|From upper left: Panorama of the city, Grenoble’s cable cars, place Saint-André, jardin de ville, banks of the Isère river|
|Intercommunality||Agglomeration community of the Grenoble Alpes Métropole|
|Elevation||212–500 m (696–1,600 ft)
(avg. 398 m or 1,306 ft)
|Land area1||18.44 km2 (7.12 sq mi)|
|- Density||8,496 /km2 (22,000 /sq mi)|
|INSEE/Postal code||38185/ 38000, 38100|
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
|2Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.|
Grenoble (French pronunciation: [ɡʁə.nɔbl]; Arpitan: Grenoblo) is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère. The proximity of the mountains, as well as its size, has led to the city being known in France as the "Capital of the Alps".
Grenoble's history goes back more than 2,000 years, at a time when it was a small Gallic village. While it gained in stature by becoming the capital of the Dauphiné in the 11th century, Grenoble remained for most of its history a modest parliamentary and garrison city on the borders of the kingdom of France.
Grenoble grew in importance through its industrial development, the city having experienced several periods of economic expansion in the last centuries. It started with its booming glove industry in the 18th and 19th centuries, continued with the development of a strong hydropower industry in the late 19th to early 20th centuries and ended with its post-World War II economic boom symbolized by the holding of the X Olympic Winter Games in 1968. The city is now a significant scientific centre in Europe.
The population of the city (commune) of Grenoble at the 2008 census was 156,659. The population of the Grenoble metropolitan area (French: aire urbaine de Grenoble) at the 2008 census was 664,832. The residents of the city are called "Grenoblois".
- For the ecclesiastical history, see Bishopric of Grenoble.
The first references to Grenoble date back to 43 BC. Cularo was at that time a little Gallic village founded by the Allobroges tribe near a bridge across the Isère River. A strong wall was built around the small town in 286 AD.
The Emperor Gratian visited Cularo and, touched by the people's welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this, Cularo was renamed Gratianopolis ("city of Gratian") in 381 (leading to Graignovol during the Middle Age and then Grenoble).
Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, and the diocese of Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. From that time, the bishops exercised a significant political power over the city and, until the French Revolution, styled themselves the "bishops and princes of Grenoble".
After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city was part of the first Burgundian kingdom in the 5th century and the second Burgundian Kingdom of Arles until 1032, when it was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire.
Grenoble grew significantly in the 11th century when the Counts of Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time, their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled across the region. The central position of Grenoble allowed the Counts to strengthen their authority. When they later took the title of "Dauphins", Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné.
Despite their status, the Counts' authority was shared with the Bishop of Grenoble. One of the most famous of who was Saint Hugh. Under his rule, the city's bridge was rebuilt, and both a regular hospital and a leper one was built.
The inhabitants of Grenoble took advantage of the division between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights. That charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541.
In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal, which settled at Grenoble in 1340. He also established the University of Grenoble in 1339. Aging and heirless, Humbert sold his state to France in 1349 on the condition that the heir to the French crown used the title of Dauphin. The first one, the future Charles V, spent nine months in Grenoble. The city remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France, and the Estates of Dauphiné were created.
The only Dauphin who really governed his province was Louis XI, whose "reign" lasted from 1447 to 1456. It was only under his rule that Dauphiné properly joined the Kingdom of France. The Old Conseil Delphinal became a Parlement (the third one in France after the Parliaments of Paris and Toulouse), strengthening the status of Grenoble as a Provincial capital. He also ordered the construction of the Palais du Parlement (finished under Francis I) and ensured that the Bishop pledged allegiance, thus forging the political union of the city.
Due to Grenoble's geographical situation, French troops were garrisoned in the city and its region during the Italian Wars. Charles VIII, Louis XII, and Francis I went several times to Grenoble. However, the people had to suffer from the exactions of the soldiers.
The nobility of the region took part in various battles (Marignano, Pavia) and in doing so gained significant prestige. The best-known of its members was Bayard, "the knight without fear and beyond reproach".
Grenoble suffered as a result of the French Wars of Religion. The Dauphiné was indeed an important settlement for Protestants and therefore experienced several conflicts. The baron des Adrets, the leader of the Huguenots, pillaged the Cathedral of Grenoble and destroyed the tombs of the former Dauphins.
In August 1575, Lesdiguières became the new leader of the Protestants and, thanks to the accession of Henry IV to the throne of France, allied himself with the governor and the lieutenant general of the Dauphiné. But this alliance did not bring an end to the conflicts. Indeed, a Catholic movement, the Ligue, which took Grenoble in December 1590, refused to make peace. After months of assaults, Lesdiguières defeated the Ligue and took back Grenoble. He became the leader of the entire province.
