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in 1996.

TableEdit

Countries, areas, and entities Copyright terms based on authors' deaths Copyright terms based on publication and creation dates Until year end?
Afghanistan Afghanistan Life + 50 years[1] 50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[1]


50 years from publication (published after authors' deaths)[1]
50 years from publication (audiovisual works)[1]
50 years from publication (photographic,painting works)[1]
50 years from creation (phonogram)[1]

Yes (Afghan calendar)[1]
 Albania Life + 70 years[2] 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[3]


70 years from publication; 70 years from creation if unpublished (photographic or audiovisual work of joint authorship)[4]
25 years from production (works of applied art)[5]

Yes[6]
 Algeria Life + 50 years (except posthumous work)[7] 50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (collective work, anonymous or pseudonymous work, audiovisual work, posthumous work)[8]


50 years from creation (photographs or the work of applied art)[9]

Yes[10]
 Andorra Life + 70 years[11][12] 70 years from publication; 70 years from creation if unpublished (collective work with unknown authorship)[13]


70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[14]

Yes[15]
 Angola Life + 50 years[16]


Life + 25 years (photographic works or applied arts)[16]

Yes[16]
 Anguilla Life + 50 years[17] 50 years from the death of the author, of the last surviving author for works with more than one author.[17]
 Antigua and Barbuda Life + 50 years[18][19] 50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (anonymous or pseudonymous work, computer generated work, sound recording or film)[20]


50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[21]
25 years from publication (typographical arrangement of a published edition)[22]

Yes[23]
Argentina Argentina Life + 70 years[24] 50 years from publication (anonymous intellectual works belonging to institutions, corporations or legal persons)[25] Photographies: 20 years from first publication.[26] Cinematographic works: 50 years after death of the last survivor among the producer, the director, the screenplay writer or the composer (for musical comedies).[27] Yes[28]
 Armenia Life + 70 years [29] 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[30] Yes[30]
 Aruba Life + 50 years[31](wikisource)
Australia Australia (including external territories) Life + 70 years[32]


[Life + 50 years (death before 1955)][33]

70 years from publication (sound recordings, cinematograph films)[34]


50 years after making (television broadcasts and sound broadcasts)[35]
25 years from publication (published editions of works)[36]
[50 years from publication (photographs, no longer applicable since 1 January 2005)][33]

Yes[37]
 Austria Life + 70 years[38][39] 70 years from publication; 70 years from creation if unpublished (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[40] Yes[41]
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Life + 50 years (except posthumous work published at first time during 30 years)[42] 50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work; posthumous work published at first time during 30 years)[43] Yes[44]
 Bahamas Berne (The Berne Convention states that all works except photographic and cinematographic shall be copyrighted for at least 50 years after the author's death, but parties are free to provide longer terms)
 Bahrain Life + 50 calendar years (except posthumous work)[45] 50 calendar years from publication (cinematographic films, applied arts works and photographs; anonymous or pseudonymous works; corporate works; posthumous works)[46]


40 years from publication or 50 years from completion, whichever is earlier (computer software)[47]

 Bangladesh Life + 50 years
 Barbados Life + 50 years[48][49] 50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[50]


50 years from making (computer-generated work)[51]
50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (sound recordings and films)[52]
50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[53]
25 years from publication (typographical arrangement of a published edition)[22]

Yes[54]
 Belarus Life + 50 years[55] 50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[56]


50 years from fixation (performance)[57]
50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from fixation (phonogram)[58]
50 years from the first broadcast or cable transmission[59]

Yes[60]
 Belgium Life + 70 years[61]
 Belize Life + 50 years[62] 50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[62]
50 years from publication (sound recording or film)[62]
50 years from publication (computer-generated work)[62]
Yes
 Benin Life + 50 years
 Bermuda Life + 50 years[63]
Berne Convention signatories Life + 50 years[64]


Signatories may grant longer terms.[65]

50 years from publication or if not shown 50 years from creation (cinematographic works)[66]


50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[67]
25 years from creation (photographic works)[68]
Signatories may grant longer terms.[65]

Yes[69]
 Bhutan Life + 50 years[70]
 Bolivia Life + 50 years[71]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Life + 70 years[72]
 Botswana Berne, TRIPS, WCT[73]
 Brazil Life + 70 years[74]
 British Indian Ocean Territory unknown
 British Virgin Islands unknown
 Brunei Life + 50 years[75]
 Bulgaria Life + 70 years (EU)[76]
 Burkina Faso Life + 70 years[77]
 Burundi Life + 50 years

[78]

50 years from publication (phonograms)[78]
 Cambodia Life + 50 years[79]
 Cameroon Life + 50 years[80]
 Canada Life + 50 years[81][82] For anonymous works, 50 years from publication or 75 years from creation, whichever is shorter.[81] Yes [81]
 Cape Verde Life + 50 years[4]
 Cayman Islands unknown
 Central African Republic Berne, TRIPS
 Chad Berne, TRIPS
Chile Chile Life + 70 years[83]
China China, People's Republic of (Mainland only) Life + 50 years (citizens' works)[84] 50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (works of legal entities, cinematographic works, films or photographic works)[85] Yes[6]
 Colombia Life + 80 years[86] 80 years from publication (cinematographic works)[30] Yes[87]
 Comoros Berne
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Berne, TRIPS
 Congo, Republic of the Life + 50 years[88]
 Costa Rica Life + 70 years[89]
 Côte d'Ivoire Life + 99 years (except posthumous works published within this period)[90] 99 years from publication (photographic or audiovisual works or works of applied art; anonymous or pseudonymous works; posthumous works)[91] Yes[92]
 Croatia Life + 70 years[93]
 Cuba Life + 50 years
 Curaçao Life + 50 years[94]
 Cyprus Life + 50 years
(EU, WCT)[95]
 Czech Republic Life + 70 years[96] 70 years from publication (anonymous works)[97] Yes[98]
 Denmark Life + 70 years[99]
 Djibouti Life + 25 years (Berne, TRIPS)[100] 25 years from publication or if unpublished 25 years from completion (film)[101]


25 years from completion (a photographic work or a work of applied art)[102]

