Last modified on 26 November 2014, at 21:27

Hispanic and Latino Americans

Not to be confused with Latin Americans or the inhabitants of Hispanic America.
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic and Latino Americans Wikipedia.png
Total population
Hispanic or Latino
53,986,412[1]
17.08% of the U.S. population (2013)[1]
Regions with significant populations
All areas of the United States
Languages
Spanish  • English  • Indigenous languages Brazilian Portuguese
Religion
Predominantly Roman Catholic;[2]
minority of Protestants.[2]
Minorities in numerous other religions.[2][3]
Related ethnic groups
Latin Americans, Spaniards, White Latin Americans, Criollos, Afro-Latin Americans, Asian Latin Americans, Mestizos, Mulattoes, Pardos, Castizos, Tejanos, Chicanos, Nuyoricans, and Brazilian Americans.[4]

Hispanics and Latinos (Spanish: hispanos [isˈpanos], latinos) are an ethnolinguistic group of Americans with genealogical origins in the countries of Latin America and Spain.[5][6][7] More generally it includes all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] Hispanic and Latinos are racially diverse, although different "races" dominate each Hispanic group. For example, Hispanics coming from countries like Mexico, El Salvador, and Guatemala tend to be mestizo mixed indigenous Native and White Spanish, Cuban Americans tend to be predominantly white, Puerto Ricans and Dominican Americans tend to be mulatto or tri-racial, having high amounts of African, European, and sometimes indigenous Taino ancestry. Mexicans represent the bulk of the US Hispanic/Latino population, and most Mexican Americans are Mestizo, this is the main reason why non-Hispanics equate being Hispanic to being mestizo. As a result of their racial diversity, Hispanics form an ethnicity sharing a language (Spanish) and cultural heritage, rather than a race. American Hispanics are predominantly of Mexican, and to a lesser extant, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Salvadoran, Dominican, and Guatemalan ancestry.[13][16][17][18]

Hispanics are the second fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States after Asian Americans.[19] As of 2012, Hispanics constitute 17% of the United States population, or 53 million people.[20] This figure includes 38 million Hispanophone Americans, making the US home to the largest community of Spanish speakers outside of Mexico, having surpassed Argentina, Colombia, and Spain within the last decade.[21] Latinos overall are the second largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic Whites (a group composed of dozens of sub-groups, like Hispanics and Latinos).[22]

Hispanics have been in the territory of present-day United States continuously[23][24][25][26] since the sixteenth century founding of Saint Augustine, Florida, by the Spanish. After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit what is today the United States.[27][28][29][30] Spain colonized large areas of the Southwest and West Coast, including present-day California, New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas, all of which were also under the Republic of Mexico after its independence in the 19th century.

TerminologyEdit

The terms Hispanic and Latino refer not to a continental race, but rather an ethnicity, sharing a common culture, history, language, and heritage. According to the Smithsonian Institution, Latino includes peoples of Portuguese-speaking roots, such as Brazil, as well as those of Spanish-language origin.[31][32][33] A Hispanic or Latino can be of any race and many are mixed race. In the United States, most Hispanics and Latinos are either white or mestizo. Some Hispanic/Latinos from Caribbean and Latin American countries may also have African ancestry.[34][31]

The difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some. Everyone agrees[citation needed] that Hispanics are people from Spain or any of the Spanish speaking countries in Latin America, while the term "Latino" has more varied definitions. One these is that may be a condensed form of the term "Latino-Americano" the Spanish word for Latin-American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Under this definition a Mexican American or Cuban American, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American may be Latino, under this definition of Latino, which would include those of Portuguese-speaking origin. An immigrant from Spain would be classified as Hispanic but not Latino by this definition of Latino.[35][36][37][38][39][40][41] Filipinos and Guamanians are not considered "Hispanic", although some may speak Spanish, but Spanish is not the official language of their respective countries. The Philippines and Guam were a colonies of Spain for hundreds of years, but It did not have as many colonists in these areas as in the Americas. English became the predominant official language in the Philippines after the Spanish-American War.

According to definitions of the U.S. government census, Brazilians as Portuguese speakers are not considered Hispanic, and are not included in the "Hispanic or Latino" population surveys. One criteria of the U.S. government census is that Hispanic/Latinos be of a Spanish speaking country. Blog discussions about identity note that a significant number of Brazilians have Spanish ancestry due to the colonial history and movement of peoples on the continent, as well as African ancestry from numerous peoples due to the slavery times.[42][43] Brazil's culture has also been affected by other immigrant cultures, including Italy, Japan, China, Germany, Lebanon, Russia[44]

Preference between the terms among Hispanics and Latinos in the United States often depends on their geography of residence. Those in the Eastern United States tend to prefer the term Hispanic, whereas those in the West tend to prefer Latino (or Chicano if they are Mexican American).[12] Both terms refer to ethnicity, as a person of Latino or Hispanic origin can be of any race.[13][45]

In Spanish, Latina is used for persons of feminine gender; Latino is used for those of masculine gender, or by default. For example, a group of mixed or unknown gender would still be referred to as Latinos. The neologism Latinx was coined as a gender-neutral alternative to this traditional usage.[46] The X functions as a variable, encompassing those who identify as male, female, or non-binary.

HistoryEdit

Castillo de San Marcos in Saint Augustine, Florida. Built in 1672 by the Spanish, it is the oldest masonry fort in the United States.
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, 16th century Spanish admiral who founded the first European settlement in North America (Saint Augustine, Florida).
Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 116,943
1880 393,555
1900 503,189
1910 797,994 58.6%
1920 1,286,154 61.2%
1930 1,653,987 28.6%
1940 2,021,820 22.2%
1950 3,231,409 59.8%
1960 5,814,784 79.9%
1970 8,920,940 53.4%
1980 14,608,673 63.8%
1990 22,354,059 53.0%
2000 35,305,818 57.9%
2010 50,477,594 43.0%
Est. 2013 53,986,412 7.0%
Sources:

16th and 17th centuriesEdit

A continuous Hispanic/Latino presence in the territory of the United States has existed since the 16th century,[23][24][25][26] earlier than any other European group. Spanish explorers were pioneers in the territory of the present-day United States. The first confirmed European landing in the continental U.S. was by Juan Ponce de León, who landed in 1513 at a lush shore he christened La Florida.

Within three decades of Ponce de León's landing, the Spanish became the first Europeans to reach the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon and the Great Plains. Spanish ships sailed along the East Coast, penetrating to present-day Bangor, Maine, and up the Pacific Coast as far as Oregon. From 1528 to 1536, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and three fellows from a Spanish expedition that foundered (including an African named Estevanico) journeyed from Florida to the Gulf of California, 267 years before the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

In 1540 Hernando de Soto undertook an extensive exploration of the present U.S. That same year Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led 2,000 Spaniards and Mexican Indians across today's Arizona–Mexico border and traveled as far as central Kansas, close to the exact geographic center of what is now the continental United States. Other Spanish explorers of the US include, among others: Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, Pánfilo de Narváez, Sebastián Vizcaíno, Gaspar de Portolà, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Tristán de Luna y Arellano and Juan de Oñate, and non-Spanish explorers working for the Spanish Crown, such as Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. In all, Spaniards probed half of today's lower 48 states before the first English colonization effort in 1585 at Roanoke Island off the East Coast.

In 1565 the Spanish created the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, at St. Augustine, Florida. Santa Fe, New Mexico was founded before Jamestown, Virginia (founded in 1607) and the New England Plymouth Colony (of Mayflower and Pilgrims fame; founded in 1620). Spanish missionaries and colonists founded settlements in San Antonio, Texas, Tucson, Arizona, and San Diego, Los Angeles and San Francisco, California, to name just a few.

18th and 19th centuriesEdit

Almost 80 years before John Smith's alleged rescue by Pocahontas in the colony of Virginia, a man by the name of Juan Ortiz told of his rescue by an Indian girl from execution by her tribe. Spanish colonists held a thanksgiving type feast near St. Augustine with Florida Indians, probably on stewed pork and garbanzo beans —56 years before the noted Pilgrim and Native American festival in Massachusetts.

As late as 1783, at the end of the American Revolutionary War (a conflict in which Spain aided and fought alongside the United States), Spain held claim to roughly half of the territory of today's continental United States. From 1819 to 1848, the United States (through treaties, purchase, diplomacy, and the Mexican-American War) increased its area by roughly a third at Spanish and Mexican expense, acquiring three of today's four most populous states — California, Texas and Florida.

20th centuryEdit

The Hispanic and Latino role in the history and present of the United States is addressed in more detail below (See Notables and their contributions). During the 20th and 21st centuries, Hispanic and Latino immigration to the US increased markedly. To recognize their current and historic contributions, on September 17, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated a week in mid-September as National Hispanic Heritage Week, with Congress's authorization. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan extended the observance to a month, designated Hispanic Heritage Month.[48]

DemographicsEdit


Population by national origin (2010)
(self-identified ethnicity, not by birthplace)[49]
Hispanic Group Population % of Hispanics
Mexico Mexican 31,798,258 63.0
Puerto Rico Puerto Rican 4,623,716 9.2
Cuba Cuban 1,785,547 3.5
El Salvador Salvadoran 1,648,968 3.3
Dominican Republic Dominican 1,414,703 2.8
Guatemala Guatemalan 1,044,209 2.1
Colombia Colombian 908,734 1.8
Spain Spanish 635,253 1.3
Honduras Honduran 633,401 1.3
Ecuador Ecuadorian 564,631 1.1
Peru Peruvian 531,358 1.1
Nicaragua Nicaraguan 348,202 0.7
Argentina Argentine 224,952 0.4
Venezuela Venezuelan 215,023 0.4
Panama Panamanian 165,456 0.3
Chile Chilean 126,810 0.3
Costa Rica Costa Rican 126,418 0.3
Bolivia Bolivian 99,210 0.2
Uruguay Uruguayan 56,884 0.1
Paraguay Paraguayan 20,023 -
All other 3,505,838 6.9
Total 50,477,594 100

As of 2011, Hispanics accounted for 16.7% of the national population, or around 52 million people.[20] The Hispanic growth rate over the April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 period was 28.7%—about four times the rate of the nation's total population (at 7.2%).[50] The growth rate from July 1, 2005 to July 1, 2006 alone was 3.4%[51]—about three and a half times the rate of the nation's total population (at 1.0%).[50] Based on the 2010 census, Hispanics are now the largest minority group in 191 out of 366 metropolitan areas in the US.[52] The projected Hispanic population of the United States for July 1, 2050 is 132.8 million people, or 30.2% of the nation's total projected population on that date.[53]

Geographic distributionEdit

The percentage of Hispanic or Latino residents by county.
Miami's Brickell neighborhood is known for its large concentration of wealthy Hispanics, largely of South American descent.
US metropolitan areas with over 1 million Hispanics (2011)[54]
Rank Metropolitan area Hispanic population Percent Hispanic
1 Los Angeles, California 5,804,000 45%
2 New York, New York 4,317,000 24%
3 Houston, Texas 2,105,000 37%
4 Riverside, California 2,062,000 48%
5 Chicago, Illinois 1,971,000 22%
6 Dallas, Texas 1,809,000 28%
7 Miami, Florida 1,627,000 65%
8 Phoenix, Arizona 1,163,000 30%
9 San Francisco, California 1,114,000 23%
10 San Antonio, Texas 1,112,000 56%
11 San Diego, California 1,021,000 33%
States with the highest proportion of Hispanics (2012)[55]
Rank State Percent Hispanic
1 New Mexico 47%
2 California 38%
3 Texas 38%
4 Arizona 30%
5 Nevada 27%
6 Florida 23%
7 Colorado 21%
8 New Jersey 19%
9 New York 18%
10 Illinois 16%

Of the nation's total Hispanic or Latino population, 49% (21.5 million) live in California or Texas.[56]

The majority of Mexican Americans are concentrated in the Southwest and the West Coast/West, primarily in California, Texas, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. The majority of the Hispanic population in the Southeast and Great Plains (Plains States), concentrated in Florida, are of Cuban origin; However, the Mexican, Dominican and Puerto Rican populations have risen significantly in this region since the mid-1990s.

