Last modified on 16 November 2014, at 17:37

Ishmael

For other uses, see Ishmael (disambiguation).
"Ismail" redirects here. For the figure's role in Islam, see Ishmael in Islam. For other uses, see Ismail (disambiguation).
Ishmael
Navez Agar et Ismaël.jpg
A depiction of Hagar and Ishmael in the desert by François-Joseph Navez
Prophet, Patriarch, Father of the Arabs, Constructor of the Kaaba, Apostle to Arabia
Born Canaan
Died Arabia
Honored in
Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Bahai Faith
Influences Abraham

Ishmael Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Modern Yishma'el Tiberian Yišmāʻēl ISO 259-3 Yišmaˁel; (Arabic: إسماعيلʾIsmāʿīl; Greek: Ἰσμαήλ Ismaēl; Latin: Ismael) is a figure in the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an and was Abraham's first son according to Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Ishmael was born of Abraham's marriage to Sarah's handmaiden Hagar (Genesis 16:3). According to the Genesis account, he died at the age of 137 (Genesis 25:17).[1]

The Book of Genesis and Islamic traditions consider Ishmael to be the ancestor of the Ishmaelites.

EtymologyEdit

Cognates of Hebrew Yishma'el existed in various ancient Semitic cultures,[2] including early Babylonian and Minæan.[1] It is translated literally as "God has hearkened", suggesting that "a child so named was regarded as the fulfillment of a divine promise".[2]

Genesis narrativeEdit

The dismissal of Hagar, by Pieter Pietersz Lastman

This is the account of Ishmael from Genesis Chapters 16, 17, 21, 25

BirthEdit

In Genesis 16, the birth of Ishmael was planned by the Patriarch Abraham's first wife, who at that time was known as Sarai. She and her husband Abram (Abraham) sought a way to have children in order to fulfill the Abrahamic covenant that was established in Genesis 15. Since Sarai had yet to bear Abraham a child, her idea was to offer her Egyptian handmaiden Hagar to Abraham, so that they could have a child by her. Abraham consented to a marital arrangement taking Hagar as his second wife[3] when he was in his late 85th year of age. Customs of that time dictated that, although Hagar was the birth mother, any child conceived would belong to Sarai and Abraham (Sarah and Abraham).[4]

Genesis 16:7-16 describes the naming of Ishmael, and Yahweh's promise to Hagar concerning Ishmael and his descendants. This occurred at the well of Beer-lahai-roi, located in the desert region between Abraham’s settlement and Shur. Hagar fled here after Sarai dealt harshly with her for showing contempt for her mistress following her having become pregnant. Here, Hagar encountered an angel of Yahweh who instructed her to return and be submissive to Sarai so that she could have her child there. The blessing that this child's father was promised was that Abraham's descendants would be as numerous as the dust of the earth. However, the promise would be to a son of Sarai; yet God would make of this child a great nation, who would be named Ishmael, because he was of the seed of Abraham. When Ishmael was born, Abraham was 86 years old.

Inheritance rights and the first circumcisionEdit

When he was 13 years old, Ishmael was circumcised at the same time as all other males in Abraham's house becoming a part of the covenant in a mass circumcision. His father Abram, given the new name "Abraham," was also at this time, at the age of 99, initiated into the covenant by having himself and the males of his entire household circumcised. (Genesis 17)

At the time of the covenant, God informed Abraham that his wife Sarah would give birth to a son, which he was instructed to name Isaac. God told Abraham that He would establish his covenant through Isaac, and when Abraham inquired as to Ishmael's role, God answers that Ishmael has been blessed and that He “will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation.” (Genesis 17)

A year later, Ishmael's half-brother Isaac was born to Abraham by his first wife Sarah.