Yes[103]
 Dominica Life + 70 years[104]
 Dominican Republic Life + 50 years[105]
 Ecuador Life + 70 years[106]
Egypt Egypt Life + 50 years[107]
 El Salvador Life + 50 years[108]
 Equatorial Guinea Berne
 Eritrea the latter of Life + 0 years or 50 years since publication[109]
 Estonia Life + 70 years (EU)[110] 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[111] Yes[112]
 Ethiopia Life + 50 years[113]
 European Union Members Life + 70 years[114] 70 years from publication or if unpublished 70 years from creation (anonymous works. The terms "shall be calculated from the first day of January of the year following the event which gives rise to them"(art.3).)[115] Yes[116]
 Fiji Life + 50 years[117]
 Finland Life + 70 years[118] 50 years from publication (sound recordings, television broadcasts and sound broadcasts)[119]

50 years from creation (photographic works)[120]

Yes[121]
France France Life + 70 years (except posthumous works published after this term)[122][123]


The following additions to copyright term formerly applied to all works, but the French Cour de Cassation has found them to be superseded by later copyright treaties, thus limiting the copyright term to life + 70 years total, at least for non-musical works of authors who did not "die for France".[124]


+ 6 years 152 days for musical work published through 1920[125]
+ 8 years and 120 days for musical work published through 1947[126]
+ 30 years for all works if the author died on active service[127]

70 years from publication (pseudonymous, anonymous or collective works)[128]


25 years from publication (posthumous works published after Art. L123-1 term)[129]

Yes[130]
 Gabon Berne, TRIPS, WCT
 Gambia Life + 50 years[131]
 Georgia Life + 70 years[132]
Germany Germany Life + 70 years[133] 25 years from first publication or first public performance if copyright has expired before such publication or performance, or if the work has never been protected in Germany and the author died more than 70 years before the first publication[134] Yes[135]
 Ghana Life + 70 years[136]
Greece Greece Life + 70 years[137][138] 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[139] Yes[140]
 Grenada Berne, TRIPS[141]
 Guatemala Life + 75 years[142] 75 years from publication or if unpublished 75 years from creation (computer programs and collective works; anonymous or pseudonymous works; audiovisual works)[143] Yes[144]
 Guinea TRIPS, WCT
 Guinea-Bissau Berne, TRIPS
 Guyana Life + 50 years[145]
 Haiti Berne, TRIPS[146]
 Honduras Life + 75 years[147] 70 years from publication or, if unpublished within 50 years, 70 years from creation (works of applied art and photographs)[148] Yes[148]
Hong Kong Hong Kong[149] Life + 50 years (literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works with known authorship)[150]


Life + 50 years (films)[151]

50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works with unknown authorship)[152]


50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (sound recordings)[153]
50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[154]
25 years from publication (typographical arrangement of published editions)[155]

Yes[156]
 Hungary Life + 70 years[157]
 Iceland Life + 70 years[158]
India India[159] Life + 60 years (except posthumous works)[160][161] 60 years from publication (posthumous works, photographs, cinematograph films, sound recordings, works of public undertakings, and works of international organisations)[162] Yes[163]
 Indonesia Life + 50 years[164]
 Iran Life + 50 years[165] 30 years from publication (photographic or cinematographic works)[166]
 Iraq Life + 50 years[167]
Republic of Ireland Ireland Life + 70 years[168]
 Israel Life + 70 years[169] 50 years from publication (photographs created till May 2007)[170] Yes[171]
 Italy Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][172]
70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[173]


20 years from publication (copyright of State, the provinces, the communes, the academies or public cultural organizations, or to private legal entities of a non-profit making character)

Yes[174]
 Jamaica Life + 50 years[175]
Japan Japan Life + 50 years[176] 70 years from publication or if unpublished 70 years from creation (cinematographic works)[177]


50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (works of a legal person or other corporate body)[178]

Yes[179]
Jordan Jordan Life + 50 years[180]
 Kazakhstan Life + 50 years[181]
 Kenya Life + 50 years (literary, musical or artistic work other than photographs)[182] 50 years from the latest of creation or publication (audio-visual works and photographs)[183] Yes[184]
 Kiribati Life + 50 years[131]
 Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Life + 50 years (Berne)[185] Works authored by "an institution, enterprise or organization", 50 years from publication[185]
 Korea, Republic of Life + 70 years[186] 70 years from publication or if unpublished 70 years from creation (organizational works)[187] Yes[188]
 Kuwait TRIPS[189]
 Kyrgyzstan Life + 50 years[190]
 Laos Life + 50 years.[191] 50 years after making available. Also:
  • Anonymous/pseudonymous work: 50 years from the date the work was made available to the public;
  • Cinematographic work: 50 years from making available, failing that, 50 years from making;
  • Applied art: 25 years from date of creation.

Related: Performances, phonograms, broadcasts: 50 years since the date of performance, fixation, and broadcast, respectively.

 Latvia Life + 70 years[192]
[Life + 50 years][193]
70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[194] Yes[187]
 Lebanon Life + 50 years[195]
 Lesotho Life + 50 years[131]
 Liberia Life + 50 years[196]
 Libya Life + 25 years with 50-year minimum (as of 1968; may have changed since)
 Liechtenstein Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][197]
 Lithuania Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][198]
 Luxembourg Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][199]
 Macau(b) Life + 50 years[200] 50 years from publication (anonymous works)[201]


50 years from publication (audiovisual works)[202]
25 years from completion (works of applied art and photographic works)[203]

Yes[204]
 Macedonia Life + 70 years[205]
 Madagascar Life + 70 years[206]
 Malawi Life + 50 years[207]
Malaysia Malaysia Life + 50 years[208]
 Maldives Life + 50 years from death.
 Mali Life + 50 years[209]
 Malta Life + 70 years[210]
 Marshall Islands 0, no copyright.[a] 0, no copyright.[a]
 Mauritania Berne, TRIPS
 Mauritius Life + 50 years[214]
 Mexico Life + 100 years (effective 23 July 2003 non-retroactively)[215]


[Life + 75 years (before the law change on 23 July 2003, applicable for deaths before 23 July 1928)][216]
[Life + 50 years (before the law change on 1 January 1994, applicable for deaths before 1 January 1944)][217]

