Last modified on 31 August 2014, at 06:47

Abraham in Islam

Main article: Abraham
Abraham (Ibrahim)
alayhi s-salām ( عليه السلام )
Ibrahim (Abraham)1.png
The name Abraham written in Islamic calligraphy followed by Peace be upon him.
Native name Ibrāhīm - إبراهيم
Born c. 2510 BH
Ur, Iraq
Died c. 2329 BH (aged approximately 175)
Hebron, West Bank
Cause of death
Old Age
Resting place
Ibrahimi Mosque
Religion Islam
Spouse(s) Hajar, Sarah
Children Ismail (Ishmael), Ishaq (Issac)
Abraham in the Mosque of Abraham in Hebron

Ibrahim (Arabic: إبراهيمtranslit.: ʾIbrāhīm, pronounced [ʔibraːˈhiːm]), known as Abraham in the Old Testament, is recognized in Islam as a prophet and apostle [1][2] of God (Arabic: الله Allāh) and patriarch of many peoples. In Muslim belief, Abraham fulfilled all the commandments and trials which God tried him with over his lifetime. As a result of his unwavering faith in God, Abraham was promised by God to be a leader to all the nations of the world.[3] Abraham embodies the type of the perfect Muslim and the Quran mentions Abraham as a model for mankind.[4] In this sense, Abraham has been described as representing "primordial man in universal surrender to the Divine Reality before its fragmentation into religions separated from each other by differences in form".[5] The Islamic holy day Eid al-Adha is celebrated in memory of the bravery of Abraham, and Muslims perform the pilgrimage to pay homage at the Kaaba which Abraham had set up and reformed.[6]

Muslims believe that the prophet Abraham became the leader of the righteous in his time and it was through him that the people of both Arabia and Israel came. Abraham, in the belief of Islam, was instrumental in cleansing the world of idolatry at the time. Paganism was cleared out by Abraham in both Arabia and Canaan. He spiritually purified both places as well as physically sanctifying the houses of worship. Abraham and Ismail (Ishmael) further established the rites of pilgrimage,[7] or Hajj, which are still followed by Muslims today. Muslims maintain that Abraham further asked God to bless both the lines of his progeny, of Ismail (Ishmael) and Ishaq (Isaac), and to keep all of his descendants in the protection of God. They also believe that Muhammad is a descendant of Abraham through Ishmael.[citation needed]

FamilyEdit

Some Muslims maintain that Abraham's father was Azar (Arabic: ازرtranslit.: Āzar),[8][9] which could be derived from the Syriac Athar,[10] who is known in the Hebrew Bible as Terah. Other Muslims maintain that Azar was his paternal uncle. [11] Commentators and scholars believed that Abraham himself had many children, but Ismail (Ishmael) and Ishaq (Isaac) were the only two who became prophets. Abraham's two wives are believed to have been Sarah and Hājar (Hagar), the latter of whom was originally Sarah's handmaiden.[12] Abraham's nephew is said to have been the messenger Lut (Lot), who was one of the other people who migrated with Abraham out of their community. Abraham himself is said to have been of Semitic lineage, being a descendant of Nuh (Noah) through his son Shem.[13]

Personality and wisdomEdit

Abraham's personality and character is one of the most in-depth in the whole Quran, and Abraham is specifically mentioned as being a kind and compassionate man.[14] Abraham's father is understood by all Muslims to have been a wicked, ignorant and idolatrous man who ignored all of his son's advice. The relationship between Abraham and his father, who in the Quran is named Azar, is central to Abraham's story as Muslims understand it to establish a large part of Abraham's personality. The Quran mentions that Abraham's father threatened to stone his son to death if he did not cease in preaching to the people.[15] Despite this, the Quran states that Abraham in his later years prayed to God to forgive the sins of all his descendants and his parents. Muslims have frequently cited Abraham's character as an example of how kind one must be towards people, and especially one's own parents. A similar example of Abraham's compassionate nature is demonstrated when Abraham began to pray for the people of Sodom and Gomorrah after hearing of God's plan for them. Although God told Abraham that His plan was the final word, and therefore Abraham's prayers would be of no effect, the Quran nonetheless reinforces Abraham's kind nature through this particular event.[16]