The Hispanic population in the Northeast, concentrated in New York, New Jersey, and Southeastern Pennsylvania, is composed mostly of Hispanics of Dominican and Puerto Rican origin. The remainder of Hispanics and Latinos may be found throughout the country, though South Americans tend to concentrate on the East Coast and Central Americans on the West Coast. Nevertheless, since the 1990s, several cities on the East Coast have seen often impressive increases in their Mexican population, namely Miami and Philadelphia.

National originEdit

Actress Alexis Bledel is White Hispanic of Argentinian and Mexican heritage. Bledel grew up in a Spanish speaking household, and did not learn English until she began school.[57][58]

As of 2007, some 64% of the nation's Hispanic population are of Mexican origin (see table). Another 9% are of Puerto Rican origin, with about 3% each of Cuban, Salvadoran and Dominican origins. The remainder are of other Central American or South American origin, or of origin directly from Spain. 60.2% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans were born in the United States.[59]

There are few recent immigrants directly from Spain. In the 2000 Census, 299,948 Americans, of whom 83% were native-born,[60] specifically reported their ancestry as Spaniard.[61] Additionally, in the 2000 Census some 2,187,144 Americans reported "Spanish" as their ancestry.

In northern New Mexico and southern Colorado, there is a large portion of Hispanics who trace their ancestry to Spanish settlers of the late 16th century through the 17th century. People from this background often self-identify as "Hispanos", "Spanish", or "Hispanic". Many of these settlers also intermarried with local Amerindians, creating a Mestizo population.[62] Likewise, southern Louisiana is home to communities of people of Canary Islands descent, known as Isleños, in addition to other people of Spanish ancestry.

RaceEdit

The Chicano Movement (Chicanismo) of the 1960s helped increase cultural awareness, and social empowerment of Mexican Americans (Chicanos) in the United States.

Hispanic or Latino origin is independent of race and is termed "ethnicity" by the United States Census Bureau.

According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 92% of Hispanic and Latinos were White. The largest numbers of White Hispanics come from within the Argentine, Colombian, Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Spanish, and Venezuelan communities.[63][64] The largest numbers of Black Hispanics are from the Spanish Caribbean islands, including the Dominican, Puerto Rican, Panamanian, and Cuban communities.

A significant portion of the Hispanic and Latino population self-identifies as socially Mestizo, particularly the Mexican and Central American community. Mestizo is not listed as a racial category in the U.S. Census. According to the 2010 United States Census, 36.7% of Hispanic/Latino Americans identify as "some other race", such as Mestizo American.[65]

Though, over half of American Hispanics self-identify as white, the vast majority are actually racially mixed to varying degrees. Most of the multi-racial population in the Mexican, Salvadoran, and Guatemalan communities are of Mestizo descent (European and Native American), while most of the multiracial population in the Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Cuban communities are of Mulatto descent (European and African).

Chicanos, Tejanos, and NuyoricansEdit

Chicanos and Tejanos are Americans of Mexican descent. Chicanos live in the Southwest, and Tejanos in Texas. Each has a distinct culture, but share a common Mexican family heritage and identity. The term "Chicano" became popular amongst Chicanos in the 1960s during the Chicano nationalism and Chicano Movement, and is today seen as an ethnic and cultural identity by some. Political activist César Chávez and novelist José Antonio Villarreal are famous Chicanos.

Tejanos can be descendants of Spanish colonists from Spanish Colonial Texas, or can be used to identify someone recently arrived from Mexico. Tejanos have a distinct culture that has influenced American culture such as Tex-Mex cuisine and Tejano music. Famous Tejanos include entertainers Eva Longoria and Selena Gomez.

Nuyoricans are Americans of Puerto Rican descent from the New York City area. There are close to two million Nuyoricans in the US. Famous Nuyoricans include US Supreme Court Judge Sonia Sotomayor and singer Jennifer Lopez.

Notable contributionsEdit

Myrtle González, famous for her silent films in the 1910s, is considered the first female Latin star in Hollywood.[66]

Hispanic and Latino Americans have made distinguished contributions to the United States in all major fields, such as politics, the military, music, literature, philosophy, sports, business and economy, and science.[67]

Arts and entertainmentEdit

In 1995, the American Latino Media Arts Award, or ALMA Award was created. It's a distinction given to Latino performers (actors, film and television directors, and musicians) by the National Council of La Raza.

MusicEdit

There are many Hispanic American musicians that have achieved international fame, such as Jennifer López, Joan Baez, Linda Ronstadt, Carmen Miranda, Zack de la Rocha, Fergie, Gloria Estefan, Celia Cruz, Tito Puente, Kat DeLuna, Selena, Ricky Martin, Marc Anthony, Carlos Santana, Shakira, Christina Aguilera, Pitbull, Los Lonely Boys, Frankie J, Jerry García, Robert Trujillo, Aventura and Tom Araya.

Among the Hispanic American musicians who were pioneers in the early stages of rock and roll were Ritchie Valens, who scored several hits, most notably "La Bamba" and Herman Santiago wrote the lyrics to the iconic rock and roll song "Why Do Fools Fall in Love". Another song that became popular in the United States and is heard during the Holiday/Christmas season is "Feliz Navidad" by José Feliciano.

The most prestigious Latin music awards in the United States are the Latin Grammy Awards, launched in 2000. Billboard Magazine also honors these artists, with the Billboard Latin Music Awards. The latter's nominees and winners are a result of performance on Billboard's sales and radio charts, while the Latin Grammy Awards nominees and winners are selected by the Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences (LARAS).

Film, radio, television, and theatreEdit

Hispanics and Latinos have also contributed some prominent actors and others in the film industry, a few of whom includes actors José Ferrer, the first Hispanic actor to win an Academy Award for his role in Cyrano de Bergerac, Anthony Quinn, Cameron Diaz, Martin Sheen, Rodrigo Santoro, Fernanda Montenegro, Daniel de Oliveira, Wagner Moura, Cheech Marín, Salma Hayek, Dolores del Río, Anita Page, Rita Hayworth, Antonio Banderas, Raquel Welch, Benicio del Toro, Eva Mendes, Zoe Saldana, Edward James Olmos, Maria Montez, Ramón Novarro, Ricardo Montalbán, Cesar Romero, Rosie Perez, Katy Jurado, Rita Moreno, Lupe Vélez, Esai Morales, Andy García, Rosario Dawson, John Leguizamo, and, behind the camera, directors Robert Rodriguez, Guillermo del Toro, Alfonso Cuarón and Brett Ratner (also producers and cinematographers) and Luis Valdez.

In standup comedy, Paul Rodríguez, Greg Giraldo, Cheech Marin, George Lopez, Freddie Prinze, Jade Esteban Estrada, Carlos Mencia, John Mendoza, and others are prominent.

Some of the Hispanic or Latino actors who achieved notable success in U.S. television include Desi Arnaz, Lynda Carter, Jimmy Smits, Selena Gomez, Carlos Pena, Jr., Eva Longoria, Sofía Vergara, Benjamin Bratt, Ricardo Montalbán, America Ferrera, Erik Estrada, Cote de Pablo, Freddie Prinze, Lauren Vélez, and Charlie Sheen. Kenny Ortega is an Emmy Award-winning producer, director, and choreographer who has choreographed many major television events such as Super Bowl XXX, the 72nd Academy Awards, and Michael Jacksons memorial service.

Hispanics and Latinos are underrepresented in U.S. television, radio, and film. This is combatted by organizations such as the Hispanic Organization of Latin Actors (HOLA), founded in 1975; and National Hispanic Media Coalition (NHMC), founded in 1986.[68] Together with numerous Latino civil rights organizations, the NHMC led a "brownout" of the national television networks in 1999, after discovering that there were no Latinos in any of their new prime time shows that year.[69] This resulted in the signing of historic diversity agreements with ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC that have since increased the hiring of Hispanic and Latino talent and other staff in all of the networks.

Latino Public Broadcasting (LPB) funds programs of educational and cultural significance to Hispanic Americans. These programs are distributed to various public television stations throughout the United States.

Business and financeEdit

See also: Hispanic 500
La Época is an upscale Miami department store founded and owned by Cuban Americans.

The total number of Hispanic-owned businesses in 2002 was 1.6 million, having grown at triple the national rate for the preceding five years.[48]

U.S. Century Bank is one of the largest Hispanic-owned banks in the United States.[72]

Hispanic and Latino business leaders include Cuban immigrant Roberto Goizueta, who rose to head of The Coca-Cola Company.[73] Advertising magnate Arte Moreno became the first Hispanic to own a major league team in the United States when he purchased the Los Angeles Angels baseball club.[74] Also a major sports team owner is Linda G. Alvarado, president and CEO of Alvarado Construction, Inc and co-owner of the Colorado Rockies baseball team.

The largest Hispanic-owned food company in the US is Goya Foods, because of World War II hero Joseph A. Unanue, the son of the company's founders.[75] Angel Ramos was the founder of Telemundo, Puerto Rico's first television station[76] and now the second largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with an average viewership over one million in primetime. Samuel A. Ramirez, Sr. made Wall Street history by becoming the first Hispanic to launch a successful investment banking firm, Ramirez & Co.[77][78] Nina Tassler is president of CBS Entertainment since September 2004. She is the highest-profile Latina in network television and one of the few executives who has the power to approve the airing or renewal of series.

