|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2011)|
|Part of the Politics series|
|Basic forms of government|
A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in a foreign country. Governments in exile usually plan to one day return to their native country and regain formal power. A government in exile differs from a rump state in the sense that a rump state controls at least part of its former territory. For example, during World War I, nearly all of Belgium was occupied by Germany, but Belgium and its allies held on to a small slice in the country's west. A government in exile, conversely, has lost all its territory.
Governments in exile frequently occur during wartime occupation, or in the aftermath of a civil war, revolution, or military coup. For example, during German expansion in World War II, some European governments sought refuge in the United Kingdom, rather than face destruction at the hands of Nazi Germany. A government in exile may also form from widespread belief in the illegitimacy of a ruling government. For instance, the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces was formed as a result of the Syrian civil war, which sought to end the rule of the ruling Ba'ath Party.
The effectiveness of a government in exile depends primarily on the amount of support it can receive, either from foreign governments or from the population of its own country. Some governments in exile develop into a formidable force, posing a serious challenge to the incumbent regime of the country, while others are maintained chiefly as a symbolic gesture.
The phenomenon of a government in exile predates formal use of the term. In periods of monarchical government, exiled monarchs or dynasties sometimes set up exile courts—as the House of Stuart did when driven from their throne by Oliver Cromwell and at the Glorious Revolution, or the House of Bourbon did during the French Revolution and the rule of Napoleon. With the spread of constitutional monarchy, monarchical governments in exile started to include a prime minister, such as the Dutch government during World War II headed by Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy.
International law recognizes that governments in exile may undertake many types of actions in the conduct of their daily affairs. These actions include:
- becoming a party to a bilateral or international treaty
- amending or revising its own constitution
- maintaining military forces
- retaining, or newly obtaining, diplomatic recognition from other states
- issuing identity cards
- allowing the formation of new political parties
- holding elections
In cases where a host country holds a large expatriate population from a government in exile's home country, or an ethnic population from that country, the government in exile might come to exercise some administrative functions within such a population. For example, the WWII Provisional Government of Free India had such authority among the ethnically Indian population of British Malaya, with the consent of the then Japanese military authorities.
Current governments in exileEdit
Governments in exile may have little or no recognition from other states. Some exiled governments have some characteristics in common with rump states. Such disputed or partially in exile cases are noted in the tables below.
Deposed governments of current statesEdit
These governments in exile were created by deposed governments or rulers who continue to claim legitimate authority of the state they once controlled.
|Name||Exile since||State controlling its claimed territory (entirely or partially)||Notes||References|
|Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic||1920||Republic of Belarus||The oldest current government (formally, a provisional parliament) in exile, currently led by Ivonka Survilla in Toronto; see also Belarusian Democratic Republic|||
|Qajar dynasty||1925||Islamic Republic of Iran||The Qajar dynasty went into exile in 1923 and continue to claim the Iranian throne, which is currently claimed by Mohammad Hassan Mirza II who is based in Dallas, Texas|
|Pahlavi dynasty||1979||Islamic Republic of Iran||The Pahlavi dynasty, led by Reza Pahlavi and living in Potomac, Maryland; see also Iranian Revolution|
|Royal Lao Government in Exile||1975||Lao People's Democratic Republic||The former government of the Kingdom of Laos; based in Gresham, Oregon|
|Nguyễn dynasty||1945||Socialist Republic of Vietnam||It ended in 1945 when Bảo Đại abdicated the throne and transferred power to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, based in Paris.|||
|Hadi government||2015||Yemen partially controlled by Houthi Revolutionary Committee||President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi is currently forming a government in exile in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Note: Hadi loyalists still control territory in Yemen.|||
Current government claimed of being a "government-in-exile"Edit
The Republic of China government does not regard itself as a government-in-exile, but is claimed to be such by some participants in the debate on the political status of Taiwan. In addition to the territory it currently controls (being Taiwan and some other islands), the Republic of China formally maintains claims over territory now controlled by the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Kingdom of Bhutan, People's Republic of China, Republic of India, Japan, Mongolia, Republic of the Union of Myanmar, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Russian Federation, and Republic of Tajikistan. While the Republic of China is usually considered either a former state or a rump state (i.e. a state which has lost most of its territory), an alternative argument has been advanced that it is a "government-in-exile". While often used as a rhetorical device, the usual formal reasoning on which this claim is based relies on an argument that the sovereignty of Taiwan was not handed to, or was not legitimately handed to, the Republic of China at the end of World War II, and on that basis the ROC is located in foreign territory, therefore effectively making it a government in exile. By contrast, this theory is not accepted by those who view the sovereignty of Taiwan as having been legitimately returned to the Republic of China at the end of the war. Both the People's Republic of China government and the Republic of China government hold the latter view.