Life according to the Qu'ran and Islamic traditionEdit

YouthEdit

Ibrahim was born in a house of idolaters in the ancient city of Ur, in the Mesopotamian plains of Babylonia (present-day Iraq). The language that was spoken at the time was Akkadian (Akkadian is now an extinct language.) His father Azar was a well known idol sculptor that his people worshipped. As a young child, Ibrahim used to watch his father sculpting these idols from stones or wood. When his father was done with them, Ibrahim would use them as toys, riding on their backs and kicking them at times. Then after a while, he would see these same statues in the temple and people prostrating in front of them. Ibrahim was taken aback by such scenes. Ibrahim asked his father, "Why do you take these toys to the temple?" His father replied, "They are not toys! They are statues that represent our gods. We worship them, we ask favors from them and we offer them presents." Ibrahim's mind rejected this idea, and he felt a repulsion towards the idols.[17]

Despite his opposition to idolatry, his father Azar would still send Ibrahim to sell his idols in the marketplace. Once there, Ibraham would call out to the passersby, "Who’ll buy my idols? They won’t help you and they can’t hurt you! Who’ll buy my idols?" Then Ibrahim would mock the idols. He would take them to the river, push their faces into the water and command them, "Drink! Drink!" Once again, Ibrahim asked his father, "How can you worship what doesn’t see or hear or do you any good?" Azar replied, "Dare you deny the gods of our people? Get out of my sight!" Ibrahim replied, "May God forgive you. No more will I live with you and your idols." After this, Ibrahim left his father's home for good.

During one of the many festivals that would take place in the city, the people would gather in their temple and placed offerings of food before their idols. Ibrahim would ask the people, "What are you worshipping? Do these idols hear when you call them? Can they help you or hurt you?" The people would reply, "It is the way of our forefathers." Ibrahim declared "I am sick of your gods! Truly I am their enemy."[18] After several years, Ibrahim became a young man. He still could not believe that his people were worshipping the statues. He laughed whenever he saw them entering the temple, lowering their heads, silently offering the statues the best of their food, crying and asking forgiveness from them. He started feeling angry towards his people, who could not realize that these are only stones that could neither benefit nor harm them.[19]

Searching for the truthEdit

One night, Ibrahim went up to the mountain, leaned against a rock and looked up to the sky. He saw a shining star and said to himself, "Could this be my Lord?" But when it set he said: "I don't like those that set." The star had disappeared so it could not be God. God is always present. Then he saw the moon rising in splendor and said, "Could this be my Lord?" but the moon also set. At daybreak, he saw the sun rising and said, "Could this be my Lord? This is the biggest and brightest!" But when the sun also set he said, "O my people! I am free from all that you join as partners with Allah! I have turned my face towards Allah who created the heavens and the earth and never shall I associate partners with Allah. Our Lord is the creator of the heavens and the earth and everything in between. He has the power to make the stars rise and set." After this declaration, Ibrahim then heard Allah calling him, "O Ibrahim!" Ibrahim trembled and said, "Here I am O my Lord!" Allah replied, "Submit to Me! Be a Muslim!" Ibrahim fell on the ground, prostrating and crying. Ibrahim said: "I submit to the Lord of the universe!" Ibrahim kept prostrating until nightfall. He then got up and went back to his home, in peace and full of conviction that Allah has guided him to the truth.[20]

A new life started for Ibrahim. His mission now was to call his people to monotheism. He first started with his father who was the closest person to him and whom he loved so much. He said to him in the softest and kindest voice: "O father! Why do you worship that which doesn't hear, doesn't see, and cannot avail you in anything? O father, I have got knowledge which you have not, so follow me. I will guide you to a straight path." His father replied angrily: "Do you reject my gods, O Ibrahim? If you don't stop I will stone you to death! Get away from me before I punish you!" Ibrahim replied: "Peace be on you! I will ask forgiveness of my Lord for you."