On the day of feasting during which Abraham celebrated the weaning of Isaac, Ishmael was “mocking” or "playing with" Isaac (the Hebrew word is ambiguous[5])[1] and Sarah asked Abraham to expel Ishmael and his mother, saying: "Get rid of that slave woman and her son, for that slave woman's son will never share in the inheritance with my son Isaac."[4][6] This proposition was grievous in Abraham's sight because of his son and the bondwoman, Hagar. Abraham only agreed when God told him that "for in Isaac your seed shall be called", and that He would "make a nation of the son of the bondwoman" Ishmael, since he was a descendant of Abraham. (Genesis 21:11–13)

Hagar and Ishmael in the Desert, by Grigory Ugryumov (c. 1785)

At the age of 14, Ishmael was freed along with his mother. The Lord’s covenant made clear Ishmael was not to inherit Abraham’s house and that Isaac would be the seed of the covenant. Abraham gave him and his mother a supply of bread and water and sent them away. Hagar entered in the wilderness of Beer-sheba where the two soon ran out of water and Hagar, not wanting to witness the death of her son, set the boy some distance away from herself, and wept. "And God heard the voice of the lad" and sent his angel to tell Hagar, "Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him in thine hand; for I will make him a great nation." And God "opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water", from which she drew to save Ishmael's life and her own. "And God was with the lad; and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer." (Genesis 21:14–21)

DescendantsEdit

Main article: Ishmaelites

After roaming the wilderness for some time, Ishmael and his mother settled in the Desert of Paran, where he became an expert in archery. Eventually, his mother found him a wife from the land of Egypt.[7] They had twelve sons who each became tribal chiefs throughout the regions from Havilah to Shur (from Assyria to the border of Egypt).[8] His sons were:[9]

  1. Nebaioth Nabit (means First-born or First Fruit in Arabic نبيت or نبيط pronounced Nabeet)
  2. Kedar, (in Arabic قيدر pronounced Qaidar) father of the Qedarites, a northern Arab tribe that controlled the area between the Persian Gulf and the Sinai Peninsula. According to tradition, he is the ancestor of the Quraysh tribe, and thus of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.[10]
  3. Adbeel, (means God's servant in Arabic عبدالله) established a tribe in northwest Arabia.
  4. Mibsam (means Smiley in Arabic مبسم pronounced Mubsem)
  5. Mishma (means Obeyed in Arabic مسموع pronounced Masmou')
  6. Dumah (means Sand-Hill in Arabic دومه Doomah)
  7. Massa (means Night Fall in Arabic مساء pronounced Masa') father of a nomadic tribe that inhabited the Arabian desert toward Babylonia.
  8. Hadar (means The Rolling-Stone one of the many names of Lion in Arabic حيدر pronounced Haidar)
  9. Tema (means "The Good News" or "The Right Hand Man" in Arabic تيمن pronounced Tayman)
  10. Jetur (means Revolt or "Rebel" in Arabic يثور pronounced Yathur)
  11. Naphish (means Genuine in Arabic نفيس pronounced Nafees)
  12. Kedemah (means The Front Man or "Scout" in Arabic قدامه pronounced Qudamah)

Ishmael also had one known daughter, Mahalath or Basemath, the third wife of Esau.[11]

Ishmael also appeared with Isaac at the burial of Abraham.[12] Ishmael died at the age of 137.[13]

Family treeEdit

Sarah
 
Abraham
 
Hagar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Isaac
 
Ishmael
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ishmaelites
 
 

Deuterocanonical referencesEdit

The book of Jubilees places the location and identity of the Ishmaelites as the Arab peoples residing in Arab territories. This is the current view for the majority of the Christian, Islamic and Jewish faiths. According to Biblical accounts the Arab people traditionally have had long-standing alliances with the descendants of the Assyrians and the Medes.[citation needed]

World viewsEdit

Historians and academics in the fields of linguistics and source criticism believe that the stories of Ishmael belong to the three strata of J, or Yahwist source, the P, or Priestly source, and the E, or Elohist source (See Documentary hypothesis).[1] For example, The narration in Genesis 16 is of J type and the narration in Genesis 21:8-21 is of E type.[14]

Islamic traditions consider Ishmael to be the ancestor of Arab people,[2] excluding Arabs who are descendants of Ya'rub. Arabs who are from Ishmael-descendant tribes are occasionally referred to as "Arabized-Arabs" to highlight their ancestry.