Exiled governments of non-self-governing or occupied territoriesEdit
These governments in exile are governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories. They claim legitimate authority over a territory they once controlled, or claim legitimacy of a post-decolonization authority. The claim may stem from an exiled group's election as a legitimate government.
From the Palestinian Declaration of Independence in 1988 in exile in Algiers by the Palestine Liberation Organization, it has effectively functioned as the government in exile of the Palestinian State. In 1994, however the PLO established the Palestinian National Authority interim territorial administration as result of the Oslo Accords signed by the PLO, Israel, the United States, and Russia. Between 1994 to 2013, the PNA functioned as an autonomy, thus while the government was seated in the West Bank it was not sovereign. In 2013, Palestine was upgraded to a non-member state status in the UN.
Deposed governments of subnational territoriesEdit
These governments in exile claim legitimacy of autonomous territories of another state and have been created by deposed governments or rulers, who do not claim independence as a separate state.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia||1993||autonomous republic||Republic of Abkhazia||de facto independent state||Georgian provincial government, led by Vakhtang Kolbaia, whose territory is under the control of Abkhaz separatists|
|Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh||1994||autonomous republic||Nagorno-Karabakh Republic||de facto independent state||Azerbaijan provisional government, led by Bayram Safarov, whose territory is under the control of Armenian separatists|
|Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia||2008||provisional administrative entity||Republic of South Ossetia||de facto independent state||Georgian provincial administration, led by Dmitry Sanakoyev, whose territory is under the control of South Ossetian separatists|
|Autonomous Republic of Crimea||2014||autonomous republic||Russian Federation||federal subject (republic)||Ukrainian autonomous republic, whose territory was annexed by Russia in the course of the 2014–15 Russian military intervention in Ukraine|
Alternative governments of current statesEdit
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations and opposition parties, aspire to become actual governing authorities or claim to be legal successors to previously deposed governments, and have been created as alternatives to incumbent governments.
Alternative separatist governments of current subnational territoriesEdit
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations, opposition parties, and separatist movements, and desire to become the governing authorities of their territories as independent states, or claim to be the successor to previously deposed governments, and have been created as alternatives to incumbent governments.
|Name||Claimed exile||Exile proclamation||Government presently controlling claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Government in Exile of the Free City of Danzig||1939||1947||Republic of Poland||Based in Australia|||
|Republic of South Maluku||1950||1950||Republic of Indonesia||Exiled in the Netherlands|
|West Papuan Government in Exile||1963||1969||Republic of Indonesia||Campaigns for an independent West Papua; based in the Netherlands|||
|Biafran Government in Exile||1970||2007||Federal Republic of Nigeria||An arm of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, seeking to reestablish the Republic of Biafra; based in Washington, DC|||
|Republic of Cabinda||1975||1975||Republic of Angola||Based in Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo|
|Chechen Republic of Ichkeria||2000||2000||Russian Federation||Some members are fighting as rebels against the Russian Armed Forces; based in Western Europe and the United States, with its leaders in London.
