|1st President of the United States|
April 30, 1789[nb] – March 4, 1797
|Vice President||John Adams|
|Preceded by||Inaugural holder|
|Succeeded by||John Adams|
|Senior Officer of the Army|
July 13, 1798 – December 14, 1799
|Appointed by||John Adams|
|Preceded by||James Wilkinson|
|Succeeded by||Alexander Hamilton|
|Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army|
June 15, 1775 – December 23, 1783
|Appointed by||Continental Congress|
|Preceded by||Inaugural holder|
|Succeeded by||Henry Knox (Senior Officer of the Army)|
|Delegate to the Second Continental Congress
May 10, 1775 – June 15, 1775
|Preceded by||Inaugural holder|
|Succeeded by||Thomas Jefferson|
|Delegate to the First Continental Congress
September 5, 1774 – October 26, 1774
|Preceded by||Inaugural holder|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
February 22, 1732|
Westmoreland, Virginia, British America
|Died||December 14, 1799
Mount Vernon, Virginia, U.S.
|Resting place||Washington Family Tomb
Mount Vernon, Virginia, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Martha Dandridge Custis|
|Allegiance|| Great Britain
|Service/branch||Virginia provincial militia
United States Army
|Years of service||Militia: 1752–1758
Continental Army: 1775–1783
U.S. Army: 1798–1799
|Rank||General of the Armies (Promoted posthumously: 1976)|
|Commands||Virginia Colony's regiment
United States Army
|Battles/wars||French and Indian War
• Battle of Jumonville Glen
• Battle of Fort Necessity
• Braddock Expedition
• Battle of the Monongahela
• Forbes Expedition
American Revolutionary War
• Boston campaign
• New York and New Jersey campaign
• Philadelphia campaign
• Yorktown campaign
|Awards||Congressional Gold Medal
Thanks of Congress
|^ March 4 is the official start of the first presidential term. April 6 is when Congress counted the votes of the Electoral College and certified a president. April 30 is when Washington was sworn in.|
George Washington (February 22, 1732 [O.S. February 11, 1731][Note 1][Note 2] – December 14, 1799) was the first President of the United States (1789–1797), the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He presided over the convention that drafted the United States Constitution, which replaced the Articles of Confederation and remains the supreme law of the land.
Washington was elected president as the unanimous choice of the electors in the elections of both 1788–1789 and 1792. He oversaw the creation of a strong, well-financed national government that maintained neutrality in the wars raging in Europe, suppressed rebellion, and won acceptance among Americans of all types. Washington established many forms in government still used today, such as the cabinet system and inaugural address. His retirement after two terms and the peaceful transition from his presidency to that of John Adams established a tradition that continued up until Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to a third term. Washington has been widely hailed as "father of his country" even during his lifetime.
Washington was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia; his wealthy planter family owned tobacco plantations and slaves, that he inherited. Although Washington owned hundreds of slaves throughout his lifetime, his views on slavery evolved, and he desired to free them and abolish slavery. After both his father and older brother died when he was young, Washington became personally and professionally attached to the powerful William Fairfax, who promoted his career as a surveyor and soldier. Washington quickly became a senior officer in the colonial forces during the first stages of the French and Indian War. Chosen by the Second Continental Congress in 1775 to be commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, Washington managed to force the British out of Boston in 1776, but was defeated and almost captured later that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the dead of winter, he defeated the British in two battles, retook New Jersey and restored momentum to the Patriot cause.
Because of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. Historians laud Washington for his selection and supervision of his generals, encouragement of morale and ability to hold together the army, coordination with the state governors and state militia units, relations with Congress and attention to supplies, logistics, and training. In battle, however, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies. After victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as Commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism.
Dissatisfied with the Continental Congress, in 1787 Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention that devised a new federal government for the United States. Elected unanimously as the first President of the United States in 1789, he attempted to bring rival factions together to unify the nation. He supported Alexander Hamilton's programs to pay off all state and national debt, to implement an effective tax system and to create a national bank, despite opposition from Thomas Jefferson.
