Approximate area settled by Illyrians in antiquity.
|Area||W Balkan Peninsula|
The prehistory of Illyria and the Illyrians is known from archaeological evidence. The Romans conquered the region in 168 BC in the aftermath of the Illyrian Wars. "Illyria" is thus a designation of a roughly defined region of the western Balkans as seen from a Roman perspective, just as Magna Germania is a rough geographic term not delineated by any linguistic or ethnic unity.
In Greek mythology, the name of Illyria is aetiologically traced to Illyrius, the son of Cadmus and Harmonia, who eventually ruled Illyria and became the eponymous ancestor of the Illyrians. A later version of the myth identifies Polyphemus and Galatea as parents of Celtus, Galas and Illyrius. The second myth could stem perhaps from the similarities to Celts and Gauls.
The earliest recorded Illyrian kingdom was that of the Enchele in the 8th century BC. The era in which we observe other Illyrian kingdoms begins approximately at 400 BC and ends at 167 BC. The Autariatae under Pleurias (337 BC) were considered to have been a kingdom. The Kingdom of the Ardiaei began at 230 BC and ended at 167 BC. The most notable Illyrian kingdoms and dynasties were those of Bardyllis of the Dardani and of Agron of the Ardiaei who created the last and best-known Illyrian kingdom. Agron ruled over the Ardiaei and had extended his rule to other tribes as well. As for the Dardanians, they always had separate domains from the rest of the Illyrians.
The Illyrian kingdoms were composed of small areas within the region of Illyria. Only the Romans ruled the entire region. The internal organization of the south Illyrian kingdoms points to imitation of their neighbouring Greek kingdoms and influence from the Greek and Hellenistic world in the growth of their urban centres. Polybius gives as an image of society within an Illyrian kingdom as peasant infantry fought under aristocrats which he calls in Greek Polydynastae (Greek: Πολυδυνάστες) where each one controlled a town within the kingdom. The monarchy was established on hereditary lines and Illyrian rulers used marriages as a means of alliance with other powers. Pliny (23–79 AD) writes that the people that formed the nucleus of the Illyrian kingdom were 'Illyrians proper' or Illyrii Proprie Dicti. They were the Taulantii, the Pleraei, the Endirudini, Sasaei, Grabaei and the Labeatae. These later joined to form the Docleatae.
Roman and Byzantine ruleEdit
The Romans defeated Gentius, the last king of Illyria, at Scodra (in present-day Albania) in 168 BC and captured him, bringing him to Rome in 165 BC. Four client-republics were set up, which were in fact ruled by Rome. Later, the region was directly governed by Rome and organized as a province, with Scodra as its capital.
The Roman province of Illyricum replaced the formerly independent kingdom of Illyria. It stretched from the Drilon river in modern Albania to Istria (Croatia) in the west and to the Sava river (Bosnia & Herzegovina) in the north. Salona (near modern Split in Croatia) functioned as its capital.
After crushing a revolt of Pannonians and Daesitiates, Roman administrators dissolved the province of Illyricum and divided its lands between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south. Although this division occurred in 10 AD, the term Illyria remained in use in Late Latin and throughout the medieval period. After the division of the Roman Empire, the bishops of Thessalonica appointed papal vicars for Illyricum. The first of these vicars is said to have been Bishop Acholius or Ascholius (died 383 or 384), the friend of St. Basil. In the 5th century, the bishops of Illyria withdrew from communion with Rome, without attaching themselves to Constantinople, and remained for a time independent, but in 515, forty Illyrian bishops renewed their loyalty to Rome by declaring allegiance to Pope Hormisdas. The patriarchs of Constantinople succeeded in bringing Illyria under their jurisdiction in the 8th century.
The name Illyria only disappears from the historical record after the Ottoman invasion of the Balkans in the 15th century, and re-emerges in the 17th century, acquiring a new significance in the Ottoman–Habsburg Wars, as Leopold I designated as the "Illyrian nation" the South Slavs on Hungarian territory.
The name Illyria was revived by Napoleon for the Illyrian Provinces that were incorporated into the French Empire from 1809 to 1813, and the Kingdom of Illyria (1816–1849) was part of Austria until 1849, after which time it was not used in the reorganised Austro-Hungarian Empire.
In popular cultureEdit
William Shakespeare chose a fictionalised Illyria as the setting for his play Twelfth Night. A fictional "kingdom of Illyria" is postulated alongside historical late medieval states of the region in the Fojnica Armorial (17th century). An extensive history of Illyria by Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange, was published by Joseph Keglevich in 1746.
John Hawkes 1970 novel The Blood Oranges is set in a fictionalised Illyria reminiscent of Shakespeare's.
- Polybius. Histories, 1.13.1.
- Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles. "Illyria". A Latin Dictionary.
- Boardman 1982, p. 623.
- Grimal & Maxwell-Hyslop 1996, p. 230.
- Grimal & Maxwell-Hyslop 1996, p. 168.
- Stipčević 2002, pp. 46–47.
- Wilkes 1995, p. 298.
- Lewis & Boardman 1994, p. 785.
- Wilkes 1969, p. 13.
- Kipfer 2000, p. 251.
- Hammond 1993, p. 104.
- Papazoglu 1978, p. 216.
- Wilkes 1995, p. 237.
- Wilkes 1995, p. 127.
- Wilkes 1995, p. 167.
- Wilkes 1995, p. 216.
- Lins 1910, "Illyria".
- du Fresne 1746, p. 1.
- Berranger, Danièle; Cabanes, Pierre; Berranger-Auserve, Danièle (2007). Épire, Illyrie, Macédoine: Mélanges Offerts au Professeur Pierre Cabanes. Clermont-Ferrand, France: Presses Universitaires Blaise Pascal. ISBN 2-84516-351-7.
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- du Fresne, Charles (1746). Illyricvm Vetvs & Novum: Sive Historia Regnorvm Dalmatiae, Croatiae, Slavoniae, Bosniae, Serviae, atqve Bvlgariae. Posonii: Typis Haeredvm Royerianorvm.
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- Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière (1993). Studies concerning Epirus and Macedonia before Alexander. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Adolf M. Hakkert.
- Kipfer, Barbara Ann (2000). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology. New York, New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. ISBN 0-306-46158-7.
- Lewis, David Malcolm; Boardman, John (1994). The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23348-8.
- Lins, Joseph (1910). "Illyria". The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume 7. New York, New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Papazoglu, Fanula (1978). The Central Balkan Tribes in Pre-Roman Times: Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci and Moesians. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Adolf M. Hakkert. ISBN 90-256-0793-4.
- Stipčević, Aleksandar (2002). Ilirët: Historia, Jeta, Kultura, Simbolet e Kultit. Tirana, Albania: Toena. ISBN 99927-1-609-6.
- Wilkes, John J. (1969). History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire. London, United Kingdom: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
- Wilkes, John J. (1995). The Illyrians. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishers Limited. ISBN 0-631-19807-5.
- Media related to Illyria and Illyrians at Wikimedia Commons