FashionEdit

In the world of fashion, notable Hispanic and Latino designers include Oscar de la Renta, Carolina Herrera, and Narciso Rodríguez among others. Christy Turlington, Gisele Bündchen and Lea T achieved international fame as models.

Government and politicsEdit

As of 2007 there were more than five thousand elected officeholders in the United States who were of Latino origin.[79]

In the House of Representatives, Hispanic and Latino representatives have included Ladislas Lazaro, Antonio M. Fernández, Henry B. Gonzalez, Kika de la Garza, Herman Badillo, Romualdo Pacheco, and Manuel Lujan, Jr., out of almost two dozen former Representatives. Current Representatives include Luis Gutiérrez, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Nydia Velázquez, Joe Baca, Loretta Sanchez, Silvestre Reyes, Rubén Hinojosa, Linda Sánchez, and John Salazar—in all, they number twenty-three. Former senators are Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, Mel Martinez, Dennis Chavez, Joseph Montoya, and Ken Salazar. As of January 2011, the U.S. Senate includes Hispanic members Bob Menendez, a Democrat, and Republicans Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio, all Cuban Americans.[80]

Numerous Hispanics and Latinos hold elective and appointed office in state and local government throughout the United States.[81] Current Hispanic Governors include Republican Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval and Republican New Mexico Governor Susana Martinez; upon taking office in 2011, Martinez became the first Latina governor in the history of the United States.[82] Former Hispanic governors include Democrats Jerry Apodaca, Raul Hector Castro, and Bill Richardson, as well as Republicans Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, Romualdo Pacheco, and Bob Martinez.

Since 1988,[83] when Ronald Reagan appointed Lauro Cavazos the Secretary of Education, the first Hispanic United States Cabinet member, Hispanic Americans have had an increasing presence in presidential administrations. Hispanics serving in subsequent cabinets include Ken Salazar, current Secretary of the Interior; Hilda Solis, current United States Secretary of Labor; Alberto Gonzales, former United States Attorney General; Carlos Gutierrez, Secretary of Commerce; Federico Peña, former Secretary of Energy; Henry Cisneros, former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; Manuel Lujan, Jr., former Secretary of the Interior; and Bill Richardson, former Secretary of Energy and Ambassador to the United Nations. Six of the last ten US Treasurers, including the latest three, are Hispanic women.

In 2009, Sonia Sotomayor became the first Supreme Court Associate Justice of Hispanic or Latino origin.

The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC), founded in December 1976, and the Congressional Hispanic Conference (CHC), founded on March 19, 2003, are two organizations that promote policy of importance to Americans of Hispanic descent. They are divided into the two major American political parties: The Congressional Hispanic Caucus is composed entirely of Democratic representatives, whereas the Congressional Hispanic Conference is composed entirely of Republican representatives.

Literature and journalismEdit

Among the distinguished Hispanic and Latino authors and their works may be noted:

Books by Reinaldo Arenas, Isabel Allende, Sandra Cisneros, Ariel Dorfman, Jorge Majfud, Julia Álvarez, and Rudolfo Anaya

MilitaryEdit

Admiral David G Farragut, first Hispanic Admiral
Captain Marion Frederic Ramírez de Arellano the first Hispanic submarine commander.
Major General Luis R. Esteves, the first Hispanic to graduate from the United States Military Academy ("West Point").
Antonia Novello is the first woman and first Hispanic to serve as Surgeon General.
Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez at a press conference in Baghdad, Iraq
Rear Admiral Ronald J. Rábago, the first Hispanic to be promoted to Rear Admiral (lower half) in the United States Coast Guard

Hispanics and Latinos have participated in the military of the United States and in every major military conflict from the American Revolution onward.[85] Tens of thousands of Latinos are deployed in the Iraq War, the Afghanistan War, and U.S. military missions and bases elsewhere. Hispanics and Latinos have not only distinguished themselves in the battlefields but also reached the high echelons of the military, serving their country in sensitive leadership positions on domestic and foreign posts. Up to now, 43 Hispanics and Latinos have been awarded the nation's highest military distinction, the Medal of Honor (also known as the Congressional Medal of Honor). The following is a list of some notable Hispanics/Latinos in the military:

American Revolution
  • Lieutenant Jorge Farragut Mesquida (1755–1817)-Participated in the American Revolution as a lieutenant in the South Carolina Navy.
American Civil War
  • Admiral David Farragut- Farragut was promoted to vice admiral on December 21, 1864, and to full admiral on July 25, 1866, after the war, thereby becoming the first person to be named full admiral in the Navy's history.[86]
  • Colonel Ambrosio José Gonzales – Gonzales was active during the bombardment of Fort Sumter and because of his actions was appointed Colonel of artillery and assigned to duty as Chief of Artillery in the department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
  • Brigadier General Diego Archuleta (1814–1884) – was a member of the Mexican Army who fought against the United States in the Mexican–American War. During the American Civil War he joined the Union Army (US Army) and became the first Hispanic to reach the military rank of Brigadier General. He commanded The First New Mexico Volunteer Infantry in the Battle of Valverde. He was later appointed an Indian (Native Americans) Agent by Abraham Lincoln.[87]
  • Colonel Carlos de la Mesa – Grandfather of Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr. commanding general of the First Infantry Division in North Africa and Sicily, and later the commander of the 104th Infantry Division during World War II. Colonel Carlos de la Mesa was a Spanish national who fought at Gettysburg for the Union Army in the Spanish Company of the "Garibaldi Guard" of the 39th New York State Volunteers.[88]
  • Colonel Federico Fernández Cavada – Commanded the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteer infantry regiment when it took the field in the Peach Orchard at Gettysburg.[89]
  • Colonel Miguel E. Pino – Commanded the 2nd Regiment of New Mexico Volunteers, which fought at the Battle of Valverde in February and the Battle of Glorieta Pass and helped defeat the attempted invasion of New Mexico by the Confederate Army.[90]
  • Colonel Santos Benavides – Commanded his own regiment, the "Benavides Regiment." He was the highest ranking Mexican-American in the Confederate Army.[89]
  • Major Salvador Vallejo – Officer in one of the California units that served with the Union Army in the West.[90]
  • Captain Adolfo Fernández Cavada – Cavada served in the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteers at Gettysburg with his brother, Colonel Federico Fernandez Cavada. He served with distinction in the Army of the Potomac from Fredericksburg to Gettysburg and was a "special aide-de-camp" to General Andrew A. Humphreys.[89][91]
  • Captain Roman Anthony Baca – Member of the Union forces in the New Mexico Volunteers. He also served as a spy for the Union Army in Texas.[90]
  • Lieutenant Augusto Rodriguez – A Puerto Rican native who served as an officer in the 15th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry, of the Union Army. Rodríguez served in the defenses of Washington, D.C. and led his men in the Battles of Fredericksburg and Wyse Fork.[92]
  • Lola Sánchez – Sánchez was a Cuban born woman who became a Confederate spy who helped the Confederates obtain a victory against the Union Forces in the "Battle of Horse Landing".
  • Loreta Janeta Velazquez as known as "Lieutenant Harry Buford" – She was a Cuban woman who donned Confederate garb and served as a Confederate officer and spy during the American Civil War.
World War I
World War II
Korean War
Cuban Missile Crisis
Vietnam War
Post-Vietnam

Medal of HonorEdit

The following 43 Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor:

Philip Bazaar, Joseph H. De Castro, John Ortega, France Silva, David B. Barkley, Lucian Adams, Rudolph B. Davila, Marcario Garcia, Harold Gonsalves, David M. Gonzales, Silvestre S. Herrera, Jose M. Lopez, Joe P. Martinez, Manuel Perez Jr., Cleto L. Rodriguez, Alejandro R. Ruiz, Jose F. Valdez, Ysmael R. Villegas, Fernando Luis García, Edward Gomez, Ambrosio Guillen, Rodolfo P. Hernandez, Baldomero Lopez, Benito Martinez, Eugene Arnold Obregon, Joseph C. Rodriguez, John P. Baca, Roy P. Benavidez, Emilio A. De La Garza, Ralph E. Dias, Daniel Fernandez, Alfredo Cantu "Freddy" Gonzalez, Jose Francisco Jimenez, Miguel Keith, Carlos James Lozada, Alfred V. Rascon, Louis R. Rocco, Euripides Rubio, Hector Santiago-Colon, Elmelindo Rodrigues Smith, Jay R. Vargas, Humbert Roque Versace, and Maximo Yabes.

National intelligenceEdit

Science and technologyEdit

Luis Walter Álvarez, experimental physicist, inventor, and professor. Awarded the Nobel Prize of Physics in 1968.
Laser physicist and author Francisco Javier Duarte

Among Hispanic Americans who have excelled in science are Luis Walter Álvarez, Nobel Prize–winning physicist, and his son Walter Alvarez, a geologist. They first proposed that an asteroid impact on the Yucatán Peninsula caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. Dr. Victor Manuel Blanco is an astronomer who in 1959 discovered "Blanco 1", a galactic cluster.[106] F. J. Duarte is a laser physicist and author; he received the Engineering Excellence Award from the prestigious Optical Society of America for the invention of the N-slit laser interferometer.[107] Francisco J. Ayala is a biologist and philosopher, former president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and has been awarded the National Medal of Science and the Templeton Prize. Peruvian-American biophysicist Carlos Bustamante has been named a Searle Scholar and Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow. Luis von Ahn is one of the pioneers of crowdsourcing and the founder of the company reCAPTCHA.

Dr. Fernando E. Rodríguez Vargas discovered the bacteria that cause dental cavity. Dr. Gualberto Ruaño is a biotechnology pioneer in the field of personalized medicine and the inventor of molecular diagnostic systems, Coupled Amplification and Sequencing (CAS) System, used worldwide for the management of viral diseases.[108] Fermín Tangüis was an agriculturist and scientist who developed the Tangüis Cotton in Peru and saved that nation's cotton industry.[109] Severo Ochoa, born in Spain, was a co-winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Some Hispanics and Latinos have made their names in astronautics, including several NASA astronauts:[110] Franklin Chang-Diaz, the first Latin American NASA astronaut, is co-recordholder for the most flights in outer space, and is the leading researcher on the plasma engine for rockets; France A. Córdova, former NASA chief scientist; Juan R. Cruz, NASA aerospace engineer; Lieutenant Carlos I. Noriega, NASA mission specialist and computer scientist; Dr. Orlando Figueroa, mechanical engineer and Director of Mars Exploration in NASA; Amri Hernández-Pellerano, engineer who designs, builds and tests the electronics that will regulate the solar array power in order to charge the spacecraft battery and distribute power to the different loads or users inside various spacecraft at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

Mercedes Reaves, research engineer and scientist who is responsible for the design of a viable full-scale solar sail and the development and testing of a scale model solar sail at NASA Langley Research Center. Dr. Pedro Rodríguez, inventor and mechanical engineer who is the director of a test laboratory at NASA and of a portable, battery-operated lift seat for people suffering from knee arthritis. Dr. Felix Soto Toro, electrical engineer and astronaut applicant who developed the Advanced Payload Transfer Measurement System (ASPTMS) (Electronic 3D measuring system); Ellen Ochoa, a pioneer of spacecraft technology and astronaut; Joseph Acaba, Fernando Caldeiro, Sidney Gutierrez, Jose Hernández, Michael López-Alegría, John Olivas, and George Zamka, who are current or former astronauts.