Micronesia Life + 50 years[218]
 Moldova Life + 50 years[219]
 Monaco Life + 50 years[220]
 Mongolia Life + 50 years[221]
 Montenegro[222] Life + 70 years[223]
 Morocco Life + 50 years[224]
 Mozambique Life + 70 years[225]
 Myanmar TRIPS
 Namibia Life + 50 years (except posthumous works)[226] 50 years from publication (posthumous works)[227]


50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (cinematograph films, photographs and computer programs)[228]

Yes[229]
 Nauru Life + 50 years[230][231] 50 years after publication (sound recordings,[230][232] cinematograph films[230][233] (except for newsreels, or if registered under the Cinematograph Films Act 1938),[230][234] television and sound broadcasts,[230][235] photographs,[230][236] engravings,[230][237] posthumous literary, dramatic and musical works[230][238] and anonymous literary, dramatic and musical works)[230][239]

25 years after publication (published editions of literary, dramatic or musical works)[230][240]
50 years after occurrence of event (newsreels)[230][241]
50 years after death of last author to die (works of joint authorship)[230][242]

Yes[230][243]
   Nepal Life + 50 years 25 years from creation (applied art and photographic work)[244]
Netherlands Netherlands Life + 70 years[245] 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work, corporate works with no listed natural author)[246]
 Caribbean Netherlands Life + 50 years[247]
New Zealand New Zealand Life + 50 years (literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic work)[248] 50 years from creation (computer-generated work)[249] Yes[250]
 Nicaragua Life + 70 years[251]
 Niger Life + 50 years[252]
 Nigeria Life + 70 years (literary, musical or artistic works other than photographs)[253] 70 years from publication (literary, musical or non-photograph artistic works in the case of government or a body corporate)


50 years from publication (cinematograph films and photographs)
50 years from publication (sound recordings)
50 years from publication (broadcasts)[253]

Yes[253]
 Norway Life + 70 years[254] Yes [254]
Oman Oman Life + 70 years[255] 90 years from the year following the publication

120 years from the year following the completion [256]

Yes
Pakistan Pakistan Life + 50 years[257] Yes[257]
 Palau Life + 50 years[258]
 Panama Life + 50 years[259]
 Papua New Guinea Life + 50 years[260]
 Paraguay Life + 70 years[261]
 Peru Life + 70 years[262]
Philippines Philippines Life + 50 years[263] 50 years from publication (photographic works), or 50 years from creation if unpublished within 50 years of creation[264] Yes[265]
Poland Poland Life + 70 years[266]
 Portugal Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][267]
 Qatar Life + 50 years[268]
 Romania Life + 70 years[269]
 Russia Life + 70 years[270]

Rehabilitation + 70 years (for repressed and rehabilitated)

Life + 74 years (for those taking part or working during the war of 1941–1945)

Life + 50 years (death before 1943)[271]
70 years from publication date for non-amateur cinematographic works published before 1993.

All copyrights prior to October Revolution (7-th November 1917) are believed to be expired...
 Rwanda Berne, TRIPS
 St. Kitts and Nevis Life + 50 years[131]
 St. Lucia Life + 50 years[272]
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines Life + 75 years (literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work)[273] 75 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (sound recording or film)[274]


50 years from creation (computer-generated work)[275]
50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[276]

Yes[277]
 Samoa Life + 75 years[278]
 San Marino Life + 50 years[279]
 São Tomé and Príncipe unknown
 Saudi Arabia Life + 50 years[280]
 Senegal Life + 70 years[281]
Serbia Serbia[282] Life + 70 years[223]
 Seychelles Life + 25 years[283] 25 years from publication (photograph, film, or broadcast)[284]


25 years from creation (sound recording)[285]

Yes[274]
 Sierra Leone Life + 50 years[286] 50 years from publication (photograph, film, or broadcast)[287]


50 years from creation (sound recording)[288]

 Singapore[289] Life + 70 years (except posthumous work)[290][291] 70 years from publication (posthumous work, photograph)[292]


70 years from publication (sound recordings and cinematograph films)[293]
50 years after making (television broadcasts, sound broadcasts, cable programmes)[294]
25 years from publication (published editions of works)[295]

Yes[296]
 Sint Maarten Life + 50 years[94]
 Slovakia Life + 70 years[297]
 Slovenia Life + 70 years[298]
 Solomon Islands Life + 50 years[299]
 Somalia unknown
South Africa South Africa Life + 50 years (literary or musical works or artistic works, other than photographs)[300] 50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (cinematography films, photographs, computer programs)[228]


50 years from publication (sound recordings; broadcasts; programme-carrying signals; and published editions)[301]

Yes[229]
Spain Spain Life + 70 years
[Life + 80 years(1879–1987), Life + 60 years(1987–1994)][302]
Yes[303]
 Sri Lanka Life + 70 years[304] 70 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from completion (audiovisual work) [304]
25 years from publication (applied art)[304]
Yes[304]
 Sudan Life + 50 years[305] 25 years from publication (photographic pictures and cinematographic films and other audiovisual works; works published under unknown pseudonym or anonymously)[306]
 Suriname Berne, TRIPS
 Swaziland Life + 50 years[307]
 Sweden Life + 70 years[308] Yes[308]
Switzerland Switzerland Life + 70 years effective 1 July 1993 non-retroactively, but Life + 50 years for computer programs[309]


[Life + 50 years (before the law change on 1 July 1993, applicable for deaths through 1942)][310]

50 years after performance (performers' rights)[311] Yes[312]
 Syria Life + 50 years[313] 10 years from production (photographic, fine arts or plastic arts)[314]
 Taiwan Life + 50 years (except posthumous works first published 40 to 50 years after death)[315] 50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[312]


50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (corporate works; photographic works, audiovisual works, sound recordings, and performances)[316]
10 years from publication (posthumous works first published 40 to 50 years after death)[317]