Lesdiguières became the lieutenant-general of the Dauphiné and administered the Province from 1591 to 1626. He began the construction of the Bastille in order to protect the city and ordered the construction of new walls, increasing the city's size. He also constructed the Hôtel Lesdiguières, built new fountains, and dug sewers.
From Louis XIV to the French Revolution
The revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV caused the departure of 2,000 Protestants from Grenoble, weakening the city's economy. However, it also weakened the glove industry of Grasse, leaving the glove factories of Grenoble without any competition. This allowed a stronger economic development for the city during the 18th century. For example, at the beginning of that century, only 12 glovers made 15,000 dozen gloves each year; however, by 1787, 64 glovers made 160,000 dozen gloves each year.
The city gained some notoriety on 7 June 1788 when the townspeople assaulted troops of Louis XVI in the "Day of the Tiles". The people attacked the royal troops to prevent an expulsion of the notables of the city, which would have seriously endangered the economic prosperity of Grenoble. Following these events, the Assembly of Vizille took place. Its members organized the meeting of the old Estates General, thus beginning the Revolution. During the French Revolution, Grenoble was highly represented in Paris by two illustrious notables, Jean Joseph Mounier and Antoine Barnave.
In 1790, the Dauphiné was divided into three departments, and Grenoble became the chef-lieu of the Isère department. The city was renamed Grelibre and took back its real name only under Napoleon. Only two abbeys were executed at Grenoble during the Reign of Terror.Pope Pius VI, prisoner of France, spent three days at Grenoble in 1799 before going to Valence where he died.
The approval of the establishment of the Empire was clear and overwhelming (in Isère, the results showed 82,084 yes and only 12 no). Grenoble welcomed for the second time a prisoner Pope in 1809. Pius VII spent 10 days in the city en route to his exile in Fontainebleau.
In 1813 Grenoble was under threat from the Austrian army, which invaded Switzerland and Savoy. The well-defended city contained the Austrian attacks, and the French army defeated the Austrians, forcing them to withdraw at Geneva. However, the later invasion of France in 1814 resulted in the capitulation of the troops and the occupation of the city.
During his return from the island of Elba in 1815, Napoleon took a road that led him near Grenoble at Laffrey. There he met the royalist fifth Infantry Regiment of Louis XVIII. Napoleon stepped towards the soldiers and said these famous words: "If there is among you a soldier who wants to kill his Emperor, here I am." The soldiers all joined his cause. After that, Napoleon was acclaimed at Grenoble and General Jean Gabriel Marchand could not prevent Napoleon from entering the city through the door of Bonne. He said later: "From Cannes to Grenoble, I still was an adventurer; in that last city, I came back a sovereign". But after the defeat of Waterloo, the region suffered from a new invasion of Austrian and Sardinian troops.
In the 19th century, there was a significant industrial development of Grenoble. The glove factories reached their Golden Age at that time, and their products were exported to the United States, the United Kingdom, and Russia.
The Bastille fortress was transformed between 1824 and 1848 by general Haxo and took on its present-day aspect. During the Second Empire, the region saw the construction of its railway network, and the first trains arrived at Grenoble in 1858. Shortly thereafter, in 1859, Grenoble experienced widespread destruction by extensive flooding.
In 1869 the engineer Aristide Bergès played a major role in industrializing hydroelectricity production. With the development of his paper mills, he accelerated the economic development of the Grésivaudan valley and Grenoble.
On 4 August 1897, a stone and bronze fountain was inaugurated in Grenoble to commemorate the pre-revolutionary events of June 1788. Built by the sculptor Henri Ding, the Fountain of the Three Orders, which represents three characters, is located on the Place Notre-Dame. People in Grenoble interpret these characters as follows: "Is it raining?" inquires the third estate; "Please heaven it had rained", lament the clergy; and "It will rain", proclaims the nobility.
World War I accelerated Grenoble's economic development. In order to sustain the war effort, new hydroelectric industries developed alongs the various rivers of the region, and several existing companies moved into the armaments industry. Chemicals factories were also established in the area surrounding Grenoble. This development resulted in significant immigration to Grenoble, particularly from Italian workers who settled in the Saint-Laurent neighborhood.