SportsEdit

Miguel Cabrera is a professional baseball player.

BaseballEdit

The large number of Hispanic and Latino American stars in Major League Baseball (MLB) includes players like Ted Williams (considered by many to be the greatest hitter of all time), Miguel Cabrera, Lefty Gómez, Iván Rodríguez, Carlos González, Roberto Clemente, Adrian Gonzalez, David Ortiz, Fernando Valenzuela, Nomar Garciaparra, Albert Pujols, Omar Vizquel, managers Al López, Ozzie Guillén, and Felipe Alou, and General Manager Omar Minaya.

Basketball and footballEdit

There have been far fewer football and basketball players, let alone star players, but Tom Flores was the first Hispanic head coach and the first Hispanic quarterback in American professional football, and won Super Bowls as a player, as assistant coach and as head coach for the Oakland Raiders. Anthony Múñoz is enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, ranked #17 on Sporting News's 1999 list of the 100 greatest football players, and was the highest-ranked offensive lineman. Jim Plunkett won the Heisman Trophy and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, and Joe Kapp is inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame and College Football Hall of Fame. Steve Van Buren, Martin Gramatica, Victor Cruz, Tony Gonzalez, Marc Bulger, Tony Romo and Mark Sanchez can also be cited among successful Hispanics and Latinos in the National Football League (NFL).

Trevor Ariza, Mark Aguirre, Carmelo Anthony, Manu Ginobili, Carlos Arroyo, Gilbert Arenas, Rolando Blackman, Pau Gasol, Jose Calderon, José Juan Barea and Charlie Villanueva can be cited in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Dick Versace made history when he became the first person of Hispanic heritage to coach an NBA team. Rebecca Lobo was a major star and champion of collegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)) and Olympic basketball and played professionally in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). Diana Taurasi became just the seventh player ever to win an NCAA title, a WNBA title, and as well an Olympic gold medal. Orlando Antigua became in 1995 the first Hispanic and the first non-black in 52 years to play for the Harlem Globetrotters.

TennisEdit

Tennis legend Pancho Gonzales and Olympic tennis champions and professional players Mary Joe Fernández and Gigi Fernández; soccer players in the Major League Soccer (MLS) Tab Ramos, Claudio Reyna, Marcelo Balboa and Carlos Bocanegra; figure skater Rudy Galindo; golfers Chi Chi Rodríguez, Nancy López, and Lee Trevino; softball player Lisa Fernández; and Paul Rodríguez Jr., X Games professional skateboarder, are all Hispanic or Latino Americans who have distinguished themselves in their sports.

Other sportsEdit

Boxing's first Hispanic world champion was Panama Al Brown. Some other champions include Oscar De La Hoya, Miguel Cotto, Bobby Chacon, Joel Casamayor, Michael Carbajal, John Ruiz, and Carlos Ortiz.

Ricco Rodriguez, Tito Ortiz, Diego Sanchez, Nick Diaz, Nathan Diaz' Dominick Cruz, Frank Shamrock, Gilbert Melendez, Roger Huerta, Carlos Condit, Kelvin Gastelum, and UFC Heavy Weight Champion Cain Velasquez have been competitors in the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) of mixed martial arts.

In 1991 Bill Guerin whose mother is Nicaraguan became the first Hispanic player in the National Hockey League (NHL). He was also selected to four NHL All-Star Games. In 1999 Scott Gomez won the NHL Rookie of the Year Award.[111]

In sports entertainment we find the professional wrestlers Alberto Del Rio, Rey Mysterio, Eddie Guerrero, Tyler Black and Melina Pérez, and executive Vickie Guerrero.

SocioeconomicsEdit

EducationEdit

Florida International University in Miami, Florida produced the most bachelors and Masters degrees to Hispanic students in the country.[112]
Bachelor's Degree or Higher
Educational Attainment (2010)
Ethnicity or nationality Percent of
Population
Venezuelan 50%
Argentinean 39%
Chilean 36%
Bolivian 34%
Colombian 31%
Panamanian 31%
Peruvian 31%
Spaniard 30%
Non-Hispanic White 30%
Cuban 25%
Costa Rican 25%
General Hispanic population 13%
General US population 28%
Sources:[113]

In terms of educational attainment, Hispanic and Latino Americans of South American descent have the highest college graduation rates, and significantly higher than the national average. In 2013, Hispanic high school graduates passed Non-Hispanic Whites in rate of college enrollment. 69% of Hispanic high school graduates enroll in a college immediately after graduation.[114]

Those with a bachelors degree or higher ranges from 50% of Venezuelans compared to 18% for Ecuadorians 25 years and older. Amongst the largest Hispanic groups, those with a bachelors or higher was 25% for Cuban Americans, 16% of Puerto Ricans, 15% of Dominicans, and 11% for Mexican Americans. Over 21% of all second-generation Dominican Americans have college degrees, slightly below the national average (28%) but significantly higher than U.S.-born Mexican Americans (13%) and U.S.-born Puerto Rican Americans (12%).[115]

Hispanic and Latinos make up the second or third largest ethnic group in Ivy League universities, considered to be the most prestigious in the United States. Hispanic and Latino enrollment at Ivy League universities has gradually increased over the years. Today, Hispanics make up between 8% of students at Yale University to 15% at Columbia University.[116] For example, 18% of students in the Harvard University Class of 2018 are Hispanic.[117]

Hispanics have significant enrollment in many other top universities such as Florida International University (63% of students), University of Miami (27%), and MIT, UCLA, & UC-Berkeley at 15% each. At Stanford University, Hispanics are the second largest ethnic group behind Non-Hispanic Whites, at 18% of the student population.[118]

In the 2010 US Census, the high school graduation rate for Hispanics was 62% overall. It is highest among Cuban Americans (69%) and lowest among Mexican Americans (48%). The Puerto Rican rate is 63%, Central and South American Americans is 60%, and Dominican Americans is 52%.

Hispanic university enrollmentsEdit

Universities with the largest Hispanic undergraduate enrollment (2013)[119]
Rank University Hispanic enrollment  % of student body
1 Florida International University 24,105 67%
2 University of Texas at El Paso 15,459 81%
3 University of Texas Pan American 15,009 91%
4 University of Texas at San Antonio 11,932 47%
5 California State University at Northridge 11,774 38%
6 California State University at Fullerton 11,472 36%
7 Arizona State University 11,465 19%
8 California State University at Long Beach 10,836 35%
9 California State University at Los Angeles 10,392 58%
10 University of Central Florida 10,255 20%
Universities with the largest Hispanic graduate enrollment (2013)
Rank University Hispanic enrollment  % of student body
1 Nova Southeastern University 4,281 20%
2 Florida International University 3,612 42%
3 University of Southern California 2,358 11%
4 University of Texas Pan American 2,120 78%
5 University of Texas at El Paso 2,083 59%
6 CUNY Graduate Center 1,656 30%
7 University of New Mexico 1,608 26%
8 University of Texas at San Antonio 1,561 35%
9 University of Florida 1,483 9%
10 Arizona State University 1,400 10%
Hispanic student enrollment in university and college systems (2012-2013)
Rank University system Hispanic enrollment  % of student body
1 California Community College System[120] 642,045 41%
2 California State University[121] 149,137 33%
3 Florida College System[122] 118,821 26%
4 University of Texas System[123] 84,086 39%
5 State University System of Florida[124] 79,931 24%
6 City University of New York[125] 77,341 30%
7 State University of New York[126] 43,514 9%
8 University of California 42,604 18%
9 Texas A&M University System[127][128] 27,165 25%
10 Nevada System of Higher Education [129] 21,467 21%
- Ivy League [116] 11,562 10%

HealthEdit

Hispanic and Latino Americans are the longest-living Americans, according to official data. Their life expectancy is more than two years longer than for non-Hispanic whites and almost eight years longer than for African Americans.[130]

Workforce and average incomeEdit

Median Household Income (2011)
Ethnicity or nationality Income
Argentinean $55,000
Peruvian $50,000
Venezuelan $50,000
Ecuadorian $48,600
Colombian $48,000
Nicaraguan $46,700
Salvadoran $40,000
Cuban $38,600
Mexican $38,000
Guatemalan $36,400
Puerto Rican $36,000
Dominicans $32,300
Hondurans $31,000
Sources:[131]

In 2002, the average individual income among Hispanic and Latino Americans was highest for Cuban Americans ($38,733), and lowest for Dominican Americans ($26,467) and Puerto Ricans ($27,877). For Mexican Americans, it was $33,927, and $30,444 for Central and South Americans. In comparison, the income of the average Hispanic American is lower than the national average.

Among Hispanics, Cuban Americans (28.5 percent) had the highest percentage in professional–managerial occupations. The percentage for Mexican Americans was 20.7, Central and South Americans' was 8.8 percent, and Puerto Ricans was 7.2 percent. All these are lower than the average for non-Hispanics (36.2 percent).[citation needed]

PovertyEdit

According to the ACS, the poverty rate among Hispanic groups is highest among Dominican Americans (28.1 percent), Mexican Americans (23.9 percent), and Honduran Americans and Puerto Ricans (23.7 percent both). It is lowest among South Americans, such as Colombian Americans (10.6 percent) and Peruvian Americans (13.6 percent), and relatively low poverty rates are also found among Salvadoran Americans (15.0 percent) and Cuban Americans (15.2 percent).[132]

In comparison, the average poverty rates for non-Hispanic White Americans (8.8 percent)[132] and Asian Americans (7.1 percent) were lower than those of any Hispanic group. African Americans (21.3 percent) had a higher poverty rate than Cuban Americans and Central and South Americans, but had a lower poverty rate than Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominican Americans.[132]

Cultural influenceEdit

The geographic, political, social, economic, and racial diversity of Hispanic and Latino Americans makes all Hispanics very different depending on their family heritage and/or national origin. Yet several features tend to unite Hispanics from these diverse backgrounds.