Conflict with the idol worshippersEdit

He left his father after he lost hope to convert him to monotheism and directed his efforts towards the people of the town, but they rejected his call and threatened him. Ibrahim then hatched a plan to destroy their idols. He knew that a big celebration was coming soon, where everybody would leave town for a big feast on the riverbank. After making sure that nobody was left in town, Ibrahim went towards the temple armed with an axe. Statues of all shapes and sizes were sitting there adorned with decorations. Plates of food were offered to them but the food was untouched. "Well, why don’t you eat? The food is getting cold." He said to the statues, jokingly; then with his axe he destroyed all the statues except the largest one. He left the axe hanging round the neck of the biggest idol. The polytheists were shocked when they returned and entered the temple. They gathered inside watching in awe of their gods broken in pieces. They wondered who might have done this, then they all remembered that the young Ibrahim was talking evil of their idols. They brought him to the temple and asked him: "Are you the one who has done this to our gods?" Ibrahim replied, "No, this statue, the biggest of them has done it. Ask them if they can speak." The polytheists replied, "You know well that these idols don’t speak." Ibrahim then questioned them by saying, "Then how come you worship things that can neither speak nor see, nor even fend for themselves? Have you people lost your minds?" The polytheists kept silent for a while because he had a point. Then they started yelling at Ibrahim and shouting, "Burn him! Burn him! Take revenge for your gods!"

The great fireEdit

The decision to have Ibrahim burned at the stake was affirmed by the temple priests and the king of Babylon, Nimrod. The news spread like fire in the kingdom and people were coming from all places to watch the execution. A huge pit was dug up and a large quantity of wood was piled up. Then the biggest fire people ever witnessed was lit. The flames were so high up in the sky that even the birds could not fly over it for fear of being burnt themselves. Ibrahim's hands and feet were chained, and he was put in a catapult, ready to be thrown in. During this time, Angel Jibreel came to him and said: "O Ibrahim! Is there anything you wish for?" Ibrahim could have asked to be saved from the fire or to be taken away, but Ibrahim replied, "No. I only wish that Allah be pleased with me." The catapult was released and Ibrahim was thrown into the fire. Allah then gave an order to the fire, "O fire! Be coolness and safety for Ibrahim." A miracle occurred, the fire obeyed and burned only his chains. Ibrahim came out from it as if he was coming out from a garden, peaceful, his face illuminated and not a trace of smoke on his clothes. People watched in shock and exclaimed: "Amazing! Ibrahim's God has saved him from the fire!"[21]

Confrontation with NimrodEdit

The Quran discusses a certain conversation between an unrighteous ruler and Abraham. Although identification for the unnamed king has been recognized as being least important in the narrative, many historical sources suggest that it was Nimrod,[22] the king who had ordered the building of the Tower of Babel.

According to the narrative, Nimrod became extremely arrogant due to his wealth and power, to the point that he made the claim that he possessed the power of creation. Claiming divinity for himself, Nimrod quarreled with Ibrahim but the Quran describes that he only deepened in confusion. According to Romano-Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, Nimrod was a man who set his will against that of God. Nimrod proclaimed himself as a living god and was worshipped as such by his subjects. Nimrod's consort Semiramis was also worshipped as a goddess at his side. (See also Ninus.) Before Abraham was born, a portent in the stars tells Nimrod and his astrologers of the impending birth of Abraham, who would put an end to idolatry. Nimrod therefore orders the killing of all newborn babies. However, Abraham's mother escapes into the fields and gives birth secretly.

Flavius Josephus mentions that Abraham confronts Nimrod and tells him face-to-face to cease his idolatry, whereupon Nimrod orders him burned at the stake. Nimrod has his subjects gather enough wood so as to burn Abraham in the biggest fire the world had ever seen. Yet when the fire is lit and Abraham is thrown into it, Abraham walks out unscathed. In Islam, it is debated whether the decision to have Ibrahim burned at the stake came from Nimrod and the temple priests or whether the people themselves became vigilantes and hatched the plan to have him burned at the stake.

According to Muslim commentators, after Ibrahim survived the great fire, notoriety in society grew bigger after this event. Nimrod, who was the King of Babylon felt that his throne was in danger, and that he was losing power because upon witnessing Ibrahim coming out of the fire unharmed, a large part of society started believing in Allah and Ibrahim being a prophet of Allah. Up until this point, Nimrod was pretending that he himself was a God. Nimrod wanted to debate with him and show his people that he, the king is indeed the god and that Ibrahim was a liar. Nimrod asked Ibrahim, "What can your God do that I cannot?" Ibrahim replied, "My Lord is He who gives life and death." Nimrod then shouted, "I give life and death! I can bring a person from the street and have him executed, and I can grant my pardon to a person who was sentenced to death and save his life." Ibrahim replied, "Well, my lord Allah makes the sun rise from the East. Can you make it rise from the West?" Nimrod was confounded. He was beaten at his own game, on his own territory and in front of his own people. Prophet Ibrahim left him there speechless and went back to his important mission, calling people to worship the one and only God, Allah.[23][24]