The economic development of the city was highlighted by the organization of the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism in 1925, which was visited by more than 1 million people. The organization of this exhibition forced the military to remove the old city walls and allowed expansion of the city to the south. This exhibition also highlighted the city's hydropower industry and the region's tourist attractions.
The site of the exhibition has become an urban park in 1926, called Parc Paul Mistral since the death of the mayor in 1932. Today, the only building remaining of this exhibition in the park, is the Tour Perret, closed to the public since 1960.
During World War II, at the Battle of the Alps, the Nazi invasion was stopped near Grenoble at Voreppe by the forces of General Cartier in June 1940. The French forces resisted until the armistice. Grenoble was then part of the French State before submitting to Italian occupation from 1942 to 1943. Their mercy towards the Jewish populations resulted in a significant increase of their number in the region.
Grenoble was extremely active in the Résistance against the occupation. Its action was symbolized by figures such as Eugène Chavant, Léon Martin, and Marie Reynoard. The University of Grenoble supported the clandestine operations and provided false documentation for young people to prevent them from being assigned to STO.
In September 1943, German troops occupied Grenoble, escalating the conflict with the clandestine movements. On 11 November 1943 (the anniversary of the armistice of 1918) massive strikes and demonstrations took place in front of the local collaboration offices. In response, the occupiers arrested 400 demonstrators in the streets. On 13 November, the resistance blew up the artillery at the Polygon, which was a psychological shock for an enemy who then intensified the repression. On 25 November, the occupiers killed 11 members of the Résistance organizations of Grenoble. This violent crackdown was nicknamed "Grenoble's Saint-Bartholomew". From these events, Grenoble was styled by the Free French Forces the title of Capital of the Maquis on the antennas of the BBC.
This event only intensified the activities of Grenoble's resistance movements. The Germans could not prevent the destruction of their new arsenal on 2 December at the Bonne Barracks. After the Normandy landing, resistance operations reached their peak, with numerous attacks considerably hampering the activity of German troops. With the landing in Provence, German troops evacuated the city on 22 August 1944. On 5 November 1944, General Charles de Gaulle came to Grenoble and bestowed on the city the Compagnon de la Libération in order to recognise "a heroic city at the peak of the French resistance and combat for the liberation".
In 1955 future physics Nobel prize laureate Louis Néel created the Grenoble Center for Nuclear Studies (CENG), resulting in the birth of the Grenoble model, a combination of research and industry. The first stone was laid in December 1956.
In 1968 Grenoble welcomed the Xth Olympic Winter Games. This event helped modernize the city with the development of infrastructure such as an airport, motorways, and a town hall. It also helped develop new ski resorts like Chamrousse, Les Deux Alpes, and Villard-de-Lans.
Grenoble is exclusively built on the alluvial plain of the Isère and Drac rivers at an altitude of 214 metres (702 ft), and as a result the city itself is extremely flat. Mountain sports are an important tourist attraction in summer and winter. Twenty large and small ski resorts surround the city, the nearest being Le Sappey-en-Chartreuse, which is about 15 minutes' drive away.
Historically, both Grenoble and the surrounding areas were sites of mining and heavy industry. Abandoned mills and factories can be found in small towns and villages, and a few have been converted to tourist attractions, such as the coal mine at La Mure.
|Climate data for Grenoble-St Geoirs|
|Average high °C (°F)||5.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−1.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||61
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||95||112||170||183||219||255||290||256||193||137||84||72||2,066|
|Source: Météo France|
The Bastille, an ancient series of buildings, siting on the mountainside overlooking Grenoble and is visible from many points in the city. The Bastille is one of Grenoble's most visited tourist attractions and is a good vantage point for viewing the town below and the surrounding mountains.
Although the Bastille was begun in the Middle Ages, later years saw extensive additions, including a semi-underground defence network. The Bastille has been credited as the most extensive example of early 18th-century fortifications in all of France and held an important strategic point on the Alpine frontier.
The first cable transport system, installed on the Bastille in 1875, was built by the world-famous Porte de France Cement Company. This cable transport system connected the Mount Jalla, just over the bastille, and Grenoble. It was abandoned in the early 20th century
Since 1934, the Bastille has been the destination of the "Grenoble-Bastille Cable Car". This system of egg-shaped cable cars known to locals as "Les Bulles" (the bubbles) provides the occupants with an excellent view over the Isère River. At the top are two restaurants and a small military museum on mountain troops (Musée des troupes de montagne).