There is a contested claim that it has been succeeded by the Caucasus Emirate.
|Republic of Serbian Krajina||1996||2005||Republic of Croatia||Reconstituted in 2005 in Belgrade, by the remains of the government of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, after Croatian forces pushed out the internationally unrecognized entity in 1995 during Operation Storm at the end of the Croatian War of Independence|||
|Koma Civakên Kurdistan||—||1998||Republic of Turkey||Aims to create a Kurdish state in Turkey; successor organization of Kurdish parliament in exile|||
|Republic of Ambazonia||—||1999||Republic of Cameroon||Former British territory of Southern Cameroons; declared independence on December 31, 1999|||
|Western Kurdistan Government in Exile||—||2004||Syrian Arab Republic||Aims to create a Kurdish state in Syria; based in London|||
|Coptic Government In Exile||—||1992||Arab Republic of Egypt||Aims to establish an independent state for the Coptic ethnic group|||
|Interim Government of Federated Shan States||—||2005||Republic of the Union of Myanmar||Aims to establish an independent state for the Shan ethnic group|||
|Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam||2009||2010||Sri Lanka||Aims to establish an independent state of Tamil Eelam|||
Exiled Governments with ambiguous statusEdit
These governments have ties to the area(s) they represent, but their claimed status and/or stated aims are sufficiently ambiguous that they could fit into other categories.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Central Tibetan Administration||1959||People's Republic of China||Founded by the Dalai Lama in Dharamsala, India with cooperation of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru; see also Tibetan sovereignty debate and Tibetan independence movement||Tibet.net,|
|East Turkistan Government in Exile||1949||People's Republic of China||Seeking independence for Xinjiang as "East Turkestan"; based in Washington, DC|||
|Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan||2001||Islamic Republic of Afghanistan||The Taliban gained control over most of Afghanistan in the Afghan civil war, but were removed from power in the current Afghan war.||,|
Past governments in exileEdit
|Name||Exiled or created(*) since||Defunct, reestablished,(*) or integrated(°) since||State that controlled its claimed territory||Notes||References|
|Privy Council of England||1649||1660°|| Commonwealth of England (1649—1653)
Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653—1659)
Commonwealth of England (1659—1660)
|Based for most of the Interregnum in the Spanish Netherlands and headed by Charles II; actively supported Charles' claim to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland|
|Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh||1971*||1972°||Pakistan||Based in Calcutta; led by Tajuddin Ahmad, the first Prime Minister of Bangladesh, during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.|
|Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea||1919*||1948°||Empire of Japan||Based in Shanghai, and later in Chongqing; after Japan’s defeat in World War II, President Syngman Rhee became the first president of the First Republic of South Korea|
|Czechoslovak government-in-exile||1939||1945°||Czechoslovakia||Based in Paris and later in London, during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. After the defeat of Germany, it took control of Czechoslovakia.|
|Azad Hind||1943||1945*||British Raj||Based in Rangoon and later in Port Blair. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was the leader of the government and the Head of State of this Provisional Indian Government in Exile. This government was disestablished in 1945 following the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II|
|All-Palestine Government||1948||1959||Egypt||The All-Palestine government was proclaimed in Gaza in September 1948, but was shortly relocated to Cairo in fear of Israeli offensive. Despite Egyptian ability to keep control of the Gaza Strip, the All-Palestine Government was forced to remain in exile in Cairo, gradually stripping it of its authority, until in 1959 it was dissolved by President Nasser's decree.|
|Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic||1958*||1962*||French Algeria (France)||Established during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence; after the war, a compromise agreement with the Armée de Libération Nationale dissolved it but allowed most of its members to enter the post-independence government|
|Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile||1962*||1992°||Republic of Angola||Based in Kinshasa; its military branch, the National Liberation Front of Angola, was recognized as a political party in 1992 and holds three seats in Angola’s parliament|
|Namibian Government in Exile||1966*||1989°||South Africa||Formed after opposition to the apartheid South African administration over South-West Africa, which had been ruled as illegal by the United Nations; in 1990, Namibia achieved independence.|||
|Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea||1982*||1993°||People's Republic of Kampuchea||Established with UN recognition in opposition to the Vietnamese-backed government. Elections in 1993 brought the reintegration of the exiled government into the newly reconstituted Kingdom of Cambodia.|
|Polish government-in-exile||1939*||1990°|| Occupied Poland
People's Republic of Poland
|Based in Paris, Angers, and London, it opposed German occupied Poland and the Soviet satellite state, the People's Republic of Poland; disbanded following the fall of communism in Poland|
|Estonian government-in-exile||1953*||1992||Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic||Established in Sweden by several members of Otto Tief's government; did not achieve any international recognizion. In fact, it was not recognized even by Estonian diplomatic legations that were seen by western countries as legal representatives of the annexed state.