Yes[318]
Tajikistan Tajikistan Berne
 Tanzania Life + 50 years[319]
Thailand Thailand Life + 50 years[320] 50 years from publication or 50 years from creation if not published within 50 years from creation
 Timor Leste Life + 50 years[164]
 Togo Life + 50 years[321]
 Tonga Life + 50 years[322]
 Trinidad and Tobago Life + 50 years[323]
 Tunisia Life + 50 years[324]
Turkey Turkey Life + 70 years[325]
 Turkmenistan Life + 50 years[326]
 Tuvalu Life + 50 years[131]
 Uganda TRIPS
 Ukraine Life + 70 years
[Life + 25 years (1963—1994), Life + 50 years (1994—2001)][327]
70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)
70 years from publication (published within 30 years from authors' deaths)[327]
Yes[327]
 United Arab Emirates Life + 50 years[328]
United Kingdom United Kingdom Life + 70 years

If the author is unknown, 70 years

If there are multiple authors, life of last surviving author + 70 years[329]

For films, life + 70 years for the last to die of: principal director, author of screenplay, author of dialogue, or composer of music specifically created for and used in the film.[330]

50 years after release; if not released, 70 years after making (sound recordings).[331] Recordings which entered the public domain prior to January 1, 2013 are not retroactively covered.

50 years from end of calendar year when the broadcast was first made (broadcasts) [332]

Yes[333]
United States United States[334] Life + 70 years (works published since 1978 or unpublished works)[335] 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation whichever is shorter (anonymous works, pseudonymous works, or works made for hire, published since 1978)[336]


95 years from publication for works published 1964–1977; 28 (if copyright not renewed) or 95 years from publication for works published 1923–1963 (Copyrights prior to 1923 have expired, not including copyrights on sound recordings published prior to Feb 15, 1972, covered only under state laws.)[337]

Yes[338]
Universal Copyright Convention minimum terms Life + 25 years (general works)[339] 25 years from publication (specific works not based on authors' deaths)[340]


10 years (photographic works or to works of applied art)[341]

 Uruguay Life + 50 years[342]
 Uzbekistan Life + 50 years[343]
 Vanuatu Life + 50 years[344] 25 years after the work is made (works of applied art)[344]

50 years after the latest of: the date the work is made, the date the work is made available to the public or the date of first publication (works published anonymously or under a pseudonym, collective works and audiovisual works)[344]
50 years after the death of the last author to die (works of joint authorship)[344]

Yes[344]
  Vatican City Life + 70 years[345]
 Venezuela Life + 60 years[346] 60 years from publication; 60 years from creation if unpublished (an audiovisual work, a broadcast work or a computer program)[30]


60 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[173]

Yes[347]
 Vietnam Berne
 Yemen Life + 30 years • 10 years from the date of issue from January 1 of the year of issue for photographs;

• 25 years from the date of production from January 1 of the production year for motion picture or television film.[348]

After expiry of copyright, the work "may be announced to be the ownership of the State" (emphasis added).[348]

 Zambia Life + 50 years[349]
 Zimbabwe Life + 50 years[350][351] 50 years from publication (photographs)[352]


50 years from creation (Sound recordings)[353]
50 years from publication (cinematograph films, broadcasts)[354]

Yes[355]
  1. ^ a b Unauthorized sale or commercial use of sound & audio-visual recordings is prohibited (Unauthorized Copies of Recorded Materials Act, 1991).[211][212] The Marshall Islands is also party to several treaties which contain clauses relating to intellectual property.[213]

Table notesEdit

Terms of protection were taken from a variety of sources, including WIPO, UNESCO and the University of Pennsylvania (see External links). Where no more specific information is available for a country, an indication of its probable minimum copyright term can be gained from its status as:

