Last modified on 20 December 2014, at 13:06

List of bridge failures

This is a list of bridge failures.

Bridge failuresEdit

This is a list of bridge failures including failures during construction. This list may be sorted by any field.[1]

Pre-1900Edit

Bridge Location Country Date Construction type, use of bridge Reason Casualties Damage Comments
Stirling
Bridge
Stirling Scotland September 1297 Beam and trestle over the River Forth Overload by attackers during the Battle of Stirling Bridge Unknown, English forces defeated Bridge rendered unusable
The collapse may have been assisted by defending forces
Rialto
Bridge
Venice Venetian Republic 1444 Wooden structure with central drawbridge. Overload by spectators during a wedding Unknown Bridge total damage
Eitai Bridge (Eitai-bashi) Tokyo (Edo) Japan 20 September 1807 (Lunisolar 19 August) Wooden beam bridge over River Sumida Overload by festival 500-1500 killed 1 pier and 2 spans destroyed Edo-Tokyo Museum
Saalebrücke bei Mönchen-Nienburg Nienburg, Saxony-Anhalt Germany 6 December 1825 Chain-stayed bridge with small bascule section Poor materials, unbalanced load and vibrations by subjects singing to honour the duke 55 drowned or frozen to death Bridge half damaged, other side demolished [5]
Broughton
Suspension
Bridge
Broughton, Greater Manchester England 12 April 1831 Suspension bridge over River Irwell Bolt snapped due to mechanical resonance caused by marching soldiers 20 injured Collapsed at one end, bridge quickly rebuilt and strengthened
The rebuilt Broughton Suspension Bridge in 1883. This disaster caused the "break step" rule to be issued to UK soldiers.
Yarmouth Bridge Great Yarmouth England 2 May 1845 Suspension bridge People had crowded onto the bridge to see a clown go down the river in a barrel; their weight shifted as the barrel passed underneath, the suspension chains snapped and the bridge deck tipped over. 79 people drowned, mainly children. Suspension chains snapped due to overload.
Dee Bridge Chester England 24 May 1847 Cast iron beam bridge over the River Dee Overload by passenger train on faulty structure 5 killed Bridge rendered unusable
The Dee bridge after its collapse. The failure was due to faulty design
Angers Bridge Angers France 16 April 1850 Suspension bridge over Maine River Wind and possibly resonance of soldiers led to collapse 226 killed, unknown injured Bridge total damage
Gasconade Bridge Gasconade, Missouri United States 1 November 1855 Wooden rail bridge Inaugural train run conducted before temporary trestle work was replaced by permanent structure 31 killed, hundreds injured Span from anchorage to first pier destroyed
Desjardins Canal Bridge Desjardins Canal, Ontario Canada 12 March 1857 Rail bridge Mechanical force due to broken locomotive front axle 59 killed
Sauquoit Creek Bridge 3 miles (4.8 km) from Utica, New York United States 11 May 1858 Railroad trestle Weight (two trains on the same trestle) 9 killed, 55 injured
Springbrook Bridge Between Mishawaka and South Bend, Indiana United States 27 June 1859 Railroad embankment bridge Washout 41 killed (some accounts of 60 to 70)
Known as the Great Mishawaka Train Wreck or the South Bend train wreck
Wootton Bridge Wootton England 11 June 1860 Cast iron rail bridge Cast iron beams cracked and failed 2 killed Total damage to floor
Wootton Bridge after the crash. The cause was a flawed design using unreliable cast iron, failed from a repair
Bull Bridge Ambergate England 26 September 1860 Cast iron rail bridge Cast iron beam cracked and failed while freight train was on it 0 killed 0 injured Total collapse of bridge
Section of broken girder
Platte Bridge St. Joseph, Missouri United States 3 September 1861 Sabotage by Confederate partisans during US Civil War. 17-20 killed, 100 injured
Chunky Creek Bridge near Hickory, Mississippi United States 1863 Winter flood caused a debris build-up which shifted the bridge trestle.
train bridge Wood River Junction United States 19 April 1873 Washaway
Railroad Disaster at Meadow Brook, Rhode Island.jpg
Portage Bridge Portageville, New York United States 5 May 1875 Wooden beam bridge over the Genesee River Fire 0 killed 0 injured Bridge was a total loss
Fire destroyed all but the concrete abutments
bridge between Valparaiso and Santiago Chile July 1875 Collapsed beneath the overnight train
Ashtabula River Railroad Bridge Ashtabula, Ohio United States 29 December 1876 Wrought iron truss bridge Possible fatigue failure of cast iron elements 92 killed, 64 injured Bridge total damage
Ashtabula bridge disaster
Tay Rail Bridge Dundee Scotland 28 December 1879 Continuous girder bridge, wrought iron framework on cast iron columns, railway bridge Faulty design, construction and maintenance, structural deterioration and wind load 75 killed (60 known dead), no survivors Bridge unusable, girders partly reused, train damaged
Fallen Tay Bridge from the north. The locomotive was saved from the Tay and was still in use 19 years later; known as "The Diver".
Inverythan Rail Bridge Aberdeenshire Scotland 27 November 1882 Cast iron girder rail bridge Hidden defects in cast iron caused collapse as train passed over 5 killed, 17 injured Bridge rebuilt
Crash scene after the accident. The Board of Trade issued warning about similar under-bridges.
Little Silver, New Jersey United States 30 June 1882 Trestle railway bridge Train derailment due to insecure railroad switch on the northbound side of the bridge. 3 killed, 65+ injured Estimated $15,000 worth of damage to the bridge and cars combined. Bridge was repaired. Several rail cars derailed and fell off the bridge into Parker's Creek. Ulysses S. Grant was a passenger at the time.[2]
River Drave Hungary 26 September, 1882 Railway bridge Train tumbles into river [3]
Camberwell Bridge London England 15 May 1884 Cast iron trough girder bridge over railway Hidden defects in cast iron caused collapse of four girders 0 killed, 1 injured Bridge rebuilt
Bussey Bridge Boston United States 14 March 1887 Iron railroad bridge collapses under train poor construction[4] 30 killed, 40 injured Bridge rebuilt
Big Four Bridge Louisville, Kentucky United States 10 October 1888 caisson and truss 12 died when caisson flooded,

4 died when beam broke,
21 died when truss fell into river

37 killed
Norwood Junction Rail Bridge London England 1 May 1891 Cast iron girder fails under passing train Hidden defects in cast iron caused collapse 0 killed, 1 injured Bridge rebuilt
Munchenstein Rail Bridge Munchenstein Switzerland 14 June 1891 wrought iron truss train falls through centre of bridge 71 killed, 171 injured
The railway bridge collapsed under a heavy train loaded with more than 500 passengers; more than 70 were killed
Point Ellice Bridge Victoria, British Columbia Canada 26 May 1896 overloaded tram car collapses central span 47/53/50—60 killed (reports vary)