Spanish speakers in the United States
Year Number of Spanish speakers Percent of
US population
1980 11 million 5%
1990 17.3 million 7%
2000 28.1 million 10%
2010 37 million 13%
2012 38.3 million 13%
2020 (projected) 40 million 14%
Sources:[133][134][135][136]

LanguageEdit

Hispanics have revived the use of Spanish in the US, originally brought to North America during the Spanish colonial period in the 16th century. Today, there are almost 40 million Spanish speakers in the US. Spanish is also the most popular language taught in the US.[137][138]

SpanishEdit

As one of the most important uniting factors of Hispanic Americans, Spanish is an important part of Hispanic culture. Teaching Spanish to children is often one of the most valued skills taught amongst Hispanic families. Spanish is not only closely tied with the person's family, heritage, and overall culture, but valued for increased opportunities in business and one's future professional career. A 2013 Pew Research survey showed that 95% of Hispanic adults said "it's important that future generations of Hispanics speak Spanish."[133][139] Given the US proximity to other Spanish-speaking countries, Spanish is being passed on to future American generations. Amongst second-generation Hispanics, 80% speak fluent Spanish, and amongst third-generation Hispanics, 40% speak fluent Spanish.[140]

Hispanics have revived the Spanish language in the United States. First brought to North America by the Spanish during the Spanish colonial period in the 16th century, Spanish was the first European language spoken in the Americas. Spanish is the oldest European language in the United States, spoken uninterruptedly for four and a half centuries, since the founding of Saint Augustine, Florida in 1565.[23][24][25][26] Today, 90% of all Hispanic and Latinos speak English, and at least 89% speak fluent Spanish.[141] Additionally, 2.8 million non-Hispanic Americans also speak Spanish at home.[142]

With 40% of Hispanic and Latino Americans being immigrants,[143] and with many of the 60% who are U.S.-born being the children or grandchildren of immigrants, bilingualism is the norm in the community at large. At home, at least 69% of all Hispanics over the age of five are bilingual in English and Spanish, whereas up to 22% are monolingual English-speakers, and 9% are monolingual Spanish speakers. Another 0.4% speak a language other than English and Spanish at home.[141]

American Spanish dialectsEdit

The Spanish dialects spoken in the US differ depending on the country of origin of the person or the person's family heritage. Generally, however, Spanish spoken in the Southwest is Mexican Spanish (or Chicano Spanish). An old, colonial variety of Spanish is spoken by descendants of the early Spanish colonists in New Mexico and Colorado, which is New Mexican Spanish. One of the major distinctions of New Mexican Spanish is its heavy use of colonial vocabulary and verb tenses that make New Mexican Spanish uniquely American amongst Spanish dialects. The Spanish spoken in Florida and in the Northeast is Caribbean Spanish and is heavily influenced by the Spanish of Cuba and Puerto Rico. Isleño is the historic Spanish dialect spoken by the descendants of the earliest Spanish colonists beginning in the 16th century in Louisiana. Spanish spoken elsewhere throughout the country varies, although is generally Mexican Spanish.[142][144]

Spanglish and English dialectsEdit

Hispanics have influenced the way Americans speak with the introduction of many Spanish words into the English language. Amongst younger generations of Hispanics, Spanglish, or a mix of Spanish and English, may be a common way of speaking. Although they are fluent in both languages, speakers will switch between Spanish and English throughout the conversation. Spanglish is particularly common in Hispanic-majority cities and communities such as Miami, Hialeah, San Antonio, Los Angeles, and New York City.[145]

Hispanics have also influenced the way English is spoken in the United States. In Miami, for example, the Miami dialect has evolved as the most common form of English spoken and heard in Miami today. This is a native dialect of English, and was developed amongst second and third generations of Cuban Americans in Miami. Today, it is commonly heard everywhere throughout the city. Gloria Estefan and Enrique Iglesias are examples of people who speak with the Miami dialect. Another major English dialect, is spoken by Chicanos and Tejanos in the Southwestern United States, called Chicano English. George Lopez and Selena are examples of speakers of Chicano English.[146]

ReligionEdit

The most methodologically rigorous study of Hispanic or Latino religious affiliation to date was the Hispanic Churches in American Public Life (HCAPL) National Survey, conducted between August and October 2000. This survey found that 70% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans are Catholic, 20% are Protestant, 3% are "alternative Christians" (such as Mormon or Jehovah's Witnesses), 1% identify with a non-Christian religion (including Muslims, Jewish, Buddhist...[147]), and 6% have no religious preference (with only 0.37% claiming to be atheist or agnostic). This suggests that Hispanics/Latinos are not only a highly religious, but also a highly Christian constituency.

It also suggests that Hispanic/Latino Protestants are a more sizable minority than sometimes realized. Catholic affiliation is much higher among first-generation than second- or third-generation Hispanic or Latino immigrants, who exhibit a fairly high rate of defection to Protestantism.[148] Also Hispanics and Latinos in the Bible Belt, which is mostly located in the South, are more likely to defect to Protestantism than those in other regions. Examples of Protestant denominations that experiencing an inflow of Hispanic/Latino converts are Pentecostalism[149][150] and the Episcopal Church.[151][152] Hispanic or Latino Catholics are also increasingly working to enhance member retention through youth and social programs and through the spread of the Catholic Charismatic Renewal.[153]

MediaEdit

Univisión is the country's largest Spanish language network, followed by Telemundo. It is the country's fourth-largest network overall.[154]

The United States is home to thousands of Spanish-language media outlets, which range in size from giant commercial and some non-commercial broadcasting networks and major magazines with circulations numbering in the millions, to low-power AM radio stations with listeners numbering in the hundreds. There are hundreds of Internet media outlets targeting U.S. Hispanic consumers. Some of the outlets are online versions of their printed counterparts and some online exclusively.

Among the most noteworthy Hispanic/Latino-oriented media outlets are:

  • Telemundo, the second-largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally;
  • Azteca América, a Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally;
  • La Opinión, a Spanish-language daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the six counties of Southern California. It is the largest Spanish-language newspaper in the United States;
  • mun2, a cable network that produces content for U.S.-born Hispanic and Latino audiences;
  • ConSentido TV, a television, radio, and newspaper network in North Texas;
  • V-me, a Spanish-language television network, a sister network of PBS;

CuisineEdit

Cuban cuisine common in Florida: Ropa vieja with black beans, rice and yuca
The Mexican burrito is now one of the most popular food items in the US

Hispanics, particularly Cuban, Mexican, and Puerto Ricans, have influenced American cuisine and American eating habits. Mexican cuisine is now popular across the US, making tortillas and salsa more popular than hamburger buns and ketchup. Tortilla chips have also surpassed potato chips in annual sales, and plantain chips popular in Caribbean cuisines, have continued to grow in popularity.[155] Tropical fruit such as mango, guava, and passion fruit (maracuyá) have increasingly become more popular and are now common flavors in desserts, candies, and food dishes in the US.

Due to the large Mexican American population in the Southwestern United States, and its proximity to Mexico, Mexican food there is believed to be some of the best in the US. Cubans brought Cuban cuisine to Miami, and today, cortaditos, pastelitos de guayaba, and empanadas are common mid-day snacks. Cuban culture has changed Miami's coffee drinking habits, and today a café con leche or a cortadito is commonly had, often with a pastelito (pastry) at one of the city's numerous coffee shops.[156] The Cuban sandwich was invented in Miami, and is now also a staple and icon of the city's cuisine and culture.[157]

Family life and valuesEdit

A Quinceañera after a Catholic Mass, celebrating a daughter's 15th birthday, common amongst Hispanic families.

Hispanic and Latino culture places a strong value on family, and is commonly taught to Hispanic children as one of the most important values in life. Statistically, Hispanic families tend to have larger and closer knit families than the American average, and Hispanic families tend to prefer to live near other family members. This may mean that three or sometimes four generations may be living in the same household or near each other, although four generations is very uncommon in the US. The role of grandparents is also believed to be very important in the upbringing of children.[158]

Hispanics tend to be very group-oriented, and an emphasis is placed on the well-being of the family, and not just on the individual. The extended family plays an important part of many Hispanic families, and frequent social, family gatherings are common. Traditional rights of passages, particularly Roman Catholic sacraments: such as baptisms, birthdays, First Holy Communions, quinceañeras, Confirmations, graduations, and weddings are all popular moments of family gatherings and celebrations in Hispanic families.[159][160]

Education is another important priority for Hispanic families. Education is seen as the key towards continued upward mobility in the US amongst Hispanic families. A 2010 study by the Associated Press showed that Hispanics place a higher emphasis on education than the average American. Hispanics expect their children to graduate university.[161][162]

Latin American youth today stay at home with their parents longer than before. This is due to more years spent studying and the difficulty of finding a paid job that meets their aspirations.[163]

IntermarriageEdit

Hispanic Americans, like immigrant groups before them, are out-marrying at high rates. Out-marriages comprise 17.4% of all existing Hispanic marriages in 2008.,[164] and the rate is higher for newlyweds (which excludes immigrants who are already married): Among all newlyweds in 2010, 25.7% of all Hispanics married a non-Hispanic (this compares to out-marriage rates of 9.4% of whites, 17.1% of blacks, and 27.7% of Asians). The rate was larger for native-born Hispanics, with 36.2% of native-born Hispanics (both men and women) out-marrying compared to 14.2% of foreign-born Hispanics.[165] The difference is attributed to recent immigrants tending to marry within their immediate immigrant community due to commonality of language, proximity, familial connections, and familiarity.[164]

In 2008, 81% of Hispanics who intermarried married non-Hispanic Whites, 9% married non-Hispanic Blacks, 5% non-Hispanic Asians, and the remainder married non-Hispanic, multi-racial partners.[164]

Of the 275,500 new intermarried pairings in 2010, 43.3% were White-Hispanic (compared to White-Asian at 14.4%, White-Black at 11.9%, and Other Combinations at 30.4%; other combinations consists of pairings between different minority groups, multi-racial people, and American Indians).[165] Unlike blacks and Asians, intermarriage rates between White and Hispanic newlyweds do not vary by gender. The combined median earnings of White/Hispanic couples are lower than those of White/White couples but higher than those of Hispanic/Hispanic couples. 23% of Hispanic men who married White women have a college degree compared to only 10% of Hispanic men who married a Hispanic woman. 33% of Hispanic women who married a White husband are college-educated compared to 13% of Hispanic women who married a Hispanic man.[165]

Young Hispanic soccer fans.