This event has been noted as particularly important because, in the Muslim perspective, it almost foreshadowed the prophetic careers of future prophets, most significantly the career of Moses. Abraham's quarrel with the king has been interpreted by some to be a precursor to Moses's preaching to Pharaoh. Just as the ruler who argued against Abraham claimed divinity for himself, so did the Pharaoh of the Exodus, who refused to hear the call of Moses and perished in the Red Sea. In this particular incident, scholars have further commented on Abraham's wisdom in employing "rational, wise and target-oriented" speech, as opposed to pointless arguments.[25]

Abraham, in the eyes of many Muslims, also symbolized the highest moral values essential to any person. The Quran details the account of the angels coming to Abraham to tell him of the birth of Isaac. It says that, as soon as Abraham saw the messengers, he "hastened to entertain them with a roasted calf."[26] This action has been interpreted by all the scholars as exemplary; many scholars have commentated upon this one action, saying that it symbolizes Abraham's exceedingly high moral level and thus is a model for how men should act in a similar situation. This incident has only further heightened the "compassionate" character of Abraham in Muslim theology.[27]

MiraclesEdit

Abraham encountered several miracles of God during his lifetime. The Quran records a few main miracles, although different interpretations have been attributed to the passages. Some of the miracles recorded in the Quran are:

  • Abraham was shown the kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth.[28]
  • Abraham and the miracle of the birds.[29]
  • Abraham was thrown into a fire, which became "cool" and "peaceful" for him.[30]

The first passage has been interpreted both literally, allegorically and otherwise. Although some commentators feel that this passage referred to a physical miracle, where Abraham was physically shown the entire kingdom of Heaven (Jannah),[31] others have felt that it refers to the spiritual understanding of Abraham; these latter scholars maintain that the Chaldeans were skilled in the observance of the stars, but Abraham, who lived amongst them, saw beyond the physical world and into a higher spiritual realm. The second passage has one mainstream interpretation amongst the Quranic commentators, that Abraham took four birds and cut them up, placing pieces of each on nearby hills; when he called out to them, each piece joined and four birds flew back to Abraham.[32] This miracle, as told by the Quranic passage, was a demonstration by God to show Abraham how God gave life to the dead. As the physical cutting of the birds is not implied in the passage, some commentators have offered alternative interpretations, but all maintain that the miracle was for the same demonstrative purpose to show Abraham the power God has to raise the dead to life.[33] The third passage has also been interpreted both literally and metaphorically, or in some cases both. Commentators state that the 'fire' refers to main aspects. They maintained that, firstly, the fire referred to the physical flame, from which Abraham was saved unharmed. The commentators further stated that, secondly, the fire referred to the 'fire of persecution', from which Abraham was saved, as he left his people after this with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot.[34]

TitleEdit

KhalilullahEdit

Abraham is given the title Khalilullah (Arabic: خلیل‌ اللهtranslit.: Ḵalīlullāḥ, Meaning: Friend of Allah) in Islam.[2][35] The Quran says:

Who can be better in religion than one who submits his whole self to Allah, does good, and follows the way of Abraham the true in Faith? For Allah did take Abraham for a friend.

—Quran, sura 4 (An-Nisa) ayat 125[36]

This particular title of Abraham is so famous in Muslim culture and tradition that, in the areas in and around Mecca, Abraham is often referred to solely as The Friend.[37] This title of Friend of God is not exclusive to Islamic theology. Although the other religious traditions do not stress upon it, Abraham is called a Friend of God in the second Book of Chronicles and the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)[38] as well as in the New Testament.[39]

Abraham and the KaabaEdit

The Kaaba, which remains the most significant mosque in Islam, is believed to have been constructed by Abraham and Ishmael.