1900–1949Edit

Bridge Location Country Date Construction type, use of bridge Reason Casualties Damage Comments
Dry Creek Bridge Eden, Colorado United States 7 August 1904 Wooden railway bridge Collapsed because of a sudden washout 111 killed, unknown injured Bridge completely destroyed  
Egyptian Bridge Saint Petersburg Russian Empire 20 January 1905 Stone suspension bridge Disputed 0 killed, 0 injured Bridge rebuilt
The collapsed bridge.
Portage Canal Swing Bridge Houghton, Michigan United States 15 April 1905 Steel swing bridge Swing span struck by the steamer Northern Wave. 0 killed, 0 injured Swing span rebuilt.
The damaged bridge. It was replaced by the Portage Lake Lift Bridge.
Cimarron River Rail Crossing Dover, Oklahoma Territory United States 18 September 1906 Wooden railroad trestle Washed out under pressure from debris during high water 4-100+ killed Entire span lost; rebuilt Bridge was to be temporary, but replacement was delayed for financial reasons.[5][6][7] Number of deaths is uncertain; estimates range from 4 to over 100.[8]
Quebec Bridge Quebec City Canada 29 August 1907 Cantilever bridge, steel framework, railway bridge Collapsed during construction: design error, bridge unable to support own weight 75 killed, 11 injured Bridge completely destroyed.
Quebec Bridge Collapse of 1907.jpg
Redesigned, and rebuilding continued through the 2nd partial collapse in 1916 (below).
Romanov Bridge now Zelenodolsk[disambiguation needed] Russian Empire 22 November 1911 Railway bridge Collapsed during construction: ice slip undermined scaffolding 13 confirmed killed, ~200 missing Scaffold with workers fell on the ice, causing many to drown Bridge was completed later
Division Street Bridge Spokane, Washington United States 18 December 1915 Steel framework, trolley car bridge Collapsed a week after being resurfaced; poor steel, metal fatigue, and a previous impact by another bridge swept downstream during a flood 5-7 killed, 10 injured Complete loss, plus two trolley cars destroyed Replaced by a 3-vault concrete span
Quebec Bridge Quebec City Canada 11 September 1916 Cantilever bridge, steel framework, railway bridge Central span slipped whilst being hoisted in place due to contractor error 11 killed, unknown injured Central span dropped into the river, where it still lies today Rebuilt and opened in December 1919 after almost two decades of construction.
Bridge Jalon Spain 22 November 1927 Bridge failed during passage of funeral procession 100 thrown into water [9]
Otsu Japan 1934 Typhoon 11 killed, 216 injured
When an express train running, following derail by Muroto Typhoon in Seta River Bridge, on September 1934
Fremantle Railroad Bridge Fremantle Australia 22 July 1926 Flood 0 killed, 0 injured Proposed replacement by Combined Bridge, road and rail.

[10]

Appomattox River Drawbridge Hopewell, Virginia United States 22 December 1935 Bus drove across the drawbridge when it was open. 14 killed
Falling Creek Bridge Chesterfield County, Virginia United States 1 September 1936 Wood and steel. Two trucks were crossing the bridge when one struck a tie rod causing the bridge to collapse. One truck fell to the creek bed 15 feet below, and the other made it off the bridge and onto the road. 4 killed, 5 injured There is no link to this story. It is described in the September 2, 1936 issue of the Richmond News-Leader newspaper.
Kasai River Bridge Kasai Belgian Congo 12 September 1937 Railway bridge While under construction. Began in 1935; Construction never resumed.
Upper Steel Arch Bridge Niagara Falls, NY – Niagara Falls, ON United States – Canada 27 January 1938 Steel arch road bridge Ice jam in gorge pushed bridge off foundations 0 killed, 0 injured Bridge completely destroyed
Honeymoon Bridge Collapse.jpg
Replaced in 1941 by the Rainbow Bridge
Sandö Bridge Kramfors, Ångermanland Sweden 31 August 1939 Concrete arch bridge Collapsed during construction 18 killed Complete loss of the main span Did not receive much media attention as the Second World War began the next day. The bridge was finished in 1943 as the longest concrete arch bridge in the world until 1964.
Tacoma Narrows Bridge Tacoma, Washington United States 7 November 1940 Road bridge, cable suspension with plate girder deck Aerodynamically poor design resulted in aeroelastic flutter 0 killed, 0 injured (1 dog killed) Bridge completely destroyed, no person killed, but one dog killed and three vehicles lost.
Image-Tacoma Narrows Bridge1.gif
Became known as "Galloping Gertie", in the first 4 months after opening up until its collapse under aeroelastic flutter. Since that time most major new bridges have been modelled in wind tunnels. Rebuilt in 1950; parallel span opened in 2007.
Theodor Heuss Bridge Ludwigshafen Germany 12 December 1940 Bridge of concrete, Motorway bridge Collapsed during construction Unknown Bridge totally destroyed
Rebuilt structure
Resulted in delay in completion of the motorway crossing of the Rhine until 1953
Chesapeake City Bridge Chesapeake City, MD United States 28 July 1942 Road bridge, vertical lift drawbridge Tanker Franz Klasen rammed the movable bridge supports, causing collapse Unknown Central span completely destroyed Bridge replaced by high-level tied-arch bridge in 1949
Ludendorff Bridge Remagen Germany 17 March 1945 Truss railroad and pedestrian bridge Collapse due to previous battle damage incurred 7 March 1945 28 U.S. soldiers killed Total destruction
Ludendorff Bridge at March 17, 1945 after the collapse
Capture of intact bridge offered significant short term tactical advantage to Allied forces. Collapse was not strategically significant due to placement of parallel floating bridges during the previous week
John P. Grace Memorial Bridge Charleston, South Carolina United States 24 February 1946 Steel cantilever truss automobile bridge Three spans collapsed due to collision with the freighter Nicaragua Victory 5 killed Three collapsed spans 240 feet (73 m) were replaced and stood until 2005 when the bridge was closed following the opening of the Arthur Ravenel, Jr. Bridge
Inotani Wire Bridge Toyama Japan 1949 29 killed Construction of bridge and cause of collapse are unclear from text provided