Jewish traditions are split between those, like Josephus, who consider Ishmael the ancestor of the Arabs,[15] and those, like Maimonides, who believe that the northern Arabs are descended from the sons of Keturah, whom Abraham married after Sarah's death.[16]

Pre-Islamic ArabiaEdit

Some Pre-Islamic poetry mentions Ishmael, his father Abraham, and the sacrifice story, such as the Pre-Islamic poet "Umayyah Ibn Abi As-Salt", who said in one of his poems: بكره لم يكن ليصبر عنه أو يراه في معشر أقتال ([The sacrifice] of his first-born of whose separation he [Abraham] could not bear neither could he see him surrounded in foes).[17][18][19]

"Zayd Ibn Amr" was another Pre-Islamic figure who refused idolatry and preached monotheism, claiming it was the original belief of their [Arabs] father Ishmael.[20][21]

Also, some of the tribes of Central West Arabia called themselves the "people of Abraham and the offspring of Ishmael", as evidenced by a common opening of speeches and harangues of reconciliation between rival tribes in that area.[22][23]

JudaismEdit

Judaism has generally viewed Ishmael as wicked[citation needed] though repentant (whereas Christianity omits any reference to repentance, which is sourced in the Talmudic explanation of the Hebrew Bible [24]).[2] Judaism maintains that Isaac rather than Ishmael was the true heir of Abraham.[4]

In some Rabbinic traditions Ishmael is said to have had two wives; one of them named Aisha. This name corresponds to the Muslim tradition for the name of Muhammad's wife.[2] This is understood as a metaphoric representation of the Muslim world (first Arabs and then Turks) with Ishmael.[25]

The name of an important 2nd century CE sage—Ishmael ben Elisha, known as "Rabbi Ishmael" (רבי ישמעאל), one of the Tannaim—indicates that the Biblical Ishmael enjoyed a positive image among Jews of the time.[citation needed]

Rabbinical commentators in the Midrash Genesis Rabbah also say that Ishmael's mother Hagar was the Pharaoh's daughter, thereby making Ishmael the grandson of the Pharaoh. This could be why Genesis 17:20 refers to Ishmael as the father of 12 mighty princes. According to Genesis 21:21, Hagar married Ishmael to an Egyptian woman, and if Rabbinical commentators are correct about Hagar being the daughter of the Pharaoh, his marriage to a woman selected by the Pharaoh's daughter could explain how and why his sons became princes.

However, according to other Jewish commentators, Ishmael's mother Hagar is identified with Keturah, the woman Abraham married after the death of Sarah, stating that Abraham sought her out after Sarah's death. It is suggested that Keturah was Hagar's personal name, and that "Hagar" was a descriptive label meaning "stranger".[26][27][28] This interpretation is discussed in the Midrash[29] and is supported by Rashi, Gur Aryeh, Keli Yakar, and Obadiah of Bertinoro. Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo Itzhaki) argues that "Keturah" was a name given to Hagar because her deeds were as beautiful as incense (hence: ketores), and/or that she remained chaste from the time she was separated from Abraham—keturah [ קְטוּרָה Q'turah ] derives from the Aramaic word for restrained.

It is also said that Sarah was motivated by Ishmael's sexually frivolous ways because of the reference to his "making merry" (Gen. 21:9), a translation of the Hebrew word "Mitzachek". This was developed into a reference to idolatry, sexual immorality or even murder; some rabbinic sources claim that Sarah worried that Ishmael would negatively influence Isaac, or that he would demand Isaac's inheritance on the grounds of being the firstborn. Regarding the word "Mitzachek" (again in Gen. 21:9) The Jewish Study Bible by Oxford University Press says this word in this particular context is associated with; "Playing is another pun on Isaac's name (cf. 17.17; 18.12; 19.14; 26.8). Ishmael was 'Isaacing', or 'taking Isaac's place'."[30] Also others take a more positive view, emphasizing Hagar's piety, noting that she was "the one who had sat by the well and besought him who is the life of the worlds, saying 'look upon my misery'".[31]

IslamEdit

Ishmael is recognized as an important prophet and patriarch of Islam. Muslims believe that Ishmael was the firstborn of Abraham, born to him from his second wife Hagar. Ishmael is recognized by Muslims as the ancestor of several prominent Arab tribes and being the forefather of Muhammad.[32] Muslims also believe that Muhammad was the descendant of Ishmael that would establish a great nation, as promised by God in the Old Testament.[33]

And as for Ishmael, I have heard you: I will surely bless him; I will make him fruitful and will greatly increase his numbers. He will be the father of 12 rulers, and I will make them into a great nation.