  • a signatory of the Berne Convention ("Berne"); minimum term of life + 50 years, except for photographs.
  • a member of the WTO ("TRIPS"); minimum term of life + 50 years.
  • a candidate for membership of the European Union ("EU"); term must be life + 70 years before accession.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Copyright law of Afghanistan-22/07/2008
  2. ^ Art. 17, Law no. 7564 of 19 April 1992, as modified by Law no. 7923 of 19 May 1995
  3. ^ Art. 18,, ibid.
  4. ^ a b Art. 19, Lei no. 101/III/90 de 29 de dezembro de 1990
  5. ^ Art. 20, ibid.
  6. ^ a b Art. 21, ibid.
  7. ^ Art. 54, Ordonnance n° 03-05 du 19 Joumada El Oula 1424 correspondant au 19 juillet 2003 relative aux droits d’auteur et aux droits voisins[dead link]
  8. ^ Arts. 56, 57, 58, 60, ibid.
  9. ^ Art. 59, ibid.
  10. ^ Arts. 54, 56, 57, 58, 60, ibid.
  11. ^ An audiovisual work is copyrighted in Andorra for the same term, computed from the last of the following persons to survive: the principal director, the author of the scenario, the author of the dialogue and the composer of music specifically created for the audiovisual work.
  12. ^ Art. 18(1), (4), Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 1999
  13. ^ Art. 18(3), ibid.
  14. ^ Art. 18(5), ibid.
  15. ^ Art. 18(8), ibid.
  16. ^ a b c Art. 20(1), Copyright Law n° 4/90, March 1990 (PDF).
  17. ^ a b "IP laws revised – Anguilla". Iprfirm.com. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  18. ^ Literary, dramatic, musical or copyright artistic work.
  19. ^ s. 10(1), Copyright Act, 2002
  20. ^ s. 10(2), (4), 11(1), ibid.
  21. ^ s. 12(1), ibid.
  22. ^ a b s. 13, ibid.
  23. ^ s. 10(1), 10(2), (4), 11(1), 12(1), 13, ibid.
  24. ^ Art. 5, Ley 11.723 del 28 de septiembre de 1933, as modified by Ley 24.870 del 11 de septiembre de 1997
  25. ^ Art. 8, ibid.
  26. ^ Art. 34 ibid., as amended by Law 25006 B.O. 13/8/1998.
  27. ^ Ibid.
  28. ^ Art. 5, ibid.
  29. ^ Art. 37 Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 15 June 2006
  30. ^ a b c d Art. 37, ibid.
  31. ^ "Guide to Doing Business, Aruba". LexMundi.com. p. 13.
  32. ^ s. 33, Copyright Act 1968 (Australia)
  33. ^ a b Information Sheets G023 (Duration), Australian Copyright Council
  34. ^ s. 93, 94, Copyright Act 1968 (Australia)
  35. ^ s. 95, ibid.
  36. ^ s. 96, ibid.
  37. ^ All previous Australian references
  38. ^ A cinematographic work is copyrighted in Austria for the same term, computed from the last surviving person among the following: the principal director of the film and the authors of the screenplay, the dialogues and the musical work specially created for the cinematographic work.
  39. ^ § 60, 62, Urheberrechtsgesetz;
    § 1(2), Urheberrechtsgesetznovelle 1972 (Nr. 492, 1972-12-16)
  40. ^ § 61, Urheberrechtsgesetz
  41. ^ § 64, ibid.
  42. ^ Art. 25(1), (2), Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 5 June 1996
  43. ^ Arts. 25(2), 26(1), (3), ibid.
  44. ^ Art. 25(1), (2), 26(1), (3), ibid.
  45. ^ Art. 31(1), Legislative Decree no. 10 of 1993
  46. ^ Art. 31(2)(a), (b), (c), (d), ibid.
  47. ^ Art. 31(3), ibid.
  48. ^ Literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work.
  49. ^ s. 10(1), Copyright, Act, 05/03/1998, No. 4
  50. ^ s. 10(3), ibid.
  51. ^ s. 10(4), ibid.
  52. ^ s. 11, ibid.
  53. ^ s. 12, ibid.
  54. ^ s. 10, 11, 12, 13, ibid.
  55. ^ Art. 22(1), Law 194-3 of 11 August 1998
  56. ^ Art. 22(2), ibid.
  57. ^ Art. 38(1), ibid.
  58. ^ Art. 38(2), ibid.
  59. ^ Art. 38(3), ibid.
  60. ^ Arts. 22(4), 38(4), ibid.
  61. ^ Wet betreffende het auteursrecht en de naburige rechten van 30 juni 1994. (Hoofdstuk 1, afdeling 1, Art. 2)/Loi relative au droit d’auteur et aux droits voisins du 30 juin 1994 (capitre 1, section 1, article 2).
  62. ^ a b c d s. 10, Copyright Act Ch. 252
  63. ^ How long does copyright last? from Bermuda Government website.
  64. ^ Art. 7, Berne Convention(1)
  65. ^ a b Art. 7(6), ibid.
  66. ^ Art. 7(2), ibid.
  67. ^ Art. 7(3), ibid.
  68. ^ Art. 7(4), ibid.
  69. ^ Art. 7(5), ibid.
  70. ^ s. 18, Copyright Act of the Kingdom of Bhutan, 2001
  71. ^ Art. 18, Ley No 1322 de 13 de abril de 1992
  72. ^ Art. 84, Law on Copyright and Related Rights (7/02)
  73. ^ Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act, Act No. 8 of 2000
  74. ^ Art. 41, Law no 9610 of 19 February 1998
  75. ^ s. 14, Emergency (Copyright) Order 1999
  76. ^ Art. 27, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights, last changed in 2007
  77. ^ Art. 34, Loi N°032-99AN portant protection de la propriété littéraire et artistique
  78. ^ a b ACT No. 1/021 of December 30, 2005, On the Protection of Copyright and Related Rights in Burundi". WIPO.int.
  79. ^ Art. 30, Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 2003
  80. ^ Art. 37, Loi no 2000/011 du 19 décembre 2000
  81. ^ a b c s. 6, Copyright Act (R.S., 1985, c. C-42);
    s. 7, S.C. 1997, c. 24
  82. ^ Cory Doctorow (2012) Canadians: tell Parliament to preserve Canada's public domain! at Boing Boing, 6/1/2012
  83. ^ Art. 3, Law 19914 implementing free trade agreement with the US (2003)
  84. ^ Art. 21, first paragraph, Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China
  85. ^ Art. 21, second and third paragraphs, ibid.
  86. ^ Art. 21, Ley 23 de 1982
  87. ^ Art. 28, ibid.
  88. ^ Law No. 24/82 of July 7, 1982, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights
  89. ^ Art. 58, Ley de Derechos de Autor y Derechos Conexos (as last amended by Law No. 8834 of May 3, 2010)
  90. ^ Art. 45(1), Loi no. 96-564 du 25 juillet 1996
  91. ^ Art. 45(3)(a), (b), (c), ibid.
  92. ^ Art. 45, ibid.
  93. ^ Art. 99, Copyright and Related Rights Act 197/2003
  94. ^ a b Copy right directive 1913 (Netherlands Antilles), last amended 1 March 2004.