1950–1999Edit

Bridge Location Country Date Construction type, use of bridge Reason Casualties Damage Comments
Duplessis Bridge Trois-Rivières-Cap-de-la-Madeleine, Quebec Canada 31 January 1951 Steel bridge Structural failure due to adverse temperature 4 killed Total destruction Reconstructed
Bury Knowsley Street Station Footbridge Bury England 19 January 1952 Wooden footbridge with wrought iron frame and supports Supports failed due to inadequate maintenance 2 killed, 173 injured Bridge replaced Bridge since demolished, due to closure of station
Harrow & Wealdstone Station Footbridge Wealdstone England 8 October 1952 Pedestrian footbridge Struck by train(s) during accident 112 killed, 340 injured Total destruction It is not recorded how many casualties were due to the bridge collapse
Whangaehu River Rail Bridge Tangiwai New Zealand 24 December 1953 Railway bridge Damaged by lahar minutes before passenger train passed over it. 151 killed. New Zealand's worst train disaster. Bridge destroyed
St. Johns Station Rail Bridge Lewisham, South London England 4 December 1957 Railway bridge Two trains collided and smashed into supports, collapsing part of bridge onto the wreckage 90 killed, 173 injured Bridge destroyed Unknown how many deaths/injuries specifically due to bridge collapse, since its effect was to worsen the train wreck
Temporary footbridge Havana Cuba 25 February 1958 Temporary footbridge Bridge struck by an out-of-control Ferrari sports-racing car, driven by Armando Garcia Cifuentes, which then ploughed into trackside spectators during the 1958 Cuban Grand Prix 7 killed, 40+ injured Bridge destroyed Unknown how many deaths/injuries specifically due to bridge collapse
Second Narrows Bridge Vancouver, British Columbia Canada 17 June 1958 Steel truss cantilever Collapsed during construction due to miscalculation of weight bearing capacity of a temporary arm. 19 killed, 79 injured Rebuilt 8 additional deaths during the course of construction
Severn Railway Bridge Gloucestershire England 25 October 1960 Cast iron Two of 22 spans collapsed after two petrol barges collided with one of the support columns in thick fog. A third span collapsed 5 months later. 5 killed Demolished 1967-1970
The remains of the bridge in 1966
King Street Bridge Melbourne Australia 10 July 1962 One span collapsed under the weight of a 47-long-ton (48 t) semi-trailer due to brittle fracture on a very cold winter day 0 killed
General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge Maracaibo Venezuela 6 April 1964 Road bridge Ship collision 7 killed 2 section collapsed Currently in operation
Kansas Avenue Bridge Topeka, Kansas United States 2 July 1965 Kansas Avenue Melan Bridge for traffic between downtown and North Topeka Structural deterioration Killed a Topeka man Single span collapse Suddenly collapsed about 5:30 p.m. on 2 July 1965, killing a Topeka man.[11]
Heron Road Bridge Ottawa Canada 10 August 1966 Concrete road bridge Use of green lumber and the lack of diagonal bracing on the wooden support forms during concrete pour. 9 killed Rebuilt.
Boudewijnsnelweg Bridge Viersel Belgium 13 November 1966 Concrete road bridge over Nete Canal (Netekanaal) Collapse due to faulty design: the foundation of the piers was not deep enough. 2 killed, 17 injured Rebuilt.
Heiligenstedten Bascule Bridge Heiligenstedten Germany 1966 Road bridge Ship collision 0 killed Bridge Rebuilt
Silver Bridge Point Pleasant, West Virginia and Gallipolis, Ohio United States 15 December 1967 Road bridge, chain link suspension Material fault and corrosion 46 killed, 9 injured Bridge and 37 vehicles destroyed
The collapsed Silver Bridge, as seen from the Ohio side
Inspired the book Mothman Prophecies and The Mothman Prophecies (film).
Queen Juliana Bridge Willemstad, Curaçao Netherlands Antilles 6 November 1967 Portal bridge Construction support fault. Bridge fell during construction 15 killed Bridge collapsed at the Punda side Bridge reconstruction started in 1969 and was completed in 1971
Countess Weir Bridge Exeter, Devon England 6 January 1968 Brick Arch bridge Construction support fault. Scour under raft foundation Pier 23 collapsed Bridge repaired and reinforced
Britannia Bridge Menai Strait Wales 23 May 1970 Railway tubular bridge Children accidentally set light to debris and railway sleepers and irreparably damaged the bridge No casualties Tubular section buckled beyond repair Bridge re-built to a new design using the original piers with a road deck over the new railway deck
West Gate Bridge Melbourne Australia 15 October 1970 Road Bridge Collapsed during construction due to poor design and ill-advised construction methods 35 killed 112-metre (367 ft) span between piers 10 and 11 collapsed Cantilevered section under construction sprang back and collapsed following attempts to remove a buckle caused by a difference in camber of 11 cm (4.5 inches) between it and the other section of the span to which it was to be joined
Cleddau Bridge Pembroke Dock and Neyland Wales 2 June 1970 Box girder road bridge Inadequacy of the design of a pier support diaphragm 4 killed, 5 injured 70-metre (230 ft) cantilever being used to put one of the 150-tonne (150-long-ton) sections into position collapsed
South Bridge, Koblenz Koblenz Germany 10 November 1971 Road bridge Bridge bent into Rhine 13 killed, unknown injured Bridge completely destroyed
Sidney Lanier Bridge Brunswick, Georgia United States 7 November 1972 Vertical Lift Bridge over the South Brunswick River Struck by the freighter African Neptune 10 deaths, multiple injuries Several spans knocked out Repaired during 1972-73 then completely replaced with a new cable-stayed bridge in 2003
Welland Canal Bridge No. 12 Port Robinson, Ontario Canada 25 August 1974 Vertical lift bridge over the Welland Canal Struck by the ore carrier Steelton 0 killed, 2 injured Bridge declared a loss; new tunnel or bridge rebuilding costs were found to be unjustified. Remaining structure dismantled; passenger ferry instated. Car traffic must use the northern Allanburg bridge or the southern East Main Street tunnel in Welland.
Makahali River bridge Baitadi Nepal November 1974 140 killed
Tasman Bridge Hobart Australia 5 January 1975 Bridge of concrete, Motorway bridge Ore freighter Lake Illawarra collided with pylons. A 400-foot (120 m) section of bridge collapsed onto freighter and into the river. Four cars drove off bridge 12 killed (7 ship crewman and 5 motorists) 2 pylons and three sections of bridge collapsed, ore freighter sank, 4 cars fell into river City of Hobart was split in two. Residents living in the east were forced to make a 50 kilometres (31 mi) trip to the CBD via the next bridge to the north. Missing sections were reconstructed and the bridge reopened on 8 October 1977
Reichsbrücke Vienna Austria 1 August 1976 Road bridge with tram Column fractured 1 killed, 0 injured Bridge, one bus and a lorry destroyed, ships damaged Concrete of the column had never been examined, was internally totally destroyed; "higher force"