A rival government was created by another group of Estonian exiles in the same year in Munich but it was short lived.
|Spanish Republican government in exile||1939||1977||Spanish State||Created after Francisco Franco's coup d'état; first based in Paris, France from 1939 until 1940 when France fell to the Nazis. The exiled government was then moved to Mexico City and stayed there from 1940 to 1946, when it was moved back to Paris, where it lasted until Franco's death and Democracy in Spain was restored.|
|Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in Exile||1921||1954||Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic||Formed after the Soviet invasion of Georgia of 1921; based in Leuville-sur-Orge, France|
|Dubrovnik Republic (1991)||1991||1992||Republic of Croatia||Formed in Cavtat with the help of the Yugoslav People's Army after Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia. Claimed to be the historic successor of the Republic of Ragusa (1358-1808).|||
|Ukrainian People's Republic||1920||1992|| Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Second Polish Republic
Kingdom of Romania
|Organized after the Soviet occupation of Ukraine|
|Free Aceh Movement||1976*||2005||Republic of Indonesia||Headquartered in Sweden; surrendered its separatist intentions and dissolved its armed wing following the 2005 peace agreement with the Indonesian government|
|Bongo Doit Partir||1998||2009||Gabon||Founded by Daniel Mengara in opposition to president Omar Bongo; after Bongo's death in June 2009, Mengara returned to Gabon in order to participate in the country's elections|||
|Confederate government of Missouri||1861||1865||United States of America (Union)||Missouri had both Union and Confederate governments, but the Confederate government was exiled, eventually governing out of Marshall, Texas.|||
|Confederate government of Kentucky||1861||1865||United States of America (Union)||Kentucky had both Union and Confederate governments. The Confederate government was soon forced out of the state, and was an exiled government traveling with the Confederate Army of Tennessee, except for during a short return when the Confederate army briefly occupied Frankfort.|
|Kingdom of Hawaii||1893||1895||Republic of Hawaii||Formed by members of the deposed government of Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii; a failed insurgency in 1895 forced the queen to formally disband the kingdom|
|De Broqueville government in exile||1914||1918||German Empire||Formed in 1915 by the Government of Belgium following the German invasion during World War I. It was disbanded following the restoration of Belgian sovereignty with the Armistice with Germany.|
|National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma||1990||2012||Republic of the Union of Myanmar||Led by Sein Win and composed of members of parliament elected in 1990 but not allowed by the military to take office; based in Rockville, Montgomery County, Maryland, U.S.|||
|Commonwealth of the Philippines in exile||1942||1944°|| Empire of Japan(1943)
Second Philippine Republic(1943—1945)
|After Japanese forces took control over the Philippine islands, the Philippine commonwealth government in exile led by Manuel Quezon in Melbourne, Australia and was administered from Washington D.C., United States from May 1942 to October 1944.|
|Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia||1948*||1949°||Dutch East Indies||Based in Bukittinggi; led by Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, founded after Operatie Kraai in December 1948.|
|Vichy France||1944*||1945°||Provisional Government of the French Republic||Based in Sigmaringen, it was lead by Philippe Petain following the Liberation of France by Allied forces.|
Sovereign Military Order of MaltaEdit
The Sovereign Military Order of Malta may be considered a case of a government in exile, since it is without territory but recognised as a sovereign government by numerous sovereign countries. However, it does not claim to be a sovereign state, rather a "sovereign subject" of international law. In addition, it no longer claims jurisdiction over Malta, and recognises and maintains diplomatic relations with the independent Republic of Malta.