Washington proclaimed the United States neutral in the wars raging in Europe after 1793. He avoided war with Great Britain and guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795, despite intense opposition from the Jeffersonians. Although he never officially joined the Federalist Party, he supported its programs. Washington's Farewell Address was an influential primer on republican virtue and a warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars. He retired from the presidency in 1797 and returned to his home in Mount Vernon, and domestic life where he managed a variety of enterprises. He freed all his slaves by his final will.
Washington had a vision of a great and powerful nation that would be built on republican lines using federal power. He sought to use the national government to preserve liberty, improve infrastructure, open the western lands, promote commerce, found a permanent capital, reduce regional tensions and promote a spirit of American nationalism. At his death, Washington was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen" by Henry Lee.
The Federalists made him the symbol of their party but for many years, the Jeffersonians continued to distrust his influence and delayed building the Washington Monument. As the leader of the first successful revolution against a colonial empire in world history, Washington became an international icon for liberation and nationalism. He is consistently ranked among the top three presidents of the United States, according to polls of both scholars and the general public.
Early life (1732–1753)
The first child of Augustine Washington (1694–1743) and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington (1708–1789), George Washington was born on their Pope's Creek Estate near present-day Colonial Beach in Westmoreland County, Virginia. According to the Julian calendar and Annunciation Style of enumerating years, then in use in the British Empire, Washington was born on February 11, 1731; when the Gregorian calendar was implemented in the British Empire in 1752, in accordance with the provisions of the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, his birth date became February 22, 1732.[Note 1][Note 2]
Washington's ancestors were from Sulgrave, England; his great-grandfather, John Washington, had emigrated to Virginia in 1657. George's father Augustine was a slave-owning tobacco planter who later tried his hand in iron-mining ventures. In George's youth, the Washingtons were moderately prosperous members of the Virginia gentry, of "middling rank" rather than one of the leading planter families. At this time, Virginia and other southern colonies had become a slave society, in which slaveholders formed the ruling class and the economy was based on slave labor.
Six of George's siblings reached maturity, including two older half-brothers, Lawrence and Augustine, from his father's first marriage to Jane Butler Washington, and four full siblings, Samuel, Elizabeth (Betty), John Augustine and Charles. Three siblings died before becoming adults: his full sister Mildred died when she was about one, his half-brother Butler died while an infant, and his half-sister Jane died at the age of 12, when George was about 2. George's father died when George was 11 years old, after which George's half-brother Lawrence became a surrogate father and role model. William Fairfax, Lawrence's father-in-law and cousin of Virginia's largest landowner, Thomas, Lord Fairfax, was also a formative influence.
Washington spent much of his boyhood at Ferry Farm in Stafford County near Fredericksburg. Lawrence Washington inherited another family property from his father, a plantation on the Potomac River, which he named Mount Vernon, in honor of his commanding officer, Admiral Edward Vernon. George inherited Ferry Farm upon his father's death and eventually acquired Mount Vernon after Lawrence's death.
The death of his father prevented Washington from crossing the Atlantic to receive the rest of his education at England's Appleby School, as his older brothers had done. He received the equivalent of an elementary school education from a variety of tutors, and also a school run by an Anglican clergyman in or near Fredericksburg. Talk of securing an appointment in the Royal Navy for him when he was 15 was dropped when his widowed mother objected. Thanks to Lawrence's connection to the powerful Fairfax family, at age 17 in 1749, Washington was appointed official surveyor for Culpeper County, a well-paid position which enabled him to purchase land in the Shenandoah Valley, the first of his many land acquisitions in western Virginia. Thanks also to Lawrence's involvement in the Ohio Company, a land investment company funded by Virginia investors, and Lawrence's position as commander of the Virginia militia, Washington came to the notice of the new lieutenant governor of Virginia, Robert Dinwiddie. Washington was hard to miss: At exactly six feet, he towered over most of his contemporaries.