Granville Railway Bridge Sydney Australia 18 January 1977 Vehicle overpass Passenger train derailed while passing under the Bold Street road overpass and collided with a supporting pier. Section of bridge collapsed onto train cars. 83 killed, 210 injured Bridge destroyed The bridge was supported by two piers situated between the various rail tracks. Part of the derailed train virtually demolished the northern pier, resulting in the collapse of the northernmost span of the bridge.
Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge Hopewell, Virginia United States 24 February 1977 Lift bridge An ocean-going tanker ship, the 5,700 ton, 523-ft long S.S. Marine Floridian struck the bridge collapsing a section of the bridge. 0 killed, minor injuries Section of bridge destroyed Bridge repaired
Green Island Bridge Troy, New York United States 15 March 1977 Lift bridge Flooding undermined the lift span pier resulting in the western lift tower and roadbed span of the bridge collapsing into the Hudson River. 0 killed, 0 injured Bridge destroyed
Hood Canal Floating Bridge (William A. Bugge Bridge) Olympic, Washington United States 13 February 1979 Floating bridge Blown pontoon hatches combined with extreme windstorm 0 killed, 0 injured Western drawspan and western pontoons sunk; other sections survived. Lost portions rebuilt 1979-1982; the remainder of the bridge has since been replaced.
Almöbron (Tjörnbron) Stenungsund Sweden 18 January 1980 Steel arch bridge Ship collision during bad visibility (mist) 8 killed, unknown injured Bridge and several cars destroyed
Sunshine Skyway Bridge near St. Petersburg, FL United States 9 May 1980 Steel cantilever bridge Ship collision 35 killed, 1 injured 1,200 feet (370 m) of southbound span, several cars and a bus destroyed Turned into state-run fishing pier/replaced with cable-stayed bridge
Old Fairmont to Wheeling Turnpike Covered Bridge Collapse Grant Town, West Virginia United States 16 August 1980 Single lane wooden-truss covered bridge built by Lemuel Chenoweth circa 1851-1853 Flash Flood of Paw Paw Creek Valley causing build-up of debris, with added weight of pedestrian Burns Fessler as the final person to cross 0 killed, 0 injured Bridge floated downstream approximately 200 yards before crashing into bend in stream Replaced by single lane concrete beam bridge erected by the West Virginia Department of Transportation
Hayakawa wire bridge Saito, Kyūshū Japan 1980 Wire bridge (?) Lack of inspection and maintenance for 10 years previous 7 killed, 15 injured
Hyatt Regency walkway collapse Kansas City, Missouri United States 17 July 1981 Double-deck suspended footbridge in hotel interior Overload/weak joint/construction error 114 killed, 200 injured walkway destroyed
View of the lobby floor, showing remains of the pedestrian bridge
Cline Avenue over the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal and surrounding heavy industry East Chicago, Indiana United States 15 April 1982 Indiana State Route 912 1,200 feet (370 m) of the bridge collapsed while under construction when a concrete pad supporting shoring towers developed cracks. 14 killed, 16 injured Bridge rebuilt Section between US 12 and the Indiana Toll Road renamed Highway Construction Workers Memorial Highway
Ulyanovsk railway bridge Ulyanovsk USSR 5 June 1983 Railway bridge Ship collision 177 killed, unknown injured No collapse The span cut the deck house and the cinema hall, whilst the lowest deck was undamaged. The ship damaged the railway bridge and some freight cars from the train fell onto the ship.
Mianus River Bridge Greenwich, Connecticut United States 28 June 1983 Interstate 95 (Connecticut Turnpike) over the Mianus River Metal corrosion and fatigue/Deferred maintenance 3 killed, 5 injured 100-foot (30 m) section of the northbound lanes fell into the Mianus River Collapse due to failure of the pin and hanger assembly supporting the span. Temporary span installed to re-open I-95; new Mianus River Bridge completed in 1990.
Amarube railroad bridge Kasumi, Hyōgo Japan 28 December 1986 Strong wind 6 killed (One train conductor and five factory workers) An out-of-service train fell onto a fish processing factory
Schoharie Creek Bridge collapse Thruway Bridge Fort Hunter, New York United States 5 April 1987 I-90 New York Thruway over the Schoharie Creek Improper protection of footings by contractor lead to scour of riverbed under footings. 10 killed, unknown injured Total collapse [12]
Schoharie Creek's Mill Point Bridge Wellsville, Amsterdam, NY United States 11 April 1987 State highway Flooding 0 killed, 0 injured Total collapse The Mill Point Bridge is 3 miles (4.8 km) upstream from the Thruway bridge that collapsed on 5 April. Flood waters from the same flood that finally undermined the Thruway bridge were up to the girders of the Mill Point bridge. It was closed as a safety precaution. It collapsed six days after the earlier collapse.[13]
Glanrhyd Bridge Carmarthen Wales 19 October 1987 River Tywi Train washed off railway bridge by flood waters 4 killed, including 1 school boy who drowned trying to rescue passengers
Aschaffenburg Main River Freeway Bridge Aschaffenburg Germany 1988 Bridge of Motorway 3 over River Main Error in construction 1 killed, 0 injured Bridge total damage Partial collapse at Repetitive sliding
Sultan Abdul Halim ferry terminal bridge Butterworth, Penang Malaysia 31 July 1988 More than 32 killed.[14]
Tennessee Hatchie River Bridge Between Covington, Tennessee and Henning, Tennessee United States 1 April 1989 Northbound lanes of U.S. 51 over the Hatchie River Shifting river channel, deterioration of foundation timber piles 8 killed Total collapse NTSB faulted Tennessee for not fixing the bridge before the collapse
Injaka Bridge Collapse Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga South Africa 6 July 1989 300m 7-span continuous pre-stressed concrete road bridge over the Ngwaritsane River under construction. Incompetence and negligence; Steel launch nose not structurally stiff enough; Incorrect temporary works slide path; Incorrectly placed temporary bearings; Incorrect feeding of bearing pads; Under-designed deck slab.[15] 14 killed, 19 injured Structure destroyed. Rebuilt completed in 2000, now carrying the R533 over the Injaka Dam (Reservoir). Collapsed while being inspected. Victims include design and consulting engineers.
Cypress Street Viaduct Oakland, California United States 17 October 1989 I-880 (Nimitz Freeway) Destroyed in Loma Prieta Earthquake 42 killed Structure destroyed, remains demolished and removed. The ground-level Cypress Street is now Mandela Parkway.
The collapsed Cypress Street Viaduct seen from ground-level. Note detachment of upper vertical elements from lower and the lack of reinforcement at the point of detachment.
Replacement route for I-880 built around West Oakland.
San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge connects San Francisco and Oakland, California United States 17 October 1989 I-80 50-foot (15 m) section of the upper deck and lower deck collapsed in Loma Prieta Earthquake 1 killed
Collapsed section of roadway deck