Palace of the Parliament of Dauphiné
This palace was constructed Place Saint Andre, around 1500 and extended in 1539. It was the location of the Parlement of Dauphiné until the French Revolution. It then became a courthouse until 2002. The left wing of the palace was extended in 1897.
The building now belongs to the Isère Council (Conseil Général de l'Isère). An ongoing renovation project will give this building a new life whilst preserving its patrimonial character and adding a modern touch.
Museum of Grenoble
The city's most prized museum, the Museum of Grenoble ((French) Musée de Grenoble), welcomes 200,000 visitors a year. The Museum of Grenoble is above all renowned for its collection of paintings that covers all the artistic evolutions. It was the first museum in France that opened its collections to modern artists, at the beginning of the 20th century. Since then its collection of modern and contemporary art has grown to become one of the largest in Europe. The painting holdings include artworks by painters such as Veronese, Rubens, Zurbaran, Ingres, Delacroix, Renoir, Gauguin, Signac, Monet, Matisse, Picasso, Kandinsky, Joan Miró, Paul Klee, Giorgio de Chirico and Andy Warhol. The museum also presents Egyptian antiquities as well as Greek and Roman artifacts. The Sculpture collection presents works by Auguste Rodin, Matisse, Alberto Giacometti and Alexander Calder. In April 2010, the prophetess of Antinoe, a 6th-century mummy discovered in 1907 in the Coptic necropolis of Antinoe in Middle Egypt, returned to the Museum of Grenoble, after more than fifty years of absence.
Archaeological museum of Saint-Laurent
Located in the Place Saint-Laurent, the collections come from the archaeological excavations done on the site and are dated throughout the 3rd century AD. Situated on the right bank of the Isère, Grenoble Archaeological Museum presents the vestiges permitting to carry up the time until the origins of Christianity. The museum is situated in a Benedictine church of the 12th century. Discovered in 1803 by Jacques Joseph Champollion-Figeac, brother of the egyptologist Jean-François Champollion, the church is one of the first monuments classified in France thanks to the intervention of Prosper Mérimée, historic monument inspector. Since 1978, a systematic excavation has led Loud in the setting of a regional research program on the evolution of the churches during the Middle Ages. After eight years of work, the museum opened 6 May 2011.
Education and Science
The large community of both foreign students and foreign researchers prompted the creation of an international over a decade ago. The Cité Scolaire Internationale Europole (CSI Europole) was formerly housed within the Lycée Stendhal across from the Maison du Tourisme, and later moved to its own building in the Europole district. In the centre of the city, two schools have provided education to the isérois for more than three centuries. The oldest one, the Lycée Stendhal, was founded in 1651 as a Jesuit College. In 1673 an astronomical and astrological sundial was created in the main building of the college, called "horloge solaire", which still can be visited today. The second oldest higher education establishment of Grenoble is the Lycée Champollion, completed in 1887 to offer an excellent education to both high school students and students of classes préparatoires.
In 1968, the university relocated to a main campus outside of the city in Saint Martin d'Hères (with some parts in Gières). However, smaller campuses remain downtown and in the northwestern part of the city known as the Polygone Scientifique ("Scientific Polygon").
The university consists of four separate institutions sharing the campus grounds, some buildings and laboratories, and even part of their administration:
- Grenoble I – Joseph Fourier University (sciences, health, technologies)
- Grenoble II – Pierre Mendès-France University (social sciences)
- which includes the Institute of political studies
- Grenoble III – Stendhal University (humanities)
- Grenoble Institute of Technology (INPG or Grenoble-INP) is a federation of engineering colleges.
Campuses of the École nationale de l'aviation civile (French civil aviation university), École d'Architecture de Grenoble ( School of Architecture of Grenoble) and Grenoble École de Management (management and business administration) are also located in Grenoble.
The city is now an important university centre with over 60,000 students, of which 16% arrive from abroad.
Science and engineering
Grenoble is also a major scientific centre, especially in the fields of physics, computer science, and applied mathematics: Joseph Fourier University (UJF) is one of the leading French scientific universities while the Grenoble Institute of Technology trains more than 5,000 engineers every year in key technology disciplines. Grenoble's high tech expertise is organized mainly around three domains: information technology, biotechnologies and new technologies of energy.
Many fundamental and applied scientific research laboratories are conjointly managed by Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble Institute of Technology, and the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). Numerous other scientific laboratories are managed independently or in collaboration with the CNRS and the French National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control (INRIA).
Other research centres in or near Grenoble include the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), and one of the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique (Nuclear Energy Commission)(CEA) main research facilities.