One of Abraham's most important features in Islamic theology is his role as the constructor of the Kabba. Although tradition recounts that Adam constructed the original Kabba, which was demolished by the Great Flood at the time of Noah, Abraham is believed to have rebuilt it in its original form. The Quran, in the Muslim perspective, merely confirms or reinforces the laws of pilgrimage. The rites were instituted by Abraham and for all Muslims, as they perform the pilgrimage, the event is a way to return to the perfection of Abraham's faith.[40] Just as Medina is referred to as the "City of the Prophet [Muhammad]" or simply the "City of Muhammad", Mecca is frequently cited as the "City of Abraham", because Abraham's reformation of the purified monotheistic faith took place purely in Mecca.[41]

Scrolls of AbrahamEdit

The Quran refers to certain Scrolls of Abraham, which have alternatively been translated as the Books of Abraham. All Muslim scholars have generally agreed that no scrolls of Abraham survive, and therefore this is a reference to a lost body of scripture.[42] The Scrolls of Abraham are understood by Muslims to refer to certain revelations Abraham received, which he would have then transmitted to writing. The exact contents of the revelation are not described in the Quran.

The 87th chapter of the Quran, sura Al-Ala, concludes saying the subject matter of the sura has been in the earlier scriptures of Abraham and Moses. It is slightly indicative of what were in the previous scriptures, according to Islam:

Therefore give admonition in case the admonition profits (the hearer).
The admonition will be received by those who fear (Allah):
But it will be avoided by those most unfortunate ones,
Who will enter the Great Fire,
In which they will then neither die nor live.
But those will prosper who purify themselves,
And glorify the name of their Guardian-Lord, and (lift their hearts) in prayer.
Day (behold), ye prefer the life of this world;
But the Hereafter is better and more enduring.
And this is in the Books of the earliest (Revelation),-
The Books of Abraham and Moses.

—Quran, sura 87 (Al-Ala), ayah 9-19 [43]

Chapter 53 of the Quran, sura An-Najm, mentions some more subject matters of the earlier scriptures of Abraham and Moses.

Nay, is he not acquainted with what is in the Books of Moses-
And of Abraham who fulfilled his engagements?-
Namely, that no bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another;
That man can have nothing but what he strives for;
That (the fruit of) his striving will soon come in sight:
Then will he be rewarded with a reward complete;
That to thy Lord is the final Goal;
That it is He Who granteth Laughter and Tears;
That it is He Who granteth Death and Life;
That He did create in pairs,- male and female,
From a seed when lodged (in its place);
That He hath promised a Second Creation (Raising of the Dead);
That it is He Who giveth wealth and satisfaction;
That He is the Lord of Sirius (the Mighty Star);
And that it is He Who destroyed the (powerful) ancient 'Ad (people),
And the Thamud nor gave them a lease of perpetual life.
And before them, the people of Noah, for that they were (all) most unjust and most insolent transgressors,
And He destroyed the Overthrown Cities (of Sodom and Gomorrah).
So that (ruins unknown) have covered them up.
Then which of the gifts of thy Lord, (O man,) wilt thou dispute about?
This is a Warner, of the (series of) Warners of old!
The (Judgment) ever approaching draws nigh:
No (soul) but Allah can lay it bare.
Do ye then wonder at this recital?
And will ye laugh and not weep,-
Wasting your time in vanities?
But fall ye down in prostration to Allah, and adore (Him)!

—Quran 53 (An-Najm), ayat 36-62 [44]

Yet some scholars[by whom?] suggested it to be a reference to Sefer Yetzirah, as Jewish tradition generally ascribed[citation needed] its authorship to Abraham. Other scholars, however, wrote of a certain Testament of Abraham, which they explained was available at the time of Muhammad.[45] Both of these views are disputed because Sefer Yetzirah is a part of esoteric Jewish mysticism, which originated much later in the 13th century, such scrolls or testaments should not have existed in the time of Muhammad for being referred to. And if those would have existed, according to clear instructions in the Quran and hadith, no verification should take place.

The Quran contains numerous references to Abraham, his life, prayers and traditions and has a dedicated chapter named Ibrahim. Therefore verifying the scrolls of Abraham from other traditions, especially from Judaism has no basis. The advent of Islam was due to the alteration of all previous scriptures. On a relevant note, sura Al-Kahf was revealed as an answer from God to the Jews who inquired of Muhammad about past events. Here God directly instructed Muhammad in sura Al-Kahf, not to consult the Jews for verifying the three stories about which they inquired.

Enter not, therefore, into controversies concerning them, except on a matter that is clear, nor consult any of them about (the affair of) the Sleepers.