Reopened on 18 November of that year. Replaced with a self-anchored suspension bridge and approach spans in 2013.

Swinging Bridge Heber Springs, Arkansas United States 28 October 1989 Pedestrian suspension bridge over the Little Red River Destroyed by pedestrians swinging the bridge 5 killed Structure destroyed
Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge Connects Seattle and Bellevue, Washington United States 25 November 1990 I-90 Heavy flooding of pontoons 0 killed 2,790 feet (850 m) of the bridge sank, dumping the contaminated water into the lake along with tons of bridge material
Astram Line steel bridge Hiroshima Japan 1991 Metro railway While in construction, 43-ton steel fell to the road below. 15 Killed (5 workers and 10 civilians), 8 injured
Claiborne Avenue Bridge 9th Ward, New Orleans, Louisiana United States 28 May 1993 Bridge connecting the "upper" and "lower" 9th Wards Barge collision 1 killed, 2 injured   Empty barge collided with a support pier for the bridge, causing a 145-foot (44 m) section to collapse
Kapellbrücke (Chapel Bridge) Lucerne Switzerland 18 August 1993 The oldest wooden bridge in Europe, and one of Switzerland's main tourist attractions. It is believed that a cigarette started a fire in the evening. 0 killed, unknown injured 78 of 111 of the famous paintings were destroyed and the bridge burned nearly completely down. The bridge was rebuilt to match the original.
CSXT Big Bayou Canot rail bridge near Mobile, Alabama United States 22 September 1993 Railroad bridge span crossing Big Bayou Canot of Mobile River Barge towboat, struck pier in fog; span shifted so next train derailed; impact of derailment destroyed span 47 killed, 103 injured Amtrak train Sunset Limited carrying 220 passengers plunged into water Bridge span had been made movable in case a swing bridge was wanted, and never properly fastened
Temporary bridge Hopkinton, New Hampshire United States 24 November 1993 Single-lane temporary bridge in construction zone Collapsed while being dismantled 2 construction workers killed, 1 injured Collapsed onto roadway below Bridge had been placed to divert traffic from resurfacing project on U.S. Route 202
Seongsu Bridge Seoul South Korea 21 October 1994 Cantilever Bridge crossing Han River structural failure-Bad welding 32 killed, 17 injured 48-metre (157 ft) slab between the fifth and the sixth piers collapsed Structural failure was caused by improper welding of the steel trusses of the suspension structure beneath the concrete slab roadway.
I-5 Bridge Disaster Coalinga, California United States 10 March 1995 Concrete truss bridge Arroyo Pasajero Structural failure — support piers collapsed 7 killed, 0 injured Complete failure of two spans on I-5 Due to extreme rainfall, the Arroyo Pasajero experienced high volumes of water at high speed. This caused scouring of the river bed undermining the support piers of both spans.
Walnut Street Bridge Harrisburg, Pennsylvania United States January 1996 Truss bridge As a result of rising flood waters and ice floe from the North American blizzard of 1996, when high floodwaters and a large ice floe lifted the spans off their foundations and swept them down the river. 0 killed, 0 injured Lost two of its seven western spans, A third span was damaged and later collapsed into the river.
Western span of the Walnut Street Bridge after it collapsed during the 1996 flood. The eastern span is still in use for pedestrian traffic.
Koror-Babeldaob Bridge Koror and Babeldaob Palau 26 September 1996 Collapse following strengthening work 2 killed, 4 injured
Baikong Railway bridge Ruyuan, Guangdong China 20 December 1996 During construction 29 killed
Maccabiah bridge collapse Tel Aviv Israel 14 July 1997 Athletes pedestrian Bridge Poor design and construction 4 killed, 60 injured During opening of the 15th Maccabiah Games, a temporary bridge over the polluted Yarkon River collapsed causing two deaths the same day and infected many with the deadly fungus, Pseudallescheria boydii, from which 2 more died later.
Eschede train disaster Eschede Germany 3 June 1998 Road bridge Train disaster 101 killed, 105 injured   Destruction by train crashing into pillar of road bridge, which collapsed onto derailed train