In 1751, Washington travelled to Barbados with Lawrence, who was suffering from tuberculosis, with the hope that the climate would be beneficial to Lawrence's health. Washington contracted smallpox during the trip, which left his face slightly scarred, but immunized him against future exposures to the dreaded disease. Lawrence's health did not improve; he returned to Mount Vernon, where he died in 1752. Lawrence's position as Adjutant General (militia leader) of Virginia was divided into four offices after his death. Washington was appointed by Governor Dinwiddie as one of the four district adjutants in February 1753, with the rank of major in the Virginia militia. Washington also joined the Freemasons fraternal association in Fredericksburg at this time.
French and Indian War (or 'Seven Years War', 1754–1758)
The Ohio Company was an important vehicle through which British investors planned to expand into the Ohio Valley, opening new settlements and trading posts for the Indian trade. In 1753, the French themselves began expanding their military control into the Ohio Country, a territory already claimed by the British colonies of Virginia and Pennsylvania. These competing claims led to a war in the colonies called the French and Indian War (1754–62), and contributed to the start of the global Seven Years' War (1756–63). By chance, Washington became involved in its beginning.
Robert Dinwiddie, lieutenant governor of colonial Virginia, was ordered by the British government to guard the British territorial claims including the Ohio River basin. In late 1753 Washington was ordered by Dinwiddie to deliver a letter asking the French to vacate the Ohio Valley; he was eager to prove himself as the new adjutant general of the militia, appointed by the Lieutenant Governor himself only a year before. During his trip Washington met with Tanacharison (also called "Half-King") and other Iroquois chiefs allied with England at Logstown to secure their support in case of a military conflict with the French; Washington and Tanacharison became friends. Washington delivered the letter to the local French commander Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre, who politely refused to leave. Washington kept a diary during his expedition which was printed by William Hunter on Dinwiddie's order and which made Washington's name recognizable in Virginia. This increased notoriety helped him to obtain a commission to raise a company of 100 men and start his military career.
Dinwiddie sent Washington back to the Ohio Country to protect an Ohio Company's crew constructing a fort at present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. However, before he reached the area, a French force drove out colonial traders and began construction of Fort Duquesne. A small detachment of French troops led by Joseph Coulon de Jumonville, was discovered by Tanacharison and a few warriors east of present-day Uniontown, Pennsylvania. On May 28, 1754 Washington and some of his militia unit, aided by their Mingo allies, ambushed the French in what has come to be called the Battle of Jumonville Glen. Exactly what happened during and after the battle is a matter of some controversy, but a few primary accounts agree that the battle lasted about 15 minutes, that Jumonville was killed, and that most of his party were either killed or taken prisoner. Whether Jumonville died at the hands of Tanacharison in cold blood or was somehow shot by an onlooker with a musket as he sat with Washington or by another means, is not completely clear.
The French responded by attacking and capturing Washington at Fort Necessity in July 1754. However, he was allowed to return with his troops to Virginia. Historian Joseph Ellis concludes that the episode demonstrated Washington's bravery, initiative, inexperience and impetuosity. These events had international consequences; the French accused Washington of assassinating Jumonville, who they claimed was on a diplomatic mission. Both France and Great Britain were ready to fight for control of the region and both sent troops to North America in 1755; war was formally declared in 1756.
Braddock disaster 1755
In 1755, Washington was the senior American aide to British General Edward Braddock on the ill-fated Braddock expedition. This was the largest British expedition to the colonies, and was intended to expel the French from the Ohio Country. The French and their Indian allies ambushed Braddock, who was mortally wounded in the Battle of the Monongahela. After suffering devastating casualties, the British retreated in disarray; however, Washington rode back and forth across the battlefield, rallying the remnants of the British and Virginian forces to an organized retreat.
Commander of Virginia Regiment
Governor Dinwiddie rewarded Washington in 1755 with a commission as "Colonel of the Virginia Regiment and Commander in Chief of all forces now raised in the defense of His Majesty's Colony" and gave him the task of defending Virginia's frontier. The Virginia Regiment was the first full-time American military unit in the colonies (as opposed to part-time militias and the British regular units). Washington was ordered to "act defensively or offensively" as he thought best.
