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Indian gauge, 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in), is a broad track gauge commonly used in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Argentina and Chile. It is also the gauge that is used on BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit), in the San Francisco Bay Area, United States
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2012)|
In India, the Governor-General James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, 10th Earl of Dalhousie determined that a wider gauge than standard gauge was more suitable for larger firebox and stability in high winds and long steep gradients.
In the late 20th century, India adopted Project Unigauge. Gauge conversion towards Indian gauge is underway, replacing several narrow gauges and meter gauges.
In the 1850s it was first used in Canada, and was then used in other British colonies. It was known as the "Provincial gauge" in Canada. Having a break-of-gauge was seen as having defence value, the War of 1812 still being a fresh memory. The Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad was laid in 1836 to 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) gauge.
The Grand Trunk Railway which operated in several Canadian provinces (Quebec and Ontario) and American states (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont) used it, but changed to standard gauge by 1873. The Grand Trunk Railway was operated from headquarters in Montreal, Quebec; but corporate headquarters were in London, England. The St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad which operated in Quebec, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine also used it and was converted in 1873.
The Bay Area Rapid Transit system uses Indian gauge. The New Orleans, Opelousas and Great Western Railroad (NOO&GW) used Indian gauge until 1872, and the Texas and New Orleans Railroad used Indian gauge ("Texas gauge") until 1876. The Grand Trunk Railway predecessor St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad which operated in Quebec, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine also used Indian gauge ("Canadian gauge" or "Portland gauge") and was converted in 1873. Several Maine railroads connected to the Grand Trunk Railway shared its "Portland Gauge". The Androscoggin and Kennebec Railroad and the Buckfield Branch Railroad were later consolidated as the Maine Central Railroad which converted to standard gauge in 1871. The only electric streetcar system in the U.S. to use this gauge was that of Fairfield, Maine.
- Frost heaves (swelling of wet soil upon freezing) produce an uneven running surface causing an irregular rocking motion as trains moved past. A wider wheelbase offered a steadier ride with less wear and tear on machinery and roadbed.
- Wider cars offered more room for passengers and cargo. Train length would be reduced for cars carrying more cargo. Shorter trains would lessen the effects of side winds, and permit more efficient application of power.
- Wide gauge locomotives offered more room to place reciprocating machinery inside, rather than outside the driving wheels. Reciprocating machinery was a source of vibration before mechanical engineering encompassed a good understanding of dynamics; and keeping such vibration close to the center of mass reduced the angular momentum causing rocking.
- Wider fireboxes and boilers allowed more powerful locomotives. The alternative of longer boilers held the disadvantage of poor firebox draft through the increased frictional resistance of longer boiler tubes.
- More powerful locomotives carrying fewer, larger cars would have reduced manpower requirement for engine crews and shop personnel.
- For locomotives of equal power, fuel consumption increased as gauge decreased, especially in colder outside temperatures.
- More powerful wide gauge locomotives would be more capable for plowing snow; and thereby provide more reliable winter service.
- Several gauges were in widespread use, and none had yet come into clear dominance.
- Freight transfer was preferable to exchange of cars between railways because unowned cars were abused on foreign railways.
- The Grand Trunk Railway system feeding the seaport of Portland, Maine offered little need for gauge transfer prior to loading on export shipping.
- Potential advantages of freight transfer to the standard gauge railroad from Portland to Boston seemed insignificant as long as competitive rates were available for transport on steamships between the two ports.
- The majority of Canadian freight anticipated to be carried over rail lines to Portland was heavy and bulky in comparison to its value, and must be transported cheaply in large quantities to maintain profitability for producers and transporters.
|Argentina||Almost all lines America Latina Logistica, (Railroad Development Corporation) (former San Martín line), Sarmiento line,
Nuevo Central Argentino (former Mitre line) and Ferrosur Roca
(former Ferrocarril General Roca), except Urquiza and Belgrano
|Canada||Grand Trunk Railway, St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad and the
Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad until 1873, Specific names, Provincial gauge
Grand Trunk Railway of Canada
Intercolonial Railway of Canada until 1875. See also Canada.
|Chile||Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado|
|India||Major routes of Indian Railways, Delhi Metro (some lines), Kolkata Metro; The other metro lines are 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge.|
|Pakistan||Now only Broad gauge railway lines are operational in Pakistan Railways network. Few Metre gauge & Narrow gauge railway lines have converted into Broad gauge and remaining have abandoned or dismantled.|
|Paraguay||The Ferrocarril Presidente Don Carlos Antonio Lopez from Asunción to Encarnación was originally laid in this gauge, in the hope that the connecting line from Posadas to Buenos Aires would be built to the same gauge; alas, this line was laid to standard gauge, and when the FCPCAL reached Encarnación in 1912 the whole line had to be re-gauged to standard gauge to allow through-working.|
|Scotland||Two early (1830s) linked railways around Arbroath, (see Scotch gauge)|
|Sri Lanka||All of the rail tracks in Sri Lanka is in Indian gauge now. Two narrow gauge tracks were there. NG tracks were completely removed now.|
|United States||Maine Central Railroad until 1871; Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART), San Francisco Bay Area.|
|Russia (Crimea)||Grand Crimean Central Railway built for the British Army besieging Sevastopol during the Crimean War (1854-1855).|
- Holt, Jeff (1985). The Grand Trunk in New England. Railfare. p. 78. ISBN 0-919130-43-7.
- "ALL - América Latina Logistica" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- "ALL Central". Railroad Development Corporation. 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- "Canada's Digital Collections archived at Library and Archives Canada". Government of Canada. Retrieved 2007-11-29.