Ishmael in the QuranEdit

Ishmael is mentioned over ten times in the Quran, often alongside other patriarchs and prophets of ancient times. In XIX: 54, the Quran says: "And make mention in the Scripture of Ishmael. He was a keeper of his promise, and he was a messenger, a prophet. He enjoined upon his people worship and almsgiving, and was most acceptable in the sight of his Lord." Later on, in XXXVIII: 48, Ishmael is mentioned together with Elisha and Dhul-Kifl as one of "the patiently enduring and righteous, whom God caused to enter into his mercy." It is also said of Lot, Elisha, Jonah and Ishmael, that God gave each one "preference above the worlds" (VI: 86). These references to Ishmael are, in each case, part of a larger context in which other holy prophets are mentioned. In other chapters of the Quran, however, which date from the Medina period, Ishmael is mentioned closely with his father Abraham: Ishmael stands alongside Abraham in their attempt to set up the Kaaba in Mecca as a place of monotheistic pilgrimage (II: 127-129) and Abraham thanks God for granting him Ishmael and Isaac in his old age (XIV: 35-41). Ishmael is further mentioned alongside the patriarchs who had been given revelations (II: 136) and Jacob's sons promise to follow the faith of their forefathers, "Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac", when testifying their faith (II: 133). In the narrative of the near-sacrifice of Abraham's son (XXXVII: 100-107), the son is not named and, although the general interpretation is that it was Ishmael, Tabari[34] maintained that it was Isaac. Most modern commentators, however, regard the son's identification as least important in a narrative which is given for its moral lesson.[35]

Ishmael in Muslim literatureEdit

Abraham sacrificing his son, Ishmael; and Abraham cast into fire by Nimrod. A miniature in the 16th-century manuscript Zubdat Al-Tawarikh.

The commentaries on the Quran and the numerous collections of Stories of the Prophets flesh out the Islamic perspective of Ishmael and detail what they describe as his integral part in setting up the Kaaba. According to Muslim tradition, Ishmael was buried in Al-Hijr, inside the Sacred Mosque.[36]

In Islamic belief, Abraham had prayed to God for a son and God heard his prayer. Muslim exegesis states that Sarah asked Abraham to marry her Egyptian handmaiden Hagar because she herself was barren.[32] Hagar soon bore Ishmael, who was the first son of Abraham. God then instructed Abraham to take his wife Hagar and their baby Ishmael out in to the desert and to leave them there. He did so taking them to the location of the Kaaba’s foundations (which now was in ruins) and as he turned away from Hagar and started to walk away she called out to him and asked “Why are you leaving us here?” to which Abraham didn’t reply the first two times she asked. She then changed her question and asked “Did God command you to do this?” to which Abraham stopped, turned around, looked back and replied “Yes.” and she responded “Then God will provide for us.” Abraham then continued on his return journey back to Sarah. In the desert, the baby Ishmael cried with thirst.[32] His mother placed him in the shade under a bush and went in a frantic search for water, which resulted in her running seven times between the Safa and Marwah hills trying to find a source of water or a passing caravan who she could trade with for water. Hagar, not finding any sources of water and fearing the death of her baby, sat down and cried asking for God’s help. God sent angel Gabriel to her informing her to lift up her baby and when she did, she noticed that his feet had scratched the ground allowing a spring of water to bubble up to the surface. Hagar quickly shifted the ground to form a well around the spring to contain the water forming the Zamzam well. Hagar refilled the bottle with water and give her baby a drink. This spring became known to caravans that traveled through Arabia and Hagar negotiated deals with them for supplies in exchange for the water. From her actions, the city of Mecca (originally Becca or Baca in Hebrew)) grew, and attracted settlers who stayed and provided protection for her and Ishmael as well as being sources of various goods brought in and exchanged with visiting caravans. To commemorate the blessing of the Zamzam well which God gave to Hagar and Ishmael, Muslims run between the Safa and Marwah hills retracing Hagar’s steps on her search for water, during the rites of Hajj.[32]