World War IIEdit
Governments in LondonEdit
A large number of European governments-in-exile were set up in London.
The Danish exceptionEdit
The Occupation of Denmark (9 April 1940) was administered mainly by the German Foreign Office, contrary to other occupied lands that were under military or civilian administration. Denmark did not establish a government in exile, although there was an Association of Free Danes established in London. King Christian X and his government remained in Denmark, and functioned comparatively independently until August 1943 when it was dissolved, placing Denmark under full German occupation. Meanwhile, Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands were occupied by the Allies, and effectively separated from the Danish crown. (See British occupation of the Faroe Islands, Iceland during World War II, and History of Greenland during World War II.)
Governments-in-exile in AsiaEdit
The Philippine Commonwealth (invaded 9 December 1941) established a government in exile in Australia and the United States.
While formed long before World War II, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea continued in exile in China until the end of the war.
Under the auspices of the Axis powers, Axis-aligned groups from some countries set up "governments-in-exile" in Axis territory, even though internationally recognized governments remained in place in their home countries.
A Bulgarian government in exile was based in Austria and allied with the Axis.
The Provisional Government of Free India (1943–45) was established by Indian nationalists in exile during the war under Japanese auspices. It was affiliated to the Axis and claimed power over an Allied (specifically, British) territory.
Persian Gulf WarEdit
Following the Ba'athist Iraqi invasion and occupation of Kuwait, during the Persian Gulf War, on August 2, 1990, Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah and senior members of his government fled to Saudi Arabia, where they set up a government-in-exile in Dhahran. The Kuwaiti government in exile was far more affluent than most other such governments, having full disposal of the very considerable Kuwaiti assets in western banks—of which it made use to conduct a massive propaganda campaign denouncing the Ba'athist Iraqi occupation and mobilizing public opinion in the western hemisphere in favor of war with Ba'athist Iraq. In March 1991, following the defeat of Ba'athist Iraq at the hands of coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War, the Sheikh and his government were able to return to Kuwait.
Municipal Councils in ExileEdit
Following the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the displacement of many Greek Cypriotes from North Cyprus, displaced inhabitants of several towns set up what are in effect Municipal Councils in Exile, headed by Mayors in Exile. The idea is the same as with a national Government in Exile - to assert a continuation of legitimate rule, even though having no control of the ground, and working towards restoration of such control. Meetings of the exiled Municipal Council of Lapithos took place in the homes of its members until the Exile Municipality was offered temporary offices at 37 Ammochostou Street, Nicosia. The current Exile Mayor of the town is Athos Eleftheriou. The same premises are shared with the Exile Municipal Council of Kythrea.
- Exclusive mandate
- Provisional government
- Shadow government (disambiguation)
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- "Princeton University WordNet". Wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Tir, J. , 2005-02-22 "Keeping the Peace After Secessions: Territorial Conflicts Between Rump and Secessionist States" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii Online <.PDF>. 2009-05-25 from allacademic.com[dead link]
- "Official website of the Belarusian National Republic". Radabnr.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Wilson, Andrew (2011). Belarus: The Last European Dictatorship. Yale University Press. p. 96. ISBN 9780300134353. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "Tsai blasted for R.O.C. legitimacy remark". China Post. 27 May 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- "Treaty confirmed sovereignty: Ma". Taipei Times. 29 April 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- Kerry Dumbaugh (Specialist in Asian Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division) (23 February 2006). "Taiwan’s Political Status: Historical Background and Ongoing Implications" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
While on October 1, 1949, in Beijing a victorious Mao proclaimed the creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Chiang Kai-shek re-established a temporary capital for his government in Taipei, Taiwan, declaring the ROC still to be the legitimate Chinese government-in-exile and vowing that he would “retake the mainland” and drive out communist forces.