  95. ^ s. 4, Copyright Law 1976
  96. ^ Art. 27(1), Law No. 121/2000 Coll.
  97. ^ Art. 27(3), Law No. 121/2000 Coll.
  98. ^ Art. 27(7), ibid.
  99. ^ s. 63, Consolidated Act on Copyright 2006
  100. ^ Art. 59, Loi n°114/AN/96/3e L relatif à la protection du droit d'auteur
  101. ^ Art. 62, ibid.
  102. ^ Art. 63, ibid.
  103. ^ Art. 65, ibid.
  104. ^ s. 11, Copyright Act 2003
  105. ^ Art. 21, Ley sobre Derecho de Autor del 24 de julio de 2000
  106. ^ Art. 80, Ley No 83 de Propiedad Intelectual (1998)
  107. ^ Art. 160, Law on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights
  108. ^ Art. 86, Decreto Legislativo No. 604 del 15 de julio de 1993
  109. ^ Art. 1653, 1670, Eritrean Civil Code
  110. ^ § 38(1), Edition of the Copyright Act effective since 01.01.2009 (Estonian); First enacted on 11.11.1992
  111. ^ § 40, ibid.
  112. ^ § 43, ibid.
  113. ^ Wondwossen Belete (2004), The Intellectual Property System in Ethiopia, Ethiopian Intellectual Property Office, Addis Ababa, December 2004; see also [1]
  114. ^ Art. 1 (1), Directive 2006/116/EC
  115. ^ Art. 1 (3), (6), ibid.
  116. ^ Art. 8 (1), ibid.
  117. ^ "Copyright Act 1999". 1999. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  118. ^ Art. 43, Law No. 404/1961, as amended by Law No. 1654/1995
  119. ^ Arts. 46, 48, Copyright, Act, 08/07/1961
  120. ^ Art. 49a, ibid.
  121. ^ Art. 43, ibid.
  122. ^ An audiovisual work is copyrighted in France for the same term, computed from the last surviving person among the following: the author of the scenario, the author of the dialogue, the author of the musical compositions, with or without words, specially composed for the work and the main director.
  123. ^ Arts. L123-1, L123-2, Code de la propriété intellectuelle
  124. ^ Judgement No. 280 of February 27, 2007 Court of Cassation – First Civil Chamber 04-12138
  125. ^ Art. L123-8, ibid.
  126. ^ Art. L123-9, ibid.
  127. ^ Art. L123-10, ibid.
  128. ^ Art. L123-3, ibid.
  129. ^ Art. L123-4, ibid.
  130. ^ Arts. L123-1, L123-3, L123-4, ibid., but not Arts. L123-8 or, L123-9,
  131. ^ a b c d e Copyright Act 1956 (p)
  132. ^ Art. 31, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights of 22 June 1999
  133. ^ § 64 Urheberrechtsgesetz [2], as amended by the Law of 17 December 2008
  134. ^ § 71 Urheberrechtsgesetz
  135. ^ § 69 Urheberrechtsgesetz
  136. ^ Art. 12, Copyright Act, 2005
  137. ^ An audiovisual work is copyrighted in Greece for the same term, computed from the last of the following persons to survive: the principal director, the author of the screenplay, the author of the dialogue and the composer of the music specifically created for use in the audiovisual work.
  138. ^ Arts. 29, 31(3), Law 2121/1993
  139. ^ Art. 31(1), ibid.
  140. ^ Arts. 29, 31, ibid.
  141. ^ Copyright Act, dated 3 February 1989
  142. ^ Art. 43, Decreto No. 33-98, as modified by Art. 13, Decreto No. 56-2000
  143. ^ Arts. 44, 45, 47, ibid.
  144. ^ Art. 48, ibid.
  145. ^ Copyright Act 1956
  146. ^ Decree of January 9, 1968, relating to Copyright in Literary, Scientific and Artistic Works
  147. ^ Art. 44, Law on Copyright and Related Rights
  148. ^ a b "Art. 30, Decreto Ley 16 2006: Implementación del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre la República Dominicana, Centroamérica y Estados Unidos". Cerlalc.org. 2006. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  149. ^ The Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau have their own status, distinct from that of the rest of China, under international copyright and trade law
  150. ^ "s. 17(2), Copyright Ordinance (Cap. 528)". Legislation.gov.hk. 1997-06-30. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  151. ^ s. 19, ibid. Computed from the last of the following persons with known identity to survive: (a) the principal director; (b) the author of the screenplay; (c) the author of the dialogue; or (d) the composer of music specially created for and used in the film.
  152. ^ s. 17(3), ibid.
  153. ^ "s. 18, ''ibid.''". Legislation.gov.hk. 1997-06-30. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  154. ^ s. 20, ibid.
  155. ^ s. 21, ibid.
  156. ^ s. 17, 18, 20, 21, ibid.
  157. ^ Art. 31, Act No. LXXVI of 1999[dead link]
  158. ^ Art. 43, Act No. 73/1972, as amended by Art. 4, Act No. 145/1996
  159. ^ See also Copyright in India.
  160. ^ Literary, dramatic, musical, and non-photograph artistic works.
  161. ^ s. 22, Copyright Act, 1957
  162. ^ s. 24, s. 25, s. 26, s. 27, s. 28A, s. 29, ibid.
  163. ^ s. 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28A, 29, ibid.
  164. ^ a b Art. 29, Law No. 19 of 2002
  165. ^ Reformation of article 12 (August 22, 2010) Copyright Law of 12 January 1970
  166. ^ Art. 16, ibid.
  167. ^ s. 2(11), Coalition Provisional Authority Order No. 2004/83
  168. ^ s. 24, Copyright and Related Rights Act, 2000
  169. ^ Post-2007: Israeli Copyright Act of 2007 Pre-2007: Crown Law: Art. 5(4), Copyright Ordinance 1924
  170. ^ Post-2007: Israeli Copyright Act of 2007 | Pre-2007: Crown Law: Art. 21, Copyright, Act (Consolidation), 16/12/1911
  171. ^ Post-2007: Israeli Copyright Act of 2007 | Pre-2007: Crown Law: Art. 5(3), Copyright Ordinance 1924
  172. ^ Art. 25, Law No. 633 of 22 April 1941, as amended by Art. 17, Law No. 52 of 6 February 1996
  173. ^ a b Art. 27, ibid.
  174. ^ s. 25, s. 32ter, ibid.
  175. ^ s. 10, Copyright Act 1993
  176. ^ Art. 51(2), Law No. 48 of 6 May 1970, as amended in 2010
  177. ^ Art. 54(1), ibid.
  178. ^ Art. 53(1), ibid.
  179. ^ Art. 57, ibid.
  180. ^ Art. 30, Law No. 22 of 1992, as amended
  181. ^ Art. 28, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights of 1996
  182. ^ s. 23(2)1, Copyright Act, 2001