Abraham returned and visited Ishmael at various times throughout his life. At one time, according to a tradition of Muhammad, Abraham had arrived when his son was out and Abraham visited with Ishmael’s wife. Abraham decided to leave before seeing his son, but based upon the complaints Ishmael’s wife made in response to his questions, he gave her a message to give to her husband when he returned home, which was “change his threshold.” When Ishmael arrived that night, he asked if they had had any visitors, and was informed by his wife of the man who had visited and what he said. Ishmael understood his father and explained to his wife that the visitor was his father and he had been instructed to divorce his wife and find a better one, which Ishmael did. Some time after this, Abraham returned to visit Ishmael and again Ishmael was out. Abraham talked with Ishmael’s new wife and found her answers indicated faith in God and contentment with her husband. Abraham again had to leave before he saw his son, but left him the message to “keep his threshold.” When Ishmael returned that night, he again asked if there had been any visitors and was informed of Abraham’s visit. Ishmael told his wife who it was that had came to visit and that he approved of her and their marriage.

On one of his visits to Mecca, Abraham is said to have asked his son to help him build the requested Kaaba.[37] Islamic traditions hold that the Kaaba was first built by Adam and that Abraham and Ishmael rebuilt the Kaaba on the old foundations.[38] As Ishmael grew up in Arabia, he is said to have become fluent in Arabic. In the genealogical trees that the early scholars drew,[39] Ishmael was considered the ancestor of the Northern Arabs and Muhammad was linked to him through the lineage of the patriarch Adnan.

ChristianityEdit

In some Christian biblical interpretations, Ishmael is used to symbolize the older—now rejected—Judaic tradition; Isaac symbolizes the new tradition of Christianity.[2] According to the Genesis account, Hagar ran away from the house of Abram, (as he was not yet renamed, Abraham). Sarai's (also not yet given her new name, Sarah, by God) harsh treatment of Hagar, after being treated with contempt by her, caused her to flee. She then was visited by an Angel of the Lord at the well of Beer-lahai-roi, which means, "well of the Living One who sees me" (Gen 16:14). He instructed her to return to Abraham's house and give birth to her son, who she was to call Ishmael ("God hears")(Gen 16:11-12). So she returned and gave Abraham a son in his 86th year (Gen 16:15-16).

In the book of Galatians (4:21–31), Paul uses the incident to symbolize the relationship between Judaism, the older but now rejected tradition, and Christianity.[2] In Galatians 4:28–31,[40] Hagar is associated with the Sinai covenant, while Sarah is associated with the covenant of grace into which her son Isaac enters.[41]