Attitudes amongst non-Hispanics toward intermarriage with Hispanics are mostly favorable with 81% of Whites, 76% of Asians, and 73% of Blacks "being fine" with a member of their family marrying a Hispanic and an additional 13% of Whites, 19% of Asians, and 16% of Blacks "being bothered but accepting of the marriage." Only 2% of Whites, 4% of Asians, and 5% of Blacks would not accept a marriage of their family member to a Hispanic.[164]

Hispanic attitudes toward intermarriage with non-Hispanics are likewise favorable with 71% "being fine" with marriages to Whites and 81% "being fine" with marriages to Blacks. A further 22% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a White and 16% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a Black. Only 3% of Hispanics objected outright marriage of a family member to a non-Hispanic Black and 3% to a non-Hispanic White.[164]

Unlike intermarriage with other racial groups, intermarriage with non-Hispanic Blacks varies by nationality of origin, with Puerto Ricans and Dominicans having by far the highest rates of intermarriage with blacks, of all major Hispanic national groups.[166][167][168][169][170][171][172][173][174][175] Cubans have the highest rate of intermarriage with non-Hispanic Whites, of all major Hispanic national groups, and are the most assimilated into White American culture.[176][177] Mexican Americans, who are the majority of the US Hispanic population, are most likely to intermarry with Whites and Asians when marrying out.[178][179][180]

SportsEdit

Hispanics are present in all major American sports and leagues, but have particularly influenced the growth in popularity of soccer in the United States. Soccer is the most popular sport across Latin America and Spain, and Hispanics brought the heritage of soccer playing to the US. Major League Soccer teams such as Chivas USA, LA Galaxy, and the Houston Dynamo, for example, have a fanbase composed primarily of Mexican Americans.[181][182][183]

PoliticsEdit

Current Hispanics and Latinos in United States government
Political party State Term Ancestry
Supreme Court
Sonia Sotomayor N/A N/A 2009–Present Puerto Rican
State Governors
Brian Sandoval Republican Nevada 2011–Present Mexican
Susana Martínez Republican New Mexico 2011–Present Mexican
US Senate
Susan Collins Republican Maine 1997–Present Colombian
Bob Menéndez Democrat New Jersey 2006–Present Cuban
Marco Rubio Republican Florida 2011–Present Cuban
Ted Cruz Republican Texas 2013–Present Cuban
US House of Representatives
Charles B. Rangel Democrat New York 1971–Present Puerto Rican
Ileana Ros-Lehtinen Republican Florida 1989–Present Cuban
José E. Serrano Democrat New York 1990–Present Puerto Rican
Ed Pastor Democrat Arizona 1991–Present Mexican
Xavier Becerra Democrat California 1993–Present Mexican
Luis Gutiérrez Democrat Illinois 1993–Present Puerto Rican
Lucille Roybal-Allard Democrat California 1993–Present Mexican
Nydia Velázquez Democrat New York 1993–Present Puerto Rican
Rubén Hinojosa Democrat Texas 1997–Present Mexican
Loretta Sánchez Democrat California 1997–Present Mexican
Grace Napolitano Democrat California 1999–Present Mexican
Mario Díaz-Balart Republican Florida 2003–Present Cuban
Raúl Grijalva Democrat Arizona 2003–Present Mexican
Linda Sánchez Democrat California 2003–Present Mexican
Henry Roberto Cuellar Democrat Texas 2005–Present Mexican
Albio Sires Democrat New Jersey 2006–Present Cuban
Ben Ray Luján Democrat New Mexico 2009–Present Mexican
Bill Flores Republican Texas 2011–Present
Jaime Herrera Republican Washington 2011–Present
Raúl Labrador Republican Idaho 2011–Present Puerto Rican
Tony Cárdenas Democrat California 2013–Present Mexican
Joaquín Castro Democrat Texas 2013–Present Mexican
Pete Gallego Democrat Texas 2013–Present Mexican
José Antonio García Democrat Florida 2013–Present Cuban
Michelle Lujan Grisham Democrat New Mexico 2013–Present
Gloria Negrete McLeod Democrat California 2013–Present
Raúl Ruiz Democrat California 2013–Present Mexican
Ron DeSantis Republican Florida 2013–Present
Juan Vargas Democrat California 2013–Present Mexican
Filemon Vela, Jr. Democrat Texas 2013–Present Mexican
President Bill Clinton and his Hispanic appointees in 1998

Political affiliationsEdit

Hispanics and Latinos differ on their political views depending on their location and background, but the majority (57%)[184] either identify themselves as or support the Democrats, and 23% identify themselves as Republicans.[184] This 34 point gap as of December 2007 was an increase from the gap of 21 points 16 months earlier.

Cuban Americans and Colombian Americans tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans, while Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominican Americans tend to favor liberal views and support the Democrats. However, because the latter groups are far more numerous—as, again, Mexican Americans alone are 64% of Hispanics and Latinos—the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position with the group overall.

Election resultsEdit

The Presidency of George W. Bush had a significant impact on the political leanings of Hispanics and Latinos. As a former Governor of Texas, Bush regarded this growing community as a potential source of growth for the conservative movement and the Republican Party,[citation needed] and he made some gains for the Republicans among the group.

Elections of 1996-2006Edit

In the 1996 presidential election, 72% of Hispanics and Latinos backed President Bill Clinton, but in 2000 the Democratic total fell to 62%, and went down again in 2004, with Democrat John Kerry winning Hispanics 58–40 against Bush.[185] Hispanics in the West, especially in California, were much stronger for the Democratic Party than in Texas and Florida. California Latinos voted 63–32 for Kerry in 2004, and both Arizona and New Mexico Latinos by a smaller 56–43 margin; but Texas Latinos were split nearly evenly, favoring Kerry 50–49, and Florida Latinos (mostly being Cuban American) backed Bush, by a 54–45 margin.

In the 2006 midterm election, however, due to the unpopularity of the Iraq War, the heated debate concerning illegal immigration, and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Hispanics and Latinos went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years. Exit polls showed the group voting for Democrats by a lopsided 69–30 margin, with Florida Latinos for the first time split evenly. The runoff election in Texas' 23rd congressional district was seen as a bellwether of Latino politics, and Democrat Ciro Rodriguez's unexpected (and unexpectedly decisive) defeat of Republican incumbent Henry Bonilla was seen as proof of a leftward lurch among Latino voters, as heavily Latino counties overwhelmingly backed Rodriguez, and heavily Anglo counties overwhelmingly backed Bonilla.

2008 electionEdit

Hispanic Vote in US Presidential Elections since 1980[186]
Election
year
Candidate of the plurality Political party % of
Hispanic
vote
Result
1980 Jimmy Carter Democratic 56% Lost
1984 Walter Mondale Democratic 61% Lost
1988 Michael Dukakis Democratic 69% Lost
1992 Bill Clinton Democratic 61% Won
1996 Bill Clinton Democratic 72% Won
2000 Al Gore Democratic 62% Lost
2004 John Kerry Democratic 58% Lost
2008 Barack Obama Democratic 67% Won
2012 Barack Obama Democratic 71% Won

In the 2008 Presidential election's Democratic primary Hispanics and Latinos participated in larger numbers than before, with Hillary Clinton receiving most of the group's support.[187] Pundits discussed whether a large percentage of Hispanics and Latinos would vote for an African American candidate, in this case Barack Obama, Clinton's opponent.[188] Hispanics/Latinos voted 2 to 1 for Mrs. Clinton, even among the younger demographic, which in the case of other groups was an Obama stronghold.[189] Among Hispanics, 28% said race was involved in their decision, as opposed to 13% for (non-Hispanic) whites.[189]

Obama defeated Clinton. In the matchup between Obama and Republican candidate John McCain for the presidency, Hispanics and Latinos supported Obama with 59% to McCain's 29% in the Gallup tracking poll as of June 30, 2008.[190] This surprised some analysts, since a higher than expected percentage of Latinos and Hispanics favored Obama over McCain, who had been a leader of the comprehensive immigration reform effort.[191] However, McCain had retracted during the Republican primary, stating that he would not support the bill if it came up again. Some analysts believed that this move hurt his chances among Hispanics and Latinos.[192] Obama took advantage of the situation by running ads aimed at the ethnic group, in Spanish, in which he mentioned McCain's about-face.[193]

In the general election, 67% of Hispanics and Latinos voted for Obama[194] and 31% voted for McCain,[195] with a relatively stronger turnout than in previous elections in states such as Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, and Virginia helping Obama carry those formerly Republican states. Obama won 70% of non-Cuban Hispanics and 35% of the traditionally Republican Cuban Americans that have a strong presence in Florida, while the changing state demographics towards a more non-Cuban Hispanic community also contributed to his carrying Florida's Latinos with 57% of the vote.[194][196] Hispanics and Latinos also supplanted Republican gains in traditional red states, for example Obama carried 63% of Texas Latinos, despite that the overall state voted for McCain by 55%.[197]

Although during 2008 the economy and employment were top concerns for Hispanics and Latinos, immigration was "never far from their minds": almost 90% of Latino voters rated immigration as "somewhat important" or "very important" in a poll taken after the election.[198] There is "abundant evidence" that the heated Republican opposition to the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 has done significant damage to the party's appeal to Hispanics and Latinos in the years to come, especially in the swing states such as Florida, Nevada, and New Mexico.[198] In a Gallup poll of 4,604 registered Hispanic voters taken in the final days of June 2008, only 18% of participants identified themselves as Republicans.[190]

Some political organizations associated with Hispanic and Latino Americans are LULAC, the NCLR, the United Farm Workers, the Cuban American National Foundation, and the National Institute for Latino Policy.