  183. ^ s. 23(2), ibid.
  184. ^ s. 23, ibid.
  185. ^ a b Copyright Law of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, discussed at: Paul Karl Lukacs (3 August 2007). "Everything You’ve Ever Wanted To Know About the North Korean Copyright Act". The Nomad Lawyer. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  186. ^ Art. 36, Copyright Act of 30 December 1989
  187. ^ a b Art. 38, ibid.
  188. ^ Art. 40, ibid.
  189. ^ | Decree Law No. 64 of 1999 concerning Intellectual Property Rights
  190. ^ Art. 27, Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 16 December 1997
  191. ^ The law entered into force January 16, 2012:
  192. ^ Art. 36, Copyright Law of 6 April 2000
  193. ^ Art. 28, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights of 11 May 1993
  194. ^ Art. 37(2), Copyright Law of 6 April 2000
  195. ^ Art. 49, Loi sur la protection de la propriété littéraire et artistique (no. 75 du 3 avril 1999)
  196. ^ s. 2.20, An Act Adopting a New Copyright Law of the Republic of Liberia
  197. ^ Art. 32, Law of 19 May 1999
    [Art. 36, Law of 26 October 1928
  198. ^ Art. 34, Law No. IX-1355 (2003)
    [Art. 536, Civil Code as modified by Law No. I-459 (1994)
  199. ^ Art. 9, Law of 18 April 2001
    [Art. 2, Law of 29 March 1972]
  200. ^ Art. 21(1), Decree-Law 43/99/M of August 16, 1999
  201. ^ Art. 23, ibid.
  202. ^ Art. 106, ibid.
  203. ^ Arts. 148 & 155, ibid.
  204. ^ Art. 21(3), ibid.
  205. ^ Art. 44, Law on Copyright and Related Rights No. 47/96 as amended
  206. ^ Art. 52, Loi no. 94-036 portant sur la propriété littéraire et artistique
  207. ^ s. 13, Copyright Act, 1989
  208. ^ s. 17, Copyright Act 1987
  209. ^ Art. 90, Loi No. 8426/AN-RM
  210. ^ s. 4(2), Copyright Act, 2000
  211. ^ "Unauthorized Copies of Recorded Materials Act 1991 [20 MIRC Ch.2]". PacLII. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  212. ^ "Republic of the Marshall Islands". Pacific Islands Forum Intellectual Property Portal. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  213. ^ "Marshall Islands". World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  214. ^ s. 12, Copyright Act 1997
  215. ^ Art. 29, Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor (2003)
  216. ^ Art. 29, Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor (1996)
  217. ^ Art. 9, Decreto que reforma, adiciona y deroga disposiciones de diversas leyes relacionadas con el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, and the fourth transitional provision of the same, making the change from 50 pma to 75 pma non-retroactive.
  218. ^ § 113, Federated States of Micronesia Code, Title 35
  219. ^ Art. 17, Law No. 293-XIII of 23 November 1994
  220. ^ Ordonnance n. 5.501 du 09/01/1975, Berne, WCT
  221. ^ Art. 17, Law on Copyright of 1993
  222. ^ Montenegro is assumed to have succeeded to the copyright obligations of Serbia and Montenegro. See Serbia also.
  223. ^ a b Art. 100, Law on Copyright and Related Rights
  224. ^ Art. 25, Loi no. 2-00 relative aux droits d’auteur et droits voisins
  225. ^ Art. 22, Law No. 4/2001
  226. ^ s. 3(2)(a), Copyright Act 98 of 1978, as amended by s. 3, Act 52 of 1984, s. 3, Act 125 of 1992 and by s. 52, Act 38 of 1997
  227. ^ s. 3(2)(a), ibid.
  228. ^ a b s. 3(2)(b), ibid.
  229. ^ a b s. 3, ibid.
  230. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m s. 4, Custom and Adopted Laws Act 1971
  231. ^ s. 2(3), s. 3(4), Copyright Act 1956
  232. ^ s. 12(3), Copyright Act 1956
  233. ^ s. 13(3)(b), Copyright Act 1956
  234. ^ Second , Copyright Act 1956
  235. ^ s. 14(2) Copyright Act 1956
  236. ^ s. 3(4)(b), Copyright Act 1956
  237. ^ s. 3(4)(a) Copyright Act 1956
  238. ^ s. 2(3), Copyright Act 1956
  239. ^ Second Schedule, Copyright Act 1956
  240. ^ s. 15(2), Copyright Act 1956
  241. ^ s. 13(8), Copyright Act 1956
  242. ^ Third Schedule, Copyright Act 1956
  243. ^ Copyright Act 1956
  244. ^ "The Copyright Act, 2059 (2002)". Government of Nepal, Ministry of Federal Affairs, Constituent Assembly, Parliamentary Affairs and Culture. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  245. ^ Art. 37, Copyright Act, 1912, as amended by the Acts of 21 December 1995
  246. ^ Art. 38, Copyright Act, 1912, as amended by the Acts of 21 December 1995
  247. ^ "Copy right law BES 2010" (in Dutch). Wetten.overheid.nl. 2011-12-13. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  248. ^ s. 22(1), Copyright Act 1994
  249. ^ s. 22(2), ibid.
  250. ^ s. 22, ibid.
  251. ^ Art. 27, Ley de Derecho de Autor y Derechos Conexos (No. 312)
  252. ^ Art. 22, Ordinance 93-027 of 30 March 1993 on copyright, related rights and expressions of folklore
  253. ^ a b c Schedule I, Copyright Act (Chapter C.28), 2004
  254. ^ a b s. 40, Act No. 2 of 12 May 1961[dead link]
  255. ^ "Articles 26 of The Law For The Protection of Copyright and Neighbouring Rights". Royal Decree 65/2008. Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Retrieved 23 August 2012. 
  256. ^ "Articles 26-30 of The Law For The Protection of Copyright and Neighbouring Rights". Royal Decree 65/2008. Ministry of Commerce and Industry. 2008. Retrieved 23 August 2012. 
  257. ^ a b s. 18, Copyright Ordinance 1962, as amended to year 2000
  258. ^ s. 16, Republic of Palau Copyright Act of 2003
  259. ^ Art. 42, Ley No. 15 de 8 de agosto de 1994
  260. ^ s. 17, Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act 2000
  261. ^ Art. 47, Ley No. 1328/98 de Derecho de Autor y Derechos Conexos
  262. ^ Art. 52, Decreto legislativo 822 del 23 de abril de 1996
  263. ^ s. 213.1, Intellectual Property Code
  264. ^ s. 213.5, ibid.
  265. ^ s. 214, ibid.
  266. ^ Art. 36, Law of February 4, 1994, on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights, as amended by the Law of 22 July 2000