- John J. Tkacik, Jr. (19 June 2008). "Taiwan's "Unsettled" International Status: Preserving U.S. Options in the Pacific". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
Chiang Kai-shek wanted to fight it out on an all-or-nothing basis. There are also reports that Chiang's advisors convinced him that if the ROC mission stayed to represent Taiwan, Chiang would be under pressure to demonstrate in some constitutional way that his Chinese government-in-exile represented the people of Taiwan rather than the vast population of China. Doing so would require Chiang to dismantle his existing regime (which was elected in 1947 on the Chinese mainland and continued to rule in Taiwan under emergency martial law provisions without benefit of elections), adopt an entirely new constitution, and install an entirely new government.
- "ROC Government in Exile Is Illogical (English transl.)". (original source: "「流亡政府」邏輯不通" by NOWnews Network). June 1, 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
- Henckaerts, Jean-Marie (1996). The international status of Taiwan in the new world order: legal and political considerations. Kluwer Law International. p. 337. ISBN 90-411-0929-3.
p117. "The ROC joined the United Nations in 1945 as a Charter member and was until 1971 one of the five permanent members of the Security Council. The ROC membership in the United Nations continued to exist through 1971 despite the fact that the ROC government lost the Chinese mainland and moved to Taiwan in 1949. The reduction of a huge area under its effective control in 1949 did not eliminate the very existence of the ROC as a sovereign state as defined by international law. In short, the ROC government has continued to exercise its sovereignty over territories under its effective control since 1912. It has never disappeared from the world as a sovereign state."
p118. "President Harry S. Truman of the United States stated on January 5, 1950 that 'Taiwan was surrendered to ... Chiang Kai-Shek, and for the past four years, the United States and the other Allied Powers have accepted the exercise of the Chinese authority over the island.'"
p118.-119. "The Republic of China is, by any standard, a political entity, recognized by 29 countries as of today. It has a defined territory, with Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu together with its population of 21 million, under its effective control ever since 1945 or earlier. ...
The Republic of China indeed is a sovereign state as defined by the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States of 1933. It also complies with the definition as 'state' defined by current theory of international law, as discussed in the Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States of 1987."
- TIME magazine, Far Eastern Economic Review, Stanford University, US State Dept., Public Broadcasting Service, BBC, US Congressional Research Service, UK Parliament, UK Foreign Office, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, and numerous law journals have all referred to the Republic of China on Taiwan as a government in exile. However, the ROC is recognised as the legitimate government of China by 21 UN member states and the Holy See. The PRC claims that the ROC government no longer exists. Republic of China government in exile, retrieved 2010-02-27
- Jonathan I. Charney and J. R. V. Prescott (July 2000), Resolving Cross-Strait Relations Between China and Taiwan, American Journal of International Law, archived from the original on 2004-06-22, retrieved 2011-02-28
- Taipei Times (June 9, 2013), CIA report shows Taiwan concerns, retrieved 2013-06-10,
[Quoting from a declassified CIA report on Taiwan written in March 1949] From the legal standpoint, Taiwan is not part of the Republic of China. Pending a Japanese peace treaty, the island remains occupied territory in which the US has proprietary interests.
- Robert I. Starr (July 13, 1971), Starr Memorandum of the Dept. of State, retrieved 2012-05-18,
Following World War II, the Republic of China, under the Kuomintang (KMT) became the governing polity on Taiwan. In 1949, after losing control of mainland China following the Chinese civil war, the ROC government under the KMT withdrew to occupied Taiwan and Chiang Kai-shek declared martial law. Japan formally renounced all territorial rights to Taiwan in 1952 in the San Francisco Peace Treaty, but neither in that treaty nor in the peace treaty signed between Japan and China was the territorial sovereignty of Taiwan awarded to the Republic of China.