2000–presentEdit

Bridge Location Country Date Construction type, use of bridge Reason

Casualties

Damage Comments
Hoan Bridge Milwaukee, Wisconsin United States 13 December 2000 Concrete and steel bridge Northbound right lane began to buckle during the morning rush hour and sagged a few feet below normal. Damage was said to have been caused by extremely cold weather, snow, and heavy amounts of traffic. 0 killed, 0 injured Partial Collapse Damaged section removed by controlled demolition and rebuilt. Remainder of bridge extensively repaired and retrofitted.
Hintze Ribeiro disaster Entre-os-Rios, Castelo de Paiva Portugal 5 March 2001 Masonry and steel bridge built in 1887 Pillar foundation became compromised due to years of illegal, but permitted sand extraction and the central span collapsed. 59 killed Collapse of central sections
Hintze Ribeiro Bridge after the collapse
Bridge collapsed when a bus was passing in stormy weather with fast river flow. 3 cars also fell in the collapsed section. Bridge demolished and replaced by modern bridge.
Asagiri footbridge Akashi, Hyōgo[16] Japan 21 July 2001 Whilst progressing to a summer firework festival, people stampeded and panicked 11 killed, 247 injured
Queen Isabella Causeway Port Isabel, Texas and South Padre Island, Texas United States 15 September 2001 Concrete bridge for vehicle traffic over Laguna Madre 4 loaded barges veered 175 feet (53 m) west of the navigation channel and struck one of the bridge supports, causing a partial collapse of 3 sections measuring approximately 80 feet (24 m) each. 8 killed, 13 survivors Partial collapse
The damaged section of the Queen Isabella Causeway
The collapse had a significant economic impact on the region since the Causeway is the only road connecting South Padre Island to Port Isabel. The bridge also carried electricity lines and fresh water to the island. State officials brought in ferries to temporarily carry cars across the Laguna Madre. Repair cost for the bridge was estimated US$5 million.
Kadalundi River rail bridge Kadalundi India 21 July 2001 140-year old rail bridge collapsed 57 killed (all drowned)
I-40 bridge disaster Webbers Falls, Oklahoma United States 26 May 2002 Concrete bridge for vehicle traffic over Arkansas River Barge struck one pier of the bridge causing a partial collapse 14 killed Partial collapse
I-40 Bridge, May 31, 2002
Bridge was later repaired
Rafiganj rail bridge Rafiganj India 10 September 2002 Terrorists sabotaged rail bridge, causing crash 130 killed
Interstate 95 Howard Avenue Overpass Bridgeport, Connecticut United States 26 March 2004 Girder and Floorbeam Car struck a truck carrying 8,000 US gallons (30,000 litres; 6,700 imperial gallons) of heating oil, igniting a fire that melted the bridge superstructure, causing collapse of the southbound lanes 0 killed, 1 injured Partial collapse Northbound lanes shored up with falsework and reopened 3 days later; temporary bridge installed to carry southbound lanes. New permanent bridge completed in November 2004.
C-470 overpass over I-70 Golden, Colorado United States 15 May 2004 As part of a construction project, a girder twisted, sagged, and fell onto I-70. An SUV was driving eastbound and struck the fallen girder; the top of the vehicle was torn off and the three passengers died instantly.[17] 3 killed, 0 injured Girder collapse
Kinzua Bridge Kinzua Bridge State Park, Pennsylvania United States 21 July 2003 Historic steel rail viaduct Hit by tornado with 100 mph winds 0 killed Partial collapse
Failed bridge
The state decided not to rebuild the Kinzua Bridge.
Sgt. Aubrey Cosens VC Memorial Bridge, Latchford, Ontario, Canada 14 January 2003 Partial failure under load of transport truck during severely cold temperatures. Fatigue fractures of three steel hanger rods cited to be primary reason for failure. 0 killed, 0 injured Partial failure of bridge deck. Overhead superstructure undamaged. Bridge reopened after complete reconstruction. Existing overhead arch remained, however new bridge deck was designed to be supported by sets of 4 hanger cables, where the existing deck was designed for single hanger cables.
Loncomilla Bridge near San Javier Chile 18 November 2004 Concrete bridge for vehicle traffic over Maule River The structure was not built on rock, but rather on fluvial ground. 0 killed, 8 injured Partial collapse Bridge was later repaired
Mungo Bridge[18] Cameroon 1 July 2004 Steel girder for road traffic Partial collapse Yet to be repaired
Igor I. Sikorsky Memorial Bridge replacement project Connecticut United States February 2004 Collapse occurred in during demolition of the original 1940 span 1 killed Single fatality occurred when the crane he was operating was knocked from its barge by falling steel from the bridge
Big Nickel Road Bridge Sudbury, Ontario Canada 7 May 2004 0 killed Collapsed onto roadway below during construction [19][20]
Veligonda Railway Bridge India 29 October 2005 Railway bridge flood washed rail bridge away 114 killed
Almuñécar motorway bridge Almuñécar, Province of Granada Spain 7 November 2005 Motorway bridge Part collapsed during construction, reason unknown 6 killed, 3 injured   A 60-metre (200 ft) long part fell 50 metres (160 ft)
Caracas-La Guaira highway, Viaduct #1 Tacagua Venezuela 19 March 2006 Highway viaduct over a gorge Landslides 0 killed, 0 injured Total collapse Demolished, it was rebuilt and reopened on 21 June 2007
E45 Bridge Nørresundby Denmark 25 April 2006 Road bridge Collapsed during reconstruction due to miscalculation 1 killed Bridge total damage [21]
Highway 19 overpass at Laval (De la Concorde Overpass collapse) Laval, Quebec Canada 30 September 2006 Highway overpass Shear failure due to incorrectly placed rebar, low-quality concrete 5 killed, 6 injured 20-metre (66 ft) section gave way Demolished; was rebuilt, reopened on 13 June 2007.[22]
Yekaterinburg bridge collapse Yekaterinburg Russia 6 September 2006 Collapse during construction 0 killed, 0 injured
Nimule Nimule Kenya/Sudan October 2006 Struck by truck overloaded with cement
Pedestrian bridge Bhagalpur India December 2006 150-year-old pedestrian bridge (being dismantled) collapsed onto a railway train as it was passing underneath.[23] More than 30 killed
Railway bridge Eziama[disambiguation needed], near Aba Nigeria December 2006 Unknown Unknown killed Restored 2009[24]
Run Pathani Bridge Collapse 80 km (50 miles) east of Karachi, Pakistan 2006 Collapsed during the 2006 monsoons
Gosford Culvert washaway Australia 8 July 2007 Culvert collapse[25] 5 killed (all drowned)
Highway 325 Bridge over the Xijiang River Foshan, Guangdong China 15 June 2007 Motorway bridge Struck by vessel 8 killed, unknown injured Section collapsed Unknown
Minneapolis I-35W bridge over the Mississippi River Minneapolis, Minnesota United States 1 August 2007 arch/truss bridge The NTSB said that undersized gusset plates, increased concrete surfacing load, and weight of construction supplies/equipment caused this collapse. 13 killed, 145 injured Total bridge failure
Security camera images show the collapse in animation, looking north.
Collapsed at 6:05PM beneath bumper-to-bumper rush hour traffic confined to 4 of 8 lanes due to resurfacing in progress. The rebuilt I-35W Saint Anthony Falls Bridge was reopened on 18 September 2008.
Tuo River bridge Fenghuang, Hunan China 13 August 2007 unknown Currently under investigation,[needs update] believed to be linked to the fact that local contractors often opt for shoddy materials to cut costs and use migrant laborers with little or no safety training 34 killed, 22 injured Total collapse Collapsed during construction as workers were removing scaffolding from its facade
Harp Road bridge Oakville, Washington United States 15 August 2007 Main thoroughfare into Oakville over Garrard Creek, Grays Harbor County Collapsed under weight of a truck hauling an excavator[26][27][28] 0 killed, 0 injured Majority to total collapse; temporary or permanent bridge is needed. Approximate weight of load was 180,000 pounds (82,000 kg); bridge is rated at 35,000 pounds (16,000 kg). Residents must take a 23-mile (37 km) detour.
MacArthur Maze Oakland, California United States 29 April 2007 Tanker truck crash and explosion, resulting fire softened steel sections of flyover causing them to collapse. 1 injured in crash, 0 from collapse Span rebuilt in 26 days.
Shershah Bridge - Section of the Northern Bypass, Karachi Karachi Pakistan 1 September 2007 Overpass bridge Investigation underway 5 killed, 2 injured Collapse may have been caused because of lack of material strength. The reconstruction is in progress.[when?]
Can Tho Bridge Cần Thơ Vietnam 26 September 2007 Investigation underway 36-60 killed, hundreds injured Section buckled while construction was underway
Pieces of Cần Thơ Bridge remaining after its collapse on 4 October 2007, ten days after the accident.
South eastern Guinea Guinea March 2007 Bridge collapsed under the weight of a truck packed with passengers and merchandise.[29] 65 killed
Chhinchu suspension bridge Nepalgunj, Birendranagar Nepal 25 December 2007 Overcrowded suspension bridge collapsed 19 killed, 15 missing