Bahá'í FaithEdit

The Bahá'í writings state that it was Ishmael, and not Isaac, who was the son that Abraham almost sacrificed.[42] However, the Bahá'í writings also state that the name is unimportant as either could be used: the importance is that both were symbols of sacrifice.[43] According to Shoghi Effendi, there has also been another Ishmael, a prophet of Israel, commonly known as Samuel.[44]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Fredrick E. Greenspahn (2005). "Ishmael". In Lindsay Jones. Encyclopedia of Religion 7. Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 4551–4552. ISBN 9780028657400. 
  3. ^ Genesis 16:3
  4. ^ a b c "Hagar". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007.
  5. ^ "Hagar", Jewish Encyclopedia
  6. ^ Genesis 25:2–6
  7. ^ Genesis 21:17-21
  8. ^ "Ishmael", Jewish Encyclopedia
  9. ^ Genesis 25:12-18
  10. ^ Schaff, Philip, ed. (1880), A Dictionary of the Bible: Including Biography, Natural History, Geography, Topography, Archæology, and Literature, Philadelphia: American Sunday-School Union, p. 494 [p. 502 on-line], retrieved April 23, 2011. 
  11. ^ "Mahalath", Jewish Encyclopedia
  12. ^ Genesis 25:9
  13. ^ Genesis 25:17
  14. ^ S. Nikaido(2001), p.1
  15. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book I, Ch. 12; 2, 4
  16. ^ "Maimonides' 'True Religion': For Jews or All Humanity?", Menachem Kellner, in Meorot 7:1 (2008) p.5, n.21
  17. ^ The Treasury of literature, Sect.437
  18. ^ The Beginning of History, Volume 3, Sect.10
  19. ^ Al-Kashf Wa Al-Bayan, Volume 11, Page 324
  20. ^ The Beginning and the End by Ibn Kathir - Volume 3, Page 323
  21. ^ The History by Ibn Khaldun, Volume 2, Page 4
  22. ^ The Signs of Prophethood, Section 18, page 215
  23. ^ The Collection of the Speeches of Arabs, volume 1, section 75
  24. ^ http://www.chiefrabbi.org/UploadedFiles/thoughts/kitetse5767.pdf
  25. ^ Shalom Paul in The Oxford Dictionary of Jewish Religion, p.358
  26. ^ "The Return of Hagar", commentary on Parshah Chayei Sarah, Chabad Lubavitch.
  27. ^ "Who Was Ketura?", Bar-Ilan University's Parashat Hashavua Study Center, 2003.
  28. ^ "Parshat Chayei Sarah", Torah Insights, Orthodox Union, 2002.
  29. ^ Bereshit Rabbah 61:4.
  30. ^ Adele Berlin, Marc Zvi Brettler (2004). The Jewish Study Bible. Oxford University Press. p. 44. ISBN 9780195297515. 
  31. ^ Jeffrey, David L., A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1992, p. 326 ISBN 0-8028-3634-8
  32. ^ a b c d A-Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Wheeler, Ishmael
  33. ^ Zeep, Ira G. (2000). A Muslim primer: beginner's guide to Islam, Volume 2. University of Arkansas Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-55728-595-9. 
  34. ^ "Isaac", Encyclopedia of Islam, volume 4
  35. ^ Glasse, C., "Ishmael", Concise Encyclopedia of Islam
  36. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam Volume 4, Ismail
  37. ^ Quran 2:127)
  38. ^ Azraqi, Akhbar Makkah, vol. 1, pp. 58-66
  39. ^ Chronicles, Tabari, Vol I: From Creation to Flood
  40. ^ Galatians 4:28–31
  41. ^ Encyclopedia of Christianity(Ed. John Bowden), Isaac
  42. ^ Bahá'u'lláh (1976). Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 75–76. ISBN 0-87743-187-6. 
  43. ^ Cole, Juan R.I. (1995). "Interpretation in the Bahá'í Faith". Baha'i Studies Review 5 (1). 
  44. ^ "Concerning the appearance of two Davids; there is a Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá in which He says that just as there have been two Ishmaels, one the son of Abraham, and the other one of the Prophets of Israel, there have appeared two Davids, one the author of the Psalms and father of Solomon, and the other before Moses." (Shoghi Effendi, Dawn of a New Day, pp. 86–87)

Bibliographic referencesEdit

Books and journals
Encyclopedias
  • Hubert Cancik; Helmuth Schneider, eds. (2005). Brill's New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World: Antiquity. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-12270-3. 
  • Paul Lagasse, Lora Goldman, Archie Hobson, Susan R. Norton, ed. (2000). The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). Gale Group. ISBN 978-1-59339-236-9. 
  • John Bowden, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Christianity (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-522393-4. 
  • P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  • Lindsay Jones, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Religion (2nd ed.). MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0-02-865733-2. 
  • The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated; Rev Ed edition. 2005. ISBN 978-1-59339-236-9. 
  • Jane Dammen McAuliffe, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of the Qur'an. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-12356-4. 

External linksEdit