  267. ^ Art. 31, Code of Copyright and Related Rights, as amended by Decree Law No. 334/97 of 27 November 1997
  268. ^ s. 15, Law No. 7 of 2002
  269. ^ Art. 27, Law No. 8 of March 14, 1996
  270. ^ "Article 1281 of Civil Code". Consultant.ru. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  271. ^ Article 6 of Federal Law 231
  272. ^ s. 10, Copyright Act, 1995
  273. ^ "Copyright Act, 2003". 2003. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  274. ^ a b s. 9(1), ibid.
  275. ^ s. 8(4), ibid.
  276. ^ s. 10(1), ibid.
  277. ^ s. 8, 9, 10, ibid.
  278. ^ WIPO (2012-04-02). "Copyright Act 1998". Wipo.int. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  279. ^ Art. 36, Legge n. 8 del 25 gennaio 1991
  280. ^ "Royal Decree No: M/41 2nd Rajab 1424 H August 30, 2003" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  281. ^ "Loi 2008-09 du 25-01-2008 sur le droit d'auteur et les droits voisins" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-08-26. 
  282. ^ Serbia is deemed to be a successor state of Serbia and Montenegro, which itself was a successor state to Yugoslavia for international copyright treaties, notably the Berne Convention, effective 17 June 1930
  283. ^ s. 9(1)(i), Copyright Act, revised edition 1991
  284. ^ s. 9(1)(ii), (v), ibid.
  285. ^ s. 9(1)(iv), ibid.
  286. ^ s. 21, Sierra Leone Copyright Act 2011
  287. ^ s. 25, ibid.
  288. ^ s. 23, ibid.
  289. ^ See also the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore factsheet.
  290. ^ Literary, dramatic or musical work, or in an artistic work other than a photograph
  291. ^ s. 28(2), Copyright Act
  292. ^ s. 28(3), (6), ibid.
  293. ^ s. 92, 93, ibid.
  294. ^ s. 94, 95, ibid.
  295. ^ s. 96, ibid.
  296. ^ s. 28, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, ibid.
  297. ^ § 21, Law on Copyright and Rights Related to Copyright (Copyright Act) No. 618/2003
  298. ^ Art. 59, Copyright and Related Rights Act of 30 March 1995
  299. ^ s. 3, Copyright Act (Ch. 138)
  300. ^ s. 3(2)(a), Copyright Act, 1978
  301. ^ s. 3(2)(c), (d), (e), (f), ibid.
  302. ^ Art. 26
  303. ^ Art. 30, ibid.
  304. ^ a b c d "INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ACT, No. 36 OF 2003". PARLIAMENT OF SRI LANKA. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  305. ^ s. 13(2), Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Protection Act 1996
  306. ^ s. 13(3)(a), (c), ibid.
  307. ^ Copyright Act No. 36 of 1912
  308. ^ a b Art. 43, Act 1960:729, as modified by Act 1995:1273
  309. ^ Art. 29 Urheberrechtgesetz/ Loi sur le droit d’auteur par. 2
  310. ^ Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher, LL.M., M.A. "BGE 124 III 266". servat.unibe.ch. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  311. ^ Art. 39, Urheberrechtgesetz/ Loi sur le droit d’auteur
  312. ^ a b Art. 32, ibid.
  313. ^ Art. 22, Law No. 12/2001
  314. ^ Art. 25, ibid.
  315. ^ Art. 30, Copyright Act
  316. ^ Arts. 33, 34, ibid.
  317. ^ Art. 30, ibid.
  318. ^ Art. 35, ibid.
  319. ^ s. 14, Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act, 1999
  320. ^ s. 19, Copyright Act, B.E. 2537 (1994)
  321. ^ Art. 36, Loi no. 91-12 portant protection du droit d'auteur, du folklore et des droits voisins
  322. ^ s. 13, Copyright Act (Cap. 121)
  323. ^ s. 19, Copyright Act, 1997
  324. ^ Art. 18, Loi no. 94-36
  325. ^ Art. 27, Law No. 5846 of 5 December 1951
  326. ^ Art. 1094, Civil Code of Turkmenistan
  327. ^ a b c Art. 28, Law of Ukraine on Copyright and Related Rights, 1993 with amendments 2004
  328. ^ s. 20, Federal Law No. 7 of 2002
  329. ^ s. 12, Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, as amended by s. 5, Duration of Copyright and Rights in Performances Regulations 1995
  330. ^ s. 13B, Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, as amended by s. 5, Duration of Copyright and Rights in Performances Regulations 1995
  331. ^ Copyright term for sound recordings increases from 50 to 70 years today. MusicWeek, November 1, 2013.
  332. ^ s. 14, Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, as amended by s. 5, Duration of Copyright and Rights in Performances Regulations 1995
  333. ^ s. 12, 13, ibid.
  334. ^ See also Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States by Peter B. Hirtle.
  335. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 302(a)
  336. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 302(c)
  337. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 30417 U.S.C. § 301(c)
  338. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 305
  339. ^ Article IV 2(a), Universal Copyright Convention
  340. ^ Article IV 2(a), ibid.
  341. ^ Article IV 3, ibid.
  342. ^ Art. 14, Law on Copyright No. 9.739 of 17 December 1937
  343. ^ Art. 38, Law No. 272-I of 30 August 1996
  344. ^ a b c d e Art. 19, Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000
  345. ^ "N. XII. Legge sil diritto di autore". 1960. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  346. ^ Art. 25, Ley sobre el Dercho de Autor as modified by the Decreto del 14 de agosto de 1993
  347. ^ Arts. 25, 26, 27, ibid.
  348. ^ a b "Intellectual Property Law. Law No. 19 for the Year 1994." (PDF). Official Gazette No. 20 issued on 27 Jumada I, 1415 A.H. corresponding to 31 October 1994. 1994-10-31. Retrieved 2014-04-13. 
  349. ^ s. 12, Copyright and Performance Rights Act, 1994
  350. ^ Literary, dramatic, and musical works; non-photograph artistic works.
  351. ^ s. 5(3), 6(3)(a), Copyright Act (Chapter 26:1)
  352. ^ s. 6(3)(b), ibid.
  353. ^ s. 16(2), ibid.
  354. ^ s. 17(2), s. 18(2), ibid.
  355. ^ s. 6, 16, 17, 18, ibid.

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