2012 electionEdit

Hispanic and Latinos went even more heavily for Democrats in the 2012 election with the Democratic incumbent Barack Obama receiving 71% and the Republican challenger Mitt Romney receiving about 27% of the vote.[199][200]

Cultural issuesEdit

HispanophobiaEdit

Hispanophobia has existed in various degrees throughout U.S. history, based largely on ethnicity, race, culture, Anti-Catholicism, economic and social conditions in Latin America, and use of the Spanish language.[201][202][203][204] In 2006, Time Magazine reported that the number of hate groups in the United States increased by 33 percent since 2000, primarily due to anti-illegal immigrant and anti-Mexican sentiment.[205] According to Federal Bureau of Investigation statistics, the number of anti-Latino hate crimes increased by 35 percent since 2003 (albeit from a low level). In California, the state with the largest Latino population, the number of hate crimes against Latinos almost doubled.[206]

For the year 2009, the FBI reported that 483 of the 6,604 hate crimes committed in the United States were anti-Hispanic comprising 7.3% of all hate crimes. This compares to 34.6% of hate crimes being anti-Black, 17.9% being anti-Homosexual, 14.1% being anti-Jewish, and 8.3% being anti-White.[207]

Relations with other minority groupsEdit

As a result of the rapid growth of the Hispanic population, there has been some tension with other minority populations,[208] especially the African American population, as Hispanics have increasingly moved into once exclusively Black areas.[209][210][211][212][213][214][215][216][217][218][219] There has also been increasing cooperation between minority groups to work together to attain political influence.[220][221][222][223][224]

  • A 2007 UCLA study reported that 51% of Blacks felt that Hispanics were taking jobs and political power from them and 44% of Hispanics said they feared African-Americans identifying them with high crime rates. That said, large majorities of Hispanics credited American blacks and the civil rights movement with making life easier for them in the US.[225][226]
  • A Pew Research Center poll from 2006 showed that Blacks overwhelmingly felt that Hispanic immigrants were hard working (78%) and had strong family values (81%) but also that they believed that immigrants took jobs from Americans (34%) with a significant minority of Blacks (22%) believing that they had directly lost a job to an immigrant and 34% of Blacks wanting immigration to be curtailed. The report also surveyed three cities: Chicago (with its well-established Latino community); Washington DC (with a less-established but quickly growing Hispanic community); and Raleigh-Durham (with a very new but rapidly growing Hispanic community). The results showed that a significant proportion of Blacks in those cities wanted immigration to be curtailed: Chicago (46%), Raleigh-Durham (57%), and Washington DC (48%).[227]
  • Per a 2008 University of California, Berkeley Law School research brief, a recurring theme to Black / Hispanic tensions is the growth in "contingent, flexible, or contractor labor," which is increasingly replacing long term steady employment for jobs on the lower-rung of the pay scale (which had been disproportionately filled by Blacks). The transition to this employment arrangement corresponds directly with the growth in the Latino immigrant population. The perception is that this new labor arrangement has driven down wages, removed benefits, and rendered temporary, jobs that once were stable (but also benefiting consumers who receive lower-cost services) while passing the costs of labor (healthcare and indirectly education) onto the community at large.[228]
  • A 2008 Gallup poll indicated that 60% of Hispanics and 67% of blacks believe that good relations exist between US blacks and Hispanics[229] while only 29% of blacks, 36% of Hispanics, and 43% of whites, say Black–Hispanic relations are bad.[229]
  • In 2009, in Los Angeles County, Latinos committed 77% of the hate crimes against black victims and blacks committed half of the hate crimes against Latinos.[230]

See alsoEdit

Places of settlement in United States:

Diaspora:

Individuals:

Other Hispanic and Latino Americans topics:

General:

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ a b US Census Bureau 2013 American Community Survey B03001 1-Year Estimates HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN retrieved September 27, 2014
  2. ^ a b c U.S. Catholic Hispanic Population Less Religious, Shrinking
  3. ^ Growing number of Latinos have no religious affiliation
  4. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf
  5. ^ Luis Fraga; John A. Garcia (2010). Latino Lives in America: Making It Home. Temple University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-4399-0050-5. 
  6. ^ Nancy L. Fisher (1996). Cultural and Ethnic Diversity: A Guide for Genetics Professionals. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8018-5346-3. 
  7. ^ Robert H. Holden; Rina Villars (2012). Contemporary Latin America: 1970 to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-118-27487-3. 
  8. ^ "49 CFR Part 26". Retrieved 2012-10-22. "'Hispanic Americans,' which includes persons of Mexican-, Puerto Rican-, Cuban, Dominican-, Central or South American, or other Spanish, culture or origin, regardless of race;" 
  9. ^ "US Small Business Administration 8(a) Program Standard Operating Procedure". Retrieved 2012-10-22. "SBA has defined 'Hispanic American' as an individual whose ancestry and culture are rooted in South America, Central America, Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, or the Iberian Peninsula, including Spain and Portugal." 
  10. ^ Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-03-28. ""Hispanic or Latino" refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin regardless of race." 
  11. ^ "American FactFinder Help: Hispanic or Latino origin". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-10-05. "For Census 2000, American Community Survey: People who identify with the terms "Hispanic" or "Latino" are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census 2000 or ACS questionnaire - "Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban" - as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." The countries or people who are in the Hispanic or Latino American groups in the Census Bureau's reports are the following: Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, El Salvador, Argentina, Bolivian, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any "race".
    1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish speaking countries of Central or South America, the Caribbean, or those identifying themselves generally as Spanish, Spanish-American, etc. Origin can be viewed as ancestry, nationality, or country of birth of the person or person's parents or ancestors prior to their arrival in the United States."
     
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  188. ^ In Obama’s Pursuit of Latinos, Race Plays Role By Adam Nagourney and Jennifer Steinhauer, Published: January 15, 2008, New York Times.
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  209. ^ Christian Science Monitor: "Rising black-Latino clash on jobs" May 25, 2006
  210. ^ New York Times: "In Obama’s Pursuit of Latinos, Race Plays Role" January 15, 2008
  211. ^ Los Angeles Times: "Roots of anger Longtime prejudices, not economic rivalry, fuel Latino-black tensions" January 07, 2007
  212. ^ The Economist:"Where black and brown collide: The struggle for political dominance" August 2, 2007
  213. ^ The Daily Press: "Hispanic Influx Causes Tensions with Blacks" February 27, 2011
  214. ^ FoxNews: "Alleged Bias Attacks Inflame Tensions in New York City" August 16, 2010
  215. ^ Washington Post: "Jail Riots Illustrate Racial Divide in California" February 21, 2006
  216. ^ National Public Radio: "Racial Tension at Los Angeles High School" May 16, 2005.
  217. ^ USA Today: "Blacks, Latinos in the South: Cooperation or confrontation?" November 4, 2006
  218. ^ Los Angeles Times: "Attack on family in Compton latest incident in wave of anti-black violence - A Latino gang is intimidating blacks into leaving the city that was once an African American enclave. It's part of a violent trend seen in other parts of the L.A. area" By Sam Quinones, Richard Winton and Joe Mozingo January 25, 2013
  219. ^ Los Angeles Times: "A Southern accent on day laborers Stereotypes, language skills and the lowest price come into play as black Americans and Latino immigrants compete on an Atlanta street" By Richard Fausset December 28, 2007
  220. ^ New York Times: "A Black-Latino Coalition Emerges in Los Angeles" by JOHN M. BRODER April 24, 2005
  221. ^ Southern Regional Council: "Building Black - Brown Coalitions in the Southeast: Four Case Studies of African American-Latino Collaborations" by Joel Alvarado and Charles Jaret 2009
  222. ^ Carnegie reporter: "Blacks and Latinos in the U.S" by Roberto Suro Spring 2009
  223. ^ Nagourney, Adam; Jennifer Steinhauer (January 15, 2008). "In Obama’s Pursuit of Latinos, Race Plays Role". New York Times. 
  224. ^ Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Report: "Latino Gang Members in Southern California are Terrorizing and Killing Blacks" Winter 2006, Issue Number: 124
  225. ^ New York Times: "Survey Points to Tensions Among Chief Minorities" December 13, 2007
  226. ^ UCLA Center for Communications & Community December 13, 2007
  227. ^ Pew Research Center: "Attitudes Toward Immigration: In Black and White" April 26, 2006
  228. ^ University of Berkeley Law School: Research Brief "Labor arrangement corresponds with the growth in the Latino immigrant population" July 2008
  229. ^ a b Gallup: "Whites May Exaggerate Black-Hispanic Tensions" by Lydia Saad July 17, 2008
  230. ^ Los Angeles Times: "Hate crimes in L.A. County down overall, but anti-Jewish vandalism rises" December 21, 2010

Further readingEdit

Surveys and historiographyEdit

  • Bean, Frank D., and Marta Tienda. The Hispanic Population of the United States (1987), statistical analysis of demography and social structure
  • Miguel A. De La Torre. Encyclopedia on Hispanic American Religious Culture (2 vol. ABC-CLIO Publishers, 2009).
  • De Leon, Arnoldo, and Richard Griswold Del Castillo. North to Aztlan: A History of Mexican Americans in the United States (2006)
  • Garcia, Richard A. "Changing Chicano Historiography," Reviews in American History 34.4 (2006) 521-528 in Project Muse
  • Gomez-Quiñones, Juan. Mexican American Labor, 1790-1990. (1994).
  • Gutiérrez, David G. ed. The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States Since 1960 (2004) 512pp excerpt and text search
  • Gutiérrez, David G. "Migration, Emergent Ethnicity, and the 'Third Space'": The Shifting Politics of Nationalism in Greater Mexico" Journal of American History 1999 86(2): 481-517. in JSTOR covers 1800 to the 1980s
  • Leonard, David J. Latino History and Culture: An Encyclopedia (Sharpe Reference 2009)
  • Oboler, Suzanne, and Deena J. González, eds. The Oxford Encyclopedia Of Latinos & Latinas In The United States (4 vol. 2006) excerpt and text search
  • Rochín, Refugio I., and Denis N. Valdés, eds. Voices of a New Chicana/o History. (2000). 307 pp.
  • Ruiz, Vicki L. “Nuestra América: Latino History as United States History,” Journal of American History, 93 (2006), 655–72. in JSTOR
  • Ruiz, Vicki L. From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America (1998)

Pre 1965Edit

  • Bogardus, Emory S. The Mexican in the United States (1934), sociological
  • Gamio, Manuel. The Life Story of the Mexican Immigrant (1931)
  • Gamio, Manuel. Mexican Immigration to the United States (1939)
  • García, Mario T. Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology and Identity, 1930–1960 (1989)
  • García, Mario T. Desert Immigrants. The Mexicans of El Paso, 1880-1920 (1982) 348 pp; excerpt and text search
  • Gomez-Quinones, Juan. Roots of Chicano Politics, 1600-1940 (1994)
  • Grebler, Leo, Joan Moore, and Ralph Guzmán. The Mexican American People: The Nation's Second Largest Minority (1970), emphasis on census data and statistics
  • Rivas-Rodríguez, Maggie ed. Mexican Americans and World War II (2005)
  • Sanchez, George J. Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900-1945 (1995) excerpt and text search