The city benefits from the highest concentration of strategic jobs in France after Paris, with 14% of the employments, 35,186 jobs, 45% of which specialized in design and research. Grenoble is also the largest research center in France after Paris with 22,800 jobs (11,800 in public research, 7,500 in private research and 3,500 PhD students).
In order to foster this technological cluster university institutions and research organizations united to create the GIANT (Grenoble Innovation for Advanced New Technologies) Innovation Campus with the aim at becoming one of the world's top campuses in research, higher education, and high tech.
Grenoble is also renowned for the excellence of its academic research in humanities and political sciences. Its universities, alongside public scientific institutions, host some of the largest research centres in France (in fields such as political science, urban planning or the sociology of organizations).
Knowledge and Innovation Community
Grenoble is one of the leading European cities in term of high-tech industries, especially biotechnology and nanotechnology. World-renowned enterprises have settled in Grenoble and in the surrounding area such as Hewlett Packard, Caterpillar, and STMicroelectronics.
- The town was famous for glove manufacturing, for which Xavier Jouvin introduced an innovative technique in the 19th century. A few small companies keep producing gloves for a very high end market.
- In 2011, the largest employers in the Grenoble metropolitan area were:
|Enterprise, location||Number of employees
|STMicroelectronics, Grenoble and Crolles||5,979||Semiconductor manufacturing, R&D|
|Schneider Electric, Grenoble agglomeration||4,915||Electrical equipment, R&D|
|Caterpillar France, Grenoble and Echirolles||1,865||Construction of heavy equipment|
|Hewlett Packard France, Eybens||1,814||Computer science|
|Becton Dickinson, Pont-de-Claix||1,736||R&D and production of advanced systems for drugs administration|
|Carrefour, Grenoble agglomeration||1,165||Hypermarkets|
|Capgemini, Grenoble||1,100||Information technology consulting and IT service management|
|Groupe Casino, Grenoble agglomeration||990||Supermarkets|
|Samse, Grenoble agglomeration||965||Supplier of building materials|
|Soitec, Bernin||952||Semiconductor manufacturer specialized in the production of SOI wafers|
The presence of companies such as HP or Caterpillar in the area has drawn many American and British workers to Grenoble, especially in the surrounding mountain villages. The region has the second largest English-speaking community in France, after Paris. That community has an English-speaking Church and supports the International School.
Grenoble hosted the 1968 Winter Olympics. The city is famous for many nearby ski resorts nestled in the surrounding mountains.
- Six-Days of Grenoble, a six-day track cycling race since 1971.
- The via ferrata Grenoble is a climbing route located on the hill of the Bastille in Grenoble.
The abundance of natural sites around Grenoble as well as the particular influence of mountaineering practices and history make many Grenoble inhabitants very fond of sports and outdoor activities (e.g., mountain trails hiking, mountain bike, backcountry skiing, rock climbing, and paragliding). The Tour de France cycling race regularly passes through the city.
Grenoble can be accessed by air from Grenoble-Isère Airport, Lyon Saint-Exupéry Airport and Geneva International Airport. Within Grenoble, a comprehensive bus and tram service operates 26 bus routes and four tram lines and serves much of greater Grenoble. Being essentially flat, Grenoble is a bicycle-friendly city.
The Gare de Grenoble is served by the TGV rail network, with frequent high-speed services to and from Paris-Gare de Lyon, often with a stop at Lyon Saint-Exupéry Airport: - though Grenoble is not on any high-speed line, TGVs can run on the classic network and enable such connections. Less frequent long distance trains run to and from other destinations in France, such as Lille Europe and Nantes. Local rail services connect Grenoble with Lyon, and less frequently to Geneva and to other destinations to the east and South. Valence and Lyon to the west provides connections with TGV services along the Rhone valley. Rail and road connections to the south are less well-developed.
Highways link Grenoble to the other major cities in the area including the A48 autoroute to the northwest toward Lyon, the A49 to the southwest toward the Rhone valley via Valence, the A41 to the northeast toward Chambéry, the Alps, and Italy.
A partial ring road around the south of the city, the Rocade Sud, connects the motorway arriving from the northwest (A48) with that arriving from the northeast (A41). A project to complete the ring road with a tunnel under the Bastille as part of the likely routes has been rejected after its environmental studies.
Grenoble hosts several festivals: the Grenoble Jazz Festival in March, the Open Air Short Film Festival in early July, and the Cabaret Frappé music festival at the end of July.