— Quran, sura 18 (Al-Kahf), ayat 22 [46]

The reason being God declaring He Himself is relating what needs to be verified in another verse of sura Al-Kahf:

We relate to thee their story in truth: they were youths who believed in their Lord, and We advanced them in guidance:

—Quran, sura 18, (Al-Kahf), ayat 13[47]

Regarding consultation with the People of the Book, it is also narrated by Abu Hurairah in Hadith literature:

Narrated Abu Huraira: The people of the Scripture (Jews) used to recite the Torah in Hebrew and they used to explain it in Arabic to the Muslims. On that Allah's Apostle said, "Do not believe the people of the Scripture or disbelieve them, but say:-- "We believe in Allah and what is revealed to us."

Therefore relating to any ascription of the Scrolls of Abraham by the people of the book is not required.

Burial placeEdit

In the mosque at the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron, this grate allows visitors to look down into the 40-foot shaft leading to the ground level of the cave where Abraham and Sarah are buried.

Muslims believe that Abraham was buried, along with his wife Sarah, at the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron. Known to Muslims as the Sanctuary of Abraham it is also thought to be the burial site of Isaac, his wife Rebecca and Jacob and his wife Leah.[citation needed]

Narrative in the QuranEdit

References to Abraham in the QuranEdit

There are numerous references to Abraham in the Quran, including, twice, to the Scrolls of Abraham;[49] in the latter passage, it is mentioned that Abraham "fulfilled his engagements?-",[50] a reference to all the trials that Abraham had succeeded in. In a whole series of chapters, the Quran relates how Abraham preached to his community as a youth and how he specifically told his father, named Azar,[51] to leave idol-worship and come to the worship of God.[52] Some passages of the Quran, meanwhile, deal with the story of how God sent angels to Abraham with the announcement of the punishment to be imposed upon Lot's people in Sodom and Gomorrah.[53] Other verses mention the near-sacrifice of Abraham's son,[54] whose name is not given but is presumed to be Ishmael as the following verses mention the birth of Isaac.[55] The Quran also repeatedly establishes Abraham's role as patriarch and mentions numerous important descendants who came through his lineage, including Isaac,[56] Jacob[57] and Ishmael.[58] In the later chapters of the Quran, Abraham's role becomes yet more prominent. The Quran mentions that Abraham and Ishmael were the reformers who set up the Kabba in Mecca as a center of pilgrimage for monotheism[59] The Quran consistently refers to Islam as "the Religion of Abraham" (millat Ibrahim)[60] and Abraham is given a title as Hanif (The Pure, "true in Faith" or "upright man").[61] The Quran also mentions Abraham as one whom God took as a friend (Khalil),[36] hence Abraham's title in Islam, Khalil-Allah (Friend of God). The term is considered by some to be a derivation of the patriarch's Hebrew title, Kal El (קל-אל), which means "voice of God".[62][63] Other instances in the Quran which are described in a concise manner are the rescue of Abraham from the fire into which he was thrown by his people';[64][65] his pleading for his father;[66] his quarrel with an unrighteous and powerful king[67] and the miracle of the dead birds.[29]

All these events and more have been discussed with more details in Muslim tradition, and especially in the Stories of the Prophets and works of universal Islamic theology.[68] Certain episodes from the life of Abraham have been more heavily detailed in Islamic text, such as the arguments between Abraham and the evil king, Nimrod, the near-sacrifice of his son, and the story of Hagar and Ishmael, which Muslims commemorate when performing pilgrimage in Mecca. An important Islamic religious holiday, Eid al-Adha, commemorates Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son Ishmael as an act of obedience to God, before God intervened to provide him with a sheep to sacrifice instead.[69] In some cases, some believe these legends in Islamic text may have influenced later Jewish tradition.[70]