- Tzu-Chin Huang. "Disputes over Taiwan Sovereignty and the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty Since World War II" (PDF). Institute of Modern History, Academia sinica. Central Academic Advisory Committee and Academic Affairs Office. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
Charles Holcombe (2011). A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 337. ISBN 978-0-521-51595-5.
Barbara A. West (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-4381-1913-7.
Richard J. Samuels (21 December 2005). Encyclopedia of United States National Security. SAGE Publications. p. 705. ISBN 978-1-4522-6535-3.
- For further information, see Political status of Taiwan, Legal status of Taiwan, and Chinese Civil War.
- "Website of the Government of Free Vietnam". Gfvn.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "National Council of Resistance of Iran". Ncr-iran.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Timeline: Equatorial Guinea". BBC News. 14 April 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- "Website of the Syrian National Council". Syriancouncil.org. 2011-11-25. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Official website of the Government in exile of the Free City of Danzig". danzigfreestate.org. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- Asserting Jurisdiction: International and European Legal Approaches', edited by Patrick Capps, Malcolm Evans and Stratos Konstadinidis, which mentions Danzig on page 25 and has a footnote directly referencing the Danzig Government in exile website in a footnote also on page 25. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- "Sydney Morning Herald, November 15th, 1947". Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- "The Economist, December 20th, 2001". 2001-12-22. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- Saha, Santosh C. (2006). Perspectives on Contemporary Ethnic Conflict. Lexington Books. p. 63. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 2241. ISBN 978-0-313-32384-3. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- "Biafraland". Biafraland. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Huseyn Aliyev (24 February 2011). "Peace-Building From The Bottom: A Case Study Of The North Caucasus". Eurasia Review. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Dokumenti: Plan Z-4". B92 specijal: 10 godina od Oluje nad Krajinom (in Serbian). B92. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
- "Southerncameroonsig.org". Southerncameroonsig.org. 2012-08-20. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- KNC.org.uk[dead link]
- "حكومة الاقباط في المهجر". http://www.cpr-government.de/. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "The Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam". Tgte-us.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Peacehalle.com". Peacehall.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Religions - Buddhism: Dalai Lama". BBC. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Eastturkistangovernmentinextile.us". Eastturkistangovernmentinexile.us. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Gall, Carlotta (2007-01-21). "At Border, Signs of Pakistani Role in Taliban Surge". The New York Times.
- "Taliban shifts to southwest Pakistan". Washington Times. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Colin Leys, John S. Saul, and Susan Brown. Namibia's Liberation Struggle: The Two-Edged Sword (London: James Currey, 1995). pp. 20-21, 40.
- Talmon, Stefan (1998). Recognition of governments in international law. Oxford University Press. p. 299. ISBN 0-19-826573-5.
- Корак ка оснивању Дубровачке републике, Accessed 2013-12-26.
- Nom *. "Bdpgabon.org". Bdpgabon.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Library.stanford.edu". Library.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- "Tshaoline.org". Tshaonline.org. 1967-09-20. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Mann, Zarni (14 September 2012). "Burmese Exile Govt Dissolves After 22 years". The Irrawaddy. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- Myo, Nay (17 September 2012). "Burma’s exiled government dissolved". Mizzima. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- The Who's who of the Allied Governments and Allied Trade & Industry. Allied Publications. 1944. p. 173.
Arthur Durham Divine (1944). Navies in Exile. E.P. Dutton. p. 214.
Knud J. V. Jespersen (1 January 2002). No Small Achievement: Special Operations Executive and the Danish Resistance, 1940-1945. University Press of Southern Denmark. p. 48. ISBN 978-87-7838-691-5.