The Summum is the biggest concert hall in Grenoble, and the most famous artists produce there. Another big hall, Le grand angle, is located nearby in Voiron. Smaller halls in the city include the Salle Olivier Messiaen.
The main cultural center of the city is called MC2 (for Maison de la culture, version 2), which hosts music, theater, and dance performances.
There are several theaters in Grenoble, the main one being Grenoble Municipal Theatre (Théatre de Grenoble). Others are the Théâtre de Création, the Théâtre Prémol, and the Théâtre 145. Grenoble also hosts Upstage Productions, which performs once a year through an exclusively English speaking troupe from CSI Europole.
There are two main art centres in Grenoble: the Centre national d'Art contemporain (also called Le Magasin) and the Centre d'art Bastille.
The town also hosts an important comics publisher, Glénat.
People from Grenoble
After World War I, one street in the centre of Smederevska Palanka (Serbia) was named French street (Francuska ulica) and one street in Grenoble was named Palanka street(Rue de Palanka). There is also a Belgrade Street (Rue de Belgrade) near the Isère River.
Twin towns and sister cities
In popular culture
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- INSEE commune file
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Grenoble". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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- Petite histoire du Dauphiné, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 9.
- Petite histoire du Dauphiné, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 27.
- Petite histoire du Dauphiné, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 32.
- Petite histoire du Dauphiné, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 58.
- Petite histoire du Dauphiné, Félix Vernay, 1933, p78
- Petite Histoire du Dauphiné , Félix Vernay, 1933, p88
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- Petite histoire du Dauphiné, Félix Vernay, 1933, p97
- Petite histoire du Dauphiné , Félix Vernay, 1933, p98
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- Petite Histoire du Dauphiné, Félix Vernay, 1933,p115
- Petite histoire du Dauphiné , Félix Vernay, 1933, p120
- L’histoire de l'Isère en BD, Tome 5, Gilbert Bouchard, 2004
- Grenoble, cœur de pierre, Françoise Goyet, Edi Loire, 1996, (ISBN 2840840464)
- L’histoire de l'Isère en BD, Tome 5, Gilbert Bouchard, 2004, p40
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- L’histoire…, Tome 5, Gilbert Bouchard, 2004, p45
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- "Ordre de la Libération". Web.archive.org. 25 February 2008. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- "Grenoble en concurrence avec Lyon". Université Lyon 2. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- Petite histoire du Dauphiné, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 67.
- "Meteo France: Climate in France".
- See web site http://www.bastille-grenoble.fr/english/fortifie_uk.htm
- General Council of the department of Isere (french)
- "Musée archéologique St Laurent". Musee-archeologique-grenoble.com. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
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- "Présentation PowerPoint" (PDF). Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- "Pôles de compétitivité". Mairie de Grenoble.
- See official website
- "Insee – Territoire – Répartition géographique des emplois – Les grandes villes concentrent les fonctions intellectuelles, de gestion et de décision". Insee.fr. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- "Chiffres clés Grenoble-Isère édition 2011". AEPI.
- Official website of the GIANT Innovation Campus
- "European Institute of Innovation and Technology: Home". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- A. Doyon, Xavier Jouvin, inventeur grenoblois et sa famille, Paris, Dayez ed., 1976
- "Les Les entreprises récompensées". Grenoble.cci.fr. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
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- "Mentions obligatoires." Glénat. Retrieved on 1 May 2011. "GLENAT Editions SA 37, Rue Servan BP 177 38008 GRENOBLE CEDEX 1"
- The web site of the Rocade Nord lists the two preferred routes, both of which pass under the Bastille: http://www.rocade-nord.fr/index.php?id=163
- Annecybernard – Conception et Design Olivier Bellon, Programmation Frederic Chatel. "Noix De Grenoble AOC CING Comité Interprofessionnel". Aoc-noixdegrenoble.com. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- Jérôme Steffenino, Marguerite Masson. "Ville de Grenoble – Coopérations et villes jumelles". Grenoble.fr. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
- "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District". © 2009 Twins2010.com. Retrieved 28 October 2009.[dead link]
- Published in the 19th century
- Published in the 20th century
- "Grenoble", The Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Grenoble|
- Grenoble travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Grenoble Chamber of Commerce and Industry
- Grenoble City website (French)
- Official tourism office of Grenoble
- Semitag – Transports de l'agglomération grenobloise (French)
- Comptable Grenoble le site spécialisé pour l'agglomération grenobloise (French)
- Remembering Grenoble Photography Exposition (English)
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