South Korea 5 April 2007 parts of a bridge collapses during construction 5 killed, 7 injured Bridge being built between the two Southern Islands.[30]
Jiujiang Bridge Foshan, Guangdong province China 15 June 2007 Freight ship struck support pillar[31] 9 killed, 0 injured 200m of the bridge fell into the river, 4 cars submerged
Water bridge Taiyuan, Shanxi province China 16 August 2007 180t vehicle overloaded bridge designed for 20t[31] unknown total collapse of 1 span of 2
Flyover bridge Punjagutta, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh India 9 September 2007 during construction 15-30 killed [32]
Jintang Bridge Ningbo, Zhejiang province China 27 March 2008 Ship hit lower support structure of bridge[31] 4 Killed, 0 Injured 60m span of under-construction bridge collapsed
Road bridge Studénka Czech Republic 8 August 2008 Train crashed into a road bridge over the railway under construction, which collapsed on the track immediately before the arrival of a train 8 killed, 70 injured
The Cedar Rapids and Iowa City Railway (CRANDIC) bridge Cedar Rapids, Iowa United States 12 June 2008 Railroad bridge during June 2008 Midwest Floods 0 killed, 0 injured Three of the bridge's four steel spans were swept into the river along with 15 CRANDIC rail cars loaded with rock The Cedar River was still swollen in this image taken 10 days after the bridge's collapse.
Somerton Bridge Somerton, NSW Australia 8 December 2008 Timber road bridge Heavy flooding None Collapse of northern span Bridge collapsed during heavy flooding due to poor maintenance[33]
Devonshire Street pedestrian bridge Maitland NSW Australia 5 March 2009 Footbridge Over Sized truck clipping main span 0 killed, 4 injured (Car & Truck Drivers) Main Span falling on New England Highway, road closed for 4 days Replaced by taller Footbridge 18 months later[34]
Bridge on SS9 over River Po Piacenza Italy 30 April 2009 Road bridge Collapsed due to flood of River Po 0 killed, 1 injured replaced by a temporary floating bridge 6 months later, then by a definitive new bridge that opened on 18 December 2010[35]
9 Mile Road Bridge at I-75 Hazel Park, Michigan United States 15 July 2009 Road Bridge collapsed due to tanker accident[36] 0 killed, 1 injured rebuilt and reopened on 11 December of that year
Malahide Viaduct Broadmeadow - 13 km (8.1 miles) north of Dublin Ireland 21 August 2009 Railway bridge One span of viaduct collapsed after tidal scouring of foundations — first reported by local Sea-scouts. [37]
San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge Connects San Francisco and Oakland, California United States 27 October 2009 I-80 Two tension rods and a crossbeam from a recently installed repair collapsed during the evening commute, causing the bridge to be closed temporarily. 0 killed, 1 injury During an extended closure as part of the eastern span replacement of the San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge over the 2009 Labor Day holiday, a critical failure was discovered in an eyebar that would have been significant enough to cause a closure of the bridge.[38] Emergency repairs took 70 hours and were completed on 9 September 2009. This is the repair that failed.
Tarcoles Bridge Orotina Costa Rica 22 October 2009 Suspension bridge built 1924, 270-foot (82 m) span. Overload by heavy trucks and dead loads (water pipes).[39] 5 killed, 30 injured Bridge total damage
Railway Bridge RDG1 48 over the River Crane near Feltham Feltham England 14 November 2009 Brick arch railway bridge built 1848 Undermined by scour from river.[40] No injuries . River span beyond repair. Rebuilt as reinforced concrete.
Northside Bridge, Workington. Navvies Footbridge, Workington. Camerton Footbridge, Camerton. Memorial Gardens footbridge, Cockermouth. Low Lorton Bridge, Little Braithwaite Bridge. Cumbria England 21 November 2009 Traditional sandstone bridges. Very intense rainfall produced extreme river loads that overwhelmed all the bridges.[41] 1 policeman killed All bridges destroyed or damaged beyond repair See Barker Crossing.
Kota Chambal Bridge Kota, Rajasthan India 25 December 2009 9 killed, 45 missing[42] Bridge collapsed while under construction
Myllysilta Turku Finland 6 March 2010 Bridge bent 143 centimetres (56 in) due to structural failures of both piers 0 killed, 0 injured Demolished June–July 2010
Gungahlin Drive Extension bridge Canberra Australia 14 August 2010 Concrete road bridge Under investigation 15 workers injured Collapse of the half-built span
GDE Bridge after the collapse
Bridge collapsed during a concrete pour.[43][44]
Guaiba's Bridge (BR-290) Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul Brazil 1 October 2010 Concrete and steel bridge [45] Braking system (electrical) failure stuck the main span 9 meters above the lane rendering the bridge useless by (at least) 3 hours.[46] 0 killed, 0 injured Bridge fixed Damaged probably due to a vessel which collided, bending the main span in April 30, 2008.[47]
Overbridge over Chengdu-Kunming Freeway Zigong China 1 July 2011 Truck crashed against concrete support pillar[31] Overbridge destroyed, fell onto highway.
No. 3 Qiantang River Bridge over Qiantang River Hangzhou, Zhejiang province China 15 July 2011 Overloading[48] 0 Killed, 1 Injured Partial collapse leaving a 20-meter-long, 1-meter-wide pit in one lane Collapse due to two trucks each loaded with over 100 tonnes of goods crossing bridge[31]
Gongguan Bridge Wuyishan, Fujian province China 14 July 2011 Overloading[48] 1 Killed, 22 Injured Entire bridge collapsed, tourist bus with 23 people on board crashed to ground
Baihe Bridge in Huairou district Beijing China 19 July 2011 Bridge designed for max. 46 tonne vehicles, truck overloaded with 160 tons of sand caused it to collapse.[48] 0 Killed, 0 Injured Entire 230m bridge destroyed.
Kutai Kartanegara Bridge Tenggarong, East Kalimantan Indonesia 26 November 2011 Suspension bridge Human error. Bridge collapsed while workers repaired a cable. (Under investigation) 20 Killed, 40 Injured (33 missing) Deck completely destroyed, 2 bridge pillars still standing
Kutai Kartanegara Bridge
Eggner Ferry Bridge over the Tennessee River Between Trigg County, Kentucky and Marshall County, Kentucky United States 27 January 2012 Truss Bridge The MV Delta Mariner struck the bottom portion of a span of the bridge when travelling in the incorrect channel of the river. 0 Killed, 0 Injured Span over the recreational channel of the river collapsed. Emergency repairs to bridge completed on May 25, 2012. There were preexisting plans before the collapse to replace the bridge with a 4-lane bridge over the river.
Yangmingtan Bridge over the Songhua River Harbin China 24 August 2012 Suspension Bridge Overloading; usage of unsuitable building material (suspected)[49] 3 Killed, 5 Injured 100-metre section of a ramp of the eight-lane bridge dropped 100 feet to the ground. Main bridge reopened on the same day, ramp still defunct.
Bridge under construction in Lade Trondheim Norway 8 May 2013 Bridge collapsed under construction[50] 2 killed
I-5 Skagit River Bridge collapse Mount Vernon, Washington United States 23 May 2013 Polygonal Warren through truss Bridge Oversized semi-truck load carrying drilling equipment from Alberta clipped top steel girder causing bridge collapse. 0 Killed, 3 Injured One 167 foot span collapsed. Truss bridges like this one require both the top and the bottom to remain equal in strength and solidity. When the truck hit the top girder, or girders, this caused the pressure/squeeze system to fail, which made the bridge fold up. The design was outdated; more modern types of truss can better withstand such forces.
Scott City roadway bridge collapse Scott City, Missouri United States 25 May 2013 Concrete road bridge A Union Pacific train T-boned a Burlington Northern Santa Fe train outside of Scott City, Missouri at approximately 2:30 am. The impact caused numerous rail cars to hit a support pillar of a highway overpass, collapsing two sections of the bridge onto the rail line. Two cars ended up driving onto the collapsed sections, injuring three people in one vehicle and two in the other. Two people on one of the trains were also injured.[51][52] 7 injured Two roadway bridge sections collapsed onto the rail line below
Wanup train bridge Sudbury, Ontario Canada 2 June 2013 Steel bridge Train trestle over the Wanapitei River near Sudbury, Ontario was struck by derailed railcar 0 killed, 0 injured Total Bridge Collapse CP trains temporarily diverted over CN track. Bridge reconstructed with new pier in 9 days.
CPR Bonnybrook Bridge Calgary, Alberta Canada 27 June 2013 Steel railroad bridge Partial pier collapse due to scouring from flood event of the Bow River 0 killed, 0 injured Partial Bridge Collapse See: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/story/2013/06/27/calgary-flood-train-derailment-bonnybrook-bridge.html
Belo Horizonte overpass collapse Belo Horizonte, Brazil Brazil 3 July 2014 Steel and concrete bridge
Part of improvements for the 2014 FIFA World Cup
To be determined 2 killed, 22 injured Total bridge collapse Bridge collapsed while under construction