Culture and politics, post 1965Edit

  • Abrajano, Marisa A., and R. Michael Alvarez, eds. New Faces, New Voices: The Hispanic Electorate in America (Princeton University Press; 2010) 219 pages. Documents the generational and other diversity of the Hispanic electorate and challenges myths about voter behavior.
  • Aranda, José, Jr. When We Arrive: A New Literary History of Mexican America. U. of Arizona Press, 2003. 256 pp.
  • Arreola, Daniel D., ed. Hispanic Spaces, Latino Places: Community and Cultural Diversity in Contemporary America. 2004. 334 pp.
  • Badillo, David A. Latinos and the New Immigrant Church. 2006. 275 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Berg, Charles Ramírez. Latino Images in Film: Stereotypes, Subversion, and Resistance. 2002. 314 pp.
  • Branton, Regina. "Latino Attitudes toward Various Areas of Public Policy: The Importance of Acculturation," Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 2, 293-303 (2007) Abstract
  • Cepeda, Raquel. Bird of Paradise: How I Became Latina Atria Books. 2013. ISBN 978-1-4516-3586-7. A personal exploration of Dominican American identity via family interviews, travel and genetic genealogy. Synopsis and Excerpt
  • DeGenova, Nicholas and Ramos-Zayas, Ana Y. Latino Crossings: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and the Politics of Race and Citizenship. 2003. 257 pp.
  • Dolan, Jay P. and Gilberto M. Hinojosa; Mexican Americans and the Catholic Church, 1900-1965 (1994)
  • Fregoso, Rosa Linda. The Bronze Screen: Chicana and Chicano Film Culture. (1993) excerpt and text search
  • García, Mario T. Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology and Identity, 1930–1960 (1989)
  • García, María Cristina. Seeking Refuge: Central American Migration to Mexico, The United States, and Canada. (2006) 290pp
  • Gomez-Quinones, Juan. Chicano Politics: Reality and Promise, 1940-1990 (1990)
  • Gutiérrez, David G. Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the Politics of Ethnicity in the Southwest, 1910-1986 1995. excerpt and text search
  • Hammerback, John C., Richard J. Jensen, and Jose Angel Gutierrez. A War of Words: Chicano Protest in the 1960s and 1970s 1985.
  • Herrera-Sobek, Maria. Celebrating Latino Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Cultural Traditions (3 vol., 2012) excerpt and text search
  • Kanellos, Nicolás, ed. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Latino Literature (3 vol. 2008) excerpt and text search
  • Kenski, Kate and Tisinger, Russell. "Hispanic Voters in the 2000 and 2004 Presidential General Elections." Presidential Studies Quarterly 2006 36(2): 189-202. Issn: 0360-4918
  • López-Calvo, Ignacio. Latino Los Angeles in Film and Fiction: The Cultural Production of Social Anxiety. University of Arizona Press, 2011. ISBN 0-8165-2926-4
  • Martinez, Juan Francisco. Sea La Luz: The Making of Mexican Protestantism in the American Southwest, 1829-1900 (2006)
  • Matovina, Timothy. Guadalupe and Her Faithful: Latino Catholics in San Antonio, from Colonial Origins to the Present. 2005. 232 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Meier, Matt S., and Margo Gutierrez, ed. Encyclopedia of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement (2000) excerpt and text search
  • Nuno, S. A. "Latino Mobilization and Vote Choice in the 2000 Presidential Election" American Politics Research, (2007); 35(2): 273 - 293. Abstract
  • Saldívar-Hull, Sonia. Feminism on the Border: Chicana Gender Politics and Literature 2000. excerpt and text search
  • Wegner, Kyle David, “Children of Aztlán: Mexican American Popular Culture and the Post-Chicano Aesthetic” (PhD dissertation State University of New York, Buffalo, 2006). Order No. DA3213898.

Regional and LocalEdit

CaliforniaEdit

  • Hubert Howe Bancroft. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft,
  • Bedolla, Lisa García. Fluid Borders: Latino Power, Identity, and Politics in Los Angeles. 2005. 279 pp.
  • Burt, Kenneth C. The Search for a Civic Voice: California Latino Politics (2007) excerpt and text search
  • Camarillo, Albert. Chicanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern California, 1848–1930 (1979)
  • Camarillo, Albert M., “Cities of Color: The New Racial Frontier in California’s Minority-Majority Cities,” Pacific Historical Review, 76 (Feb. 2007), 1–28; looks at cities of Compton, East Palo Alto, and Seaside
  • Daniel, Cletus E. Bitter Harvest: A History of California Farmworkers, 1870-1941 1981.
  • García, Matt. A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900-1970 (2001),
  • Hayes-Bautista, David E. La Nueva California: Latinos in the Golden State. U. of California Press, 2004. 263 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Hughes, Charles. "The Decline of the Californios: The Case of San Diego, 1846-1856" The Journal of San Diego History Summer 1975, Volume 21, Number 3 online at [2]
  • McWilliams, Carey. North from Mexico. (1949), farm workers in California
  • Pitt, Leonard. The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish speaking Californians, 1846-1890 (ISBN 0-520-01637-8)
  • Sánchez; George J. Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900-1945 (1993) excerpt and text search
  • Valle, Victor M. and Torres, Rodolfo D. Latino Metropolis. 2000. 249 pp. on Los Angeles

Texas and SouthwestEdit

  • Alonzo, Armando C. Tejano Legacy: Rancheros and Settlers in South Texas, 1734-1900 (1998)
  • Hubert Howe Bancroft. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft,
  • Blackwelder, Julia Kirk. Women of the Depression: Caste and Culture in San Antonio 1984. excerpt and text search
  • Buitron Jr., Richard A. The Quest for Tejano Identity in San Antonio, Texas, 1913-2000 (2004) excerpt and text search
  • Chávez, John R. The Lost Land: The Chicano Image of the Southwest (Albuquerque, 1984)
  • Chávez-García, Miroslava. Negotiating Conquest: Gender and Power in California, 1770s to 1880s (2004).
  • De León, Arnoldo. They Called Them Greasers: Anglo Attitudes toward Mexicans in Texas, 1821–1900 (Austin, 1983)
  • De León, Arnoldo. Mexican Americans in Texas: A Brief History, 2nd ed. (1999)
  • Deutsch, Sarah No Separate Refuge: Culture, Class, and Gender on the Anglo-Hispanic Frontier in the American Southwest, 1880-1940 1987
  • Dysart, Jane. "Mexican Women in San Antonio, 1830-1860: The Assimilation Process" Western Historical Quarterly 7 (October 1976): 365-375. in JSTOR
  • Echeverría, Darius V., “Aztlán Arizona: Abuses, Awareness, Animosity, and Activism amid Mexican-Americans, 1968–1978” PhD dissertation (Temple University, 2006). Order No. DA3211867.
  • Fregoso; Rosa Linda. Mexicana Encounters: The Making of Social Identities on the Borderlands (2003)
  • Garcia, Ignacio M. Viva Kennedy: Mexican Americans in Search of Camelot, Texas A&M University Press, 2000. 227pp and online search from Amazon.com.
  • García, Richard A. Rise of the Mexican American Middle Class: San Antonio, 1929-1941 1991
  • Getz; Lynne Marie. Schools of Their Own: The Education of Hispanos in New Mexico, 1850-1940 (1997)
  • Gómez-Quiñones, Juan. Roots of Chicano Politics, 1600-1940 (1994)
  • Gonzales-Berry, Erlinda, David R. Maciel, editors, The Contested Homeland: A Chicano History of New Mexico, 314 pages (2000), ISBN 0-8263-2199-2
  • González; Nancie L. The Spanish-Americans of New Mexico: A Heritage of Pride (1969)
  • Guglielmo, Thomas A. "Fighting for Caucasian Rights: Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and the Transnational Struggle for Civil Rights in World War II Texas," Journal of American History, 92 (March 2006) in History Cooperative
  • Gutiérrez; Ramón A. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846 (1991)
  • Márquez, Benjamin. LULAC: The Evolution of a Mexican American Political Organization (1993)
  • Matovina, Timothy M. Tejano Religion and Ethnicity, San Antonio, 1821-1860 (1995)
  • Montejano, David. Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986 (1987)
  • Muñoz, Laura K., “Desert Dreams: Mexican American Education in Arizona, 1870–1930” (PhD dissertation Arizona State University, 2006). Order No. DA3210182.
  • Quintanilla, Linda J., “Chicana Activists of Austin and Houston, Texas: A Historical Analysis” (University of Houston, 2005). Order No. DA3195964.
  • Sánchez; George I. Forgotten People: A Study of New Mexicans (1940; reprint 1996) on New Mexico
  • Taylor, Paul S. Mexican Labor in the United States. 2 vols. 1930-1932, on Texas
  • Stewart, Kenneth L., and Arnoldo De León. Not Room Enough: Mexicans, Anglos, and Socioeconomic Change in Texas, 1850-1900 (1993)
  • de la Teja, Jesús F. San Antonio de Béxar: A Community on New Spain's Northern Frontier (1995).
  • Tijerina, Andrés. Tejanos and Texas under the Mexican Flag, 1821-1836 (1994),
  • Tijerina, Andrés. Tejano Empire: Life on the South Texas Ranchos (1998).
  • Timmons, W. H. El Paso: A Borderlands History (1990).
  • Trevino, Roberto R. The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston. (2006). 308pp.
  • Weber, David J. The Mexican Frontier, 1821-1846: The American Southwest under Mexico (1982)
    • Garcia, Richard A. "Changing Chicano Historiography," Reviews in American History 34.4 (2006) 521-528 in Project Muse

Other regionsEdit

  • Bullock, Charles S., III and Hood, M. V., III. "A Mile-wide Gap: the Evolution of Hispanic Political Emergence in the Deep South." Social Science Quarterly 2006 87(special Issue): 1117-1135. Issn: 0038-4941 Fulltext: in Blackwell Synergy
  • García, María Cristina. Havana, USA: Cuban Exiles and Cuban Americans in South Florida, 1959–1994 (1996); excerpt and text search
  • Korrol, Virginia Sánchez. From Colonia to Community: The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City, 1917–1948 (1994)
  • Millard, Ann V. and Chapa, Jorge. Apple Pie and Enchiladas: Latino Newcomers in the Rural Midwest. 2004. 276 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Murphy, Arthur D., Colleen Blanchard, and Jennifer A. Hill, eds. Latino Workers in the Contemporary South. 2001. 224 pp.
  • Padilla, Felix M. Puerto Rican Chicago. (1987). 277 pp.
  • Sãnchez Korrol, Virginia E. From Colonia to Community: The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City. (1994) complete text online free in California; excerpt and text search
  • Vargas, Zaragosa. Proletarians of the North: A History of Mexican Industrial Workers in Detroit and the Midwest, 1917-1933 (1993) complete text online free in California; excerpt and text search
  • Whalen, Carmen Teresa, and Victor Vásquez-Hernández, eds. The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives (2005),

Primary sourcesEdit

  • Richard Ellis, ed. New Mexico Past and Present: A Historical Reader. 1971.
  • David J. Weber; Foreigners in Their Native Land: Historical Roots of the Mexican Americans (1973), primary sources to 1912

External linksEdit