Verses in the QuranEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Quran 87:19
  2. ^ a b Siddiqui, Mona. "Ibrahim – the Muslim view of Abraham". Religions (BBC). Retrieved 3 February 2013. 
  3. ^ Quran 2:124
  4. ^ Quran 16:120
  5. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, C. Glasse, p. 18
  6. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, C. Glasse, Kaaba
  7. ^ Quran 2:128
  8. ^ Prophet, Ibrahim. "Father". Islamicity. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  9. ^ Ibrahim, Prophet. "Father". Haq Islam. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  10. ^ Geiger 1898 Judaism and Islam: A Prize Essay.,p. 100
  11. ^ http://www.alahazrat.net/alquran/Quran/006/006_074_081.html
  12. ^ Lings, Martin. "Muhammad". House of God Chap. I (cf. Index: "Abraham"), Suhail Academy Co.
  13. ^ "Ibrahim". Encyclopedia of Islam, Online version.
  14. ^ Quran 11:75
  15. ^ Quran 19:46
  16. ^ Lives of the Prophets, L. Azzam, Suhail Academy Co.
  17. ^ http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/ibrahim.htm
  18. ^ http://www.aaronshep.com/stories/035.html
  19. ^ http://www.festivalsofindia.in/Deites/OtherReligions/Ibrahim.aspx
  20. ^ http://www.missionislam.com/comprel/ProphetIbrahim.htm
  21. ^ http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/ibrahim.htm
  22. ^ History of the Prophets and Kings, Tabari, Vol. I: Prophets and Patriarchs
  23. ^ http://www.islamicity.com/media/ancmts/docum1.htm
  24. ^ http://www.islamawareness.net/Prophets/ibrahim.html
  25. ^ Book 1: The Prophet Abraham, Harun Yahya, The Unbeliever Advised By Abraham, Online. web.
  26. ^ Quran 11:69
  27. ^ Book 1: The Prophet Abraham, Harun Yahya, Angels Who Visited Abraham, Online. web.
  28. ^ Quran 6:75
  29. ^ a b Quran 2:260
  30. ^ Quran 21:68–70
  31. ^ The Book of Certainty, M. Lings, S. Academy Publishing
  32. ^ Stories of the Prophets, Kisa'i/Kathir, Story of Abraham
  33. ^ Quran: Text, Translation, Commentary, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, note. 285
  34. ^ Quran: Text, Translation, Commentary, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, note. 2703
  35. ^ "Title". Answering Islam. Retrieved 1 February 2013. 
  36. ^ a b Quran 4:125
  37. ^ Mecca: From Before Genesis Until Now, M. Lings. Archetype Books
  38. ^ Isaiah 41:8 and 2 Chronicles 20:7
  39. ^ James 2:23
  40. ^ Mecca: From Before Genesis Until Now, M. Lings, pg. 39, Archetype
  41. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, C. Glasse, Kaaba, Suhail Academy
  42. ^ A-Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, Abraham
  43. ^ Quran 87:9–19
  44. ^ Quran 53:36–62
  45. ^ Tafsir and Commentary on 87: 18-19 & 53: 36-37, Abdullah Yusuf Ali and Muhammad Asad
  46. ^ Quran 18:22
  47. ^ Quran 18:13
  48. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 6:60:12
  49. ^ Quran 87:18–19 and 53:36–37
  50. ^ Quran 53:37
  51. ^ Quran 6:74
  52. ^ Quran 37:83–89, 26:68–89, 19:41–50, 43:26–28, 21:51–73, 29:16–28 and 6:74–84
  53. ^ Quran 52:24–34, 25:51–60, 11:69–76 and 29:31
  54. ^ Quran 37:100–111
  55. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, C. Glasse, Ishmael
  56. ^ Quran 25:53
  57. ^ Quran 29:49, 21:72, 29:27, 6:84, 11:71 and 38:45–47
  58. ^ Quran 2:132–133
  59. ^ Quran 2:123–141, 3:65–68, 3:95–97, 4:125, 4:26–29 and 22:78
  60. ^ Quran 2:135
  61. ^ Quran 3:67
  62. ^ Weinstein, Simcha (2006). Up, Up, and Oy Vey! (1st ed.). Leviathan Press. ISBN 978-1-881927-32-7
  63. ^ World Jewish Digest (Aug, 2006; posted online 25 July 2006): "Superman's Other Secret Identity", by Jeff Fleischer
  64. ^ Quran 37:97 and 21:68–70
  65. ^ 21:51–73
  66. ^ Quran 28:47
  67. ^ Quran 2:58
  68. ^ Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Ibrahim; Tales of the Prophets, Kisa'i, Ibrahim
  69. ^ Diversity Calendar: Eid al-Adha University of Kansas Medical Center
  70. ^ J. Eisenberg, EI, Ibrahim

ReferencesEdit

Further readingEdit

GeneralEdit

  • P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  • Cyril Glasse, Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, Pgs. 18–19 (Abraham), Suhail Academy

Abraham and the KaabaEdit

  • Martin Lings, Mecca: From Before Genesis Until Now, Archetype
  • Leila Azzam, Lives of the Prophets, Abraham and the Kaaba, Suhail Academy

Abraham's lifeEdit

External linksEdit