Bridge disasters in fictionEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ For published analyses of bridge failures see:Biezma, María Victoria; Schanack, Frank (2007). "Collapse of steel bridges". Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities 21: 398–405. doi:10.1061/(asce)0887-3828(2007)21:5(398).  or Wardhana, Kumalasari; Hadipriono, Fabian (2003). "Analysis of Recent Bridge Failures in the United States". Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities 17: 144–150. doi:10.1061/(asce)0887-3828(2003)17:3(144). 
  2. ^ "Railway Accident.". Camperdown Chronicle (Vic. : 1877 - 1954) (Vic.: National Library of Australia). 2 August 1882. p. 4. Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
  3. ^ "Rallway Disaster.". Western Star and Roma Advertiser (Toowoomba, Qld. : 1875 - 1948) (Toowoomba, Qld.: National Library of Australia). 27 September 1882. p. 2. Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  4. ^ Haine, Edgar A. (1993). Railroad Wrecks. Associated University Presses. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-0-8453-4844-4. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  5. ^ Kite, Steven (September 20, 2000). "Corporate Greed Leads to Death in Oklahoma Territory". Oklahoma Audio Almanac. Oklahoma State University Library. Retrieved May 18, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Dover". Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved May 18, 2010. 
  7. ^ Goins, Charles Robert; Goble, Danney (2006). Historical Atlas of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-8061-3482-8. 
  8. ^ Sencicle, Lorraine (January 2008). "Dover Oklahoma". The Daughters of Dover: Dover around the world. Dover, England: The Dover Society. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  9. ^ "INCIDENT AT FUNERAL.". Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW : 1888 - 1954) (Broken Hill, NSW: National Library of Australia). 23 November 1927. p. 4. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  10. ^ "FREMANTLE BRIDGE.". Examiner (Launceston, Tas. : 1900-1954) (Launceston, Tas.: National Library of Australia). 9 September 1926. p. 4 Edition: DAILY. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  11. ^ Hooper, Michael (August 5, 2007). "1965 Flashback: Melan Arch Bridge tumbles". The Topeka Capitol-Journal. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  12. ^ http://www.ntsb.gov/publictn/1988/HAR8802.htm
  13. ^ [1][dead link]
  14. ^ [2][dead link]
  15. ^ "Injaka Bridge Collapse: Lessons Learned". Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  16. ^ "2007 (A) No. 1634". Osaka High Court. 6 April 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2011. The 32nd Akashi Summer Festival was held in Akashi City, Hyogo Prefecture, on July 20 and 21, 2001 
  17. ^ "Highway Accident Report: Passenger Vehicle Collision With a Fallen Overhead Bridge Girder - Golden, Colorado - May 15, 2004". National Transportation Safety Board. Retrieved March 6, 2014. 
  18. ^ "The Collapsed Mungo Bridge And Anglophone Neglect". Cameroon-Info.Net. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  19. ^ "Collapsed Highway in Sunbury". 
  20. ^ BIG NICKEL ROAD BRIDGE AT LORNE STREET HAS COLLAPSED
  21. ^ "E45 Bridge collapsed". 
  22. ^ Laval overpass reopens 8½ months after deadly collapse
  23. ^ "International News | World News — ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. 2013-04-25. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  24. ^ RailwaysAfrica 5/2009 p36
  25. ^ "Culvert tragedy: coroner blames council". The Sydney Morning Herald. 18 September 2008. 
  26. ^ [3][dead link]
  27. ^ "Truck collapses bridge in Grays Harbor County". KOMO News. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  28. ^ "I-35 Bridge Collapse Cause Map". ThinkReliability. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  29. ^ "Bridge collapse in Guinea kills 65". Reuters. 2007-03-20. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  30. ^ "South Koreans killed in bridge collapse". The Sydney Morning Herald. 6 April 2007. 
  31. ^ a b c d e "Look At All The Major Chinese Bridges That Have Collapsed In The Recent Years". Business Insider. 28 August 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2012. 
  32. ^ "Hyd flyover collapse: 30 feared killed". 
  33. ^ Chamberlain, Simon (8 December 2008). "Somerton Bridge closed indefinitely". Northern Daily Leader. Retrieved 13 September 2010. 
  34. ^ "Pedestrians injured in bridge collapse". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press Pty Limited (AAP). Retrieved 2012-05-11. 
  35. ^ "New Po River Bridge". Structurae. Nicolas Janberg ICS. Retrieved 2011-08-06. 
  36. ^ [4][dead link]
  37. ^ "Irish Bridge aftermath". Railways Africa. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  38. ^ DiGiacomo, Janet (September 6, 2009). "Officials: Crack may keep Bay Bridge closed past Tuesday". San Francisco, California: CNN. Retrieved September 6, 2009. 
  39. ^ "Costa Rican bridge collapse kills six". London, England: New Civil Engineer. 23 October 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009. 
  40. ^ "Failure of a railway bridge spanning the River Crane near Feltham in West London". Rail Accident Investigation Branch. 23 September 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  41. ^ "Gordon Brown pledges help for Cumbria flood victims". BBC News. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  42. ^ "9 die in Kota bridge collapse, 45 still missing". IBNLive. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  43. ^ Towell, Noel (25 August 2010). "Experts identify flaws in bridge formwork". The Canberra Times. Retrieved 29 August 2010. 
  44. ^ Dziedzic, Stephen (25 August 2010). "Poor formwork behind bridge collapse". Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC News). Retrieved 29 August 2010. 
  45. ^ "Como foi a construção da ponte do Guaíba | Almanaque Gaúcho". Wp.clicrbs.com.br. 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  46. ^ "Pane no vão móvel da Ponte do Guaíba causa colapso no trânsito da Região Metropolitana — Geral — Zero Hora". Zerohora.clicrbs.com.br. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  47. ^ "Ponte do Guaíba teve sete grandes paralisações em 10 anos — Diário Gaúcho". Diariogaucho.clicrbs.com.br. 2010-07-31. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  48. ^ a b c "Falling Down". Global Times. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2012. 
  49. ^ "Collapse of New Bridge Underscores Worries About China Infrastructure". New York Times. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2012. 
  50. ^ May 9, 2013 (2013-05-09). "Two found dead after bridge collapse". Newsinenglish.no. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  51. ^ "Missouri motorist couldn't stop before hitting fallen overpass". CNN. 25 May 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  52. ^ "Two trains collide, overpass collapses in Scott County". Sikeston Standard Democrat. 25 May 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013. 

External linksEdit