In command of a thousand soldiers, Washington was a disciplinarian who emphasized training. He led his men in brutal campaigns against the Indians in the west; in 10 months units of his regiment fought 20 battles, and lost a third of its men. Washington's strenuous efforts meant that Virginia's frontier population suffered less than that of other colonies; Ellis concludes "it was his only unqualified success" in the war.
In 1758, Washington participated in the Forbes Expedition to capture Fort Duquesne. He was embarrassed by a friendly fire episode in which his unit and another British unit thought the other was the French enemy and opened fire, with 14 dead and 26 wounded in the mishap. Washington was not involved in any other major fighting on the expedition, and the British scored a major strategic victory, gaining control of the Ohio Valley, when the French abandoned the fort. Following the expedition, he retired from his Virginia Regiment commission in December 1758. Washington did not return to military life until the outbreak of the revolution in 1775.
Although Washington never gained the commission in the British army he yearned for, in these years the young man gained valuable military, political, and leadership skills. He closely observed British military tactics, gaining a keen insight into their strengths and weaknesses that proved invaluable during the Revolution. He demonstrated his toughness and courage in the most difficult situations, including disasters and retreats. He developed a command presence—given his size, strength, stamina, and bravery in battle, he appeared to soldiers to be a natural leader and they followed him without question.
Washington learned to organize, train, drill, and discipline his companies and regiments. From his observations, readings and conversations with professional officers, he learned the basics of battlefield tactics, as well as a good understanding of problems of organization and logistics. He gained an understanding of overall strategy, especially in locating strategic geographical points.
Historian Ron Chernow is of the opinion that his frustrations in dealing with government officials during this conflict led him to advocate the advantages of a strong national government and a vigorous executive agency that could get results; other historians tend to ascribe Washington's position on government to his later American Revolutionary War service.[Note 3] He developed a very negative idea of the value of militia, who seemed too unreliable, too undisciplined, and too short-term compared to regulars. On the other hand, his experience was limited to command of at most 1000 men, and came only in remote frontier conditions that were far removed from the urban situations he faced during the Revolution at Boston, New York, Trenton and Philadelphia.
Between the wars: Mount Vernon (1759–1774)
On January 6, 1759, Washington married the wealthy widow Martha Dandridge Custis, then 28 years old. Surviving letters suggest that he may have been in love at the time with Sally Fairfax, the wife of a friend. Nevertheless, George and Martha made a compatible marriage, because Martha was intelligent, gracious, and experienced in managing a planter's estate.
Together the two raised her two children from her previous marriage, John Parke Custis and Martha Parke Custis; later the Washingtons raised two of Mrs. Washington's grandchildren, Eleanor Parke Custis and George Washington Parke Custis. George and Martha never had any children together – his earlier bout with smallpox in 1751 may have made him sterile. The newlywed couple moved to Mount Vernon, near Alexandria, where he took up the life of a planter and political figure.
Washington's marriage to Martha greatly increased his property holdings and social standing, and made him one of Virginia's wealthiest men. He acquired one-third of the 18,000-acre (73 km2) Custis estate upon his marriage, worth approximately $100,000, and managed the remainder on behalf of Martha's children, for whom he sincerely cared.
In 1754, Lieutenant Governor Dinwiddie had promised land bounties to the soldiers and officers who volunteered to serve during the French and Indian War. Lord Botetourt, the new governor, finally fulfilled Dinwiddie's promise in 1769–1770, with Washington subsequently receiving title to 23,200 acres (94 km2) near where the Kanawha River flows into the Ohio River, in what is now western West Virginia. He also frequently bought additional land in his own name. By 1775, Washington had doubled the size of Mount Vernon to 6,500 acres (26 km2), and had increased its slave population to over 100. As a respected military hero and large landowner, he held local office and was elected to the Virginia provincial legislature, the House of Burgesses, beginning in 1758.
Washington lived an aristocratic lifestyle—fox hunting was a favorite leisure activity. He also enjoyed going to dances and parties, in addition to the theater, races, and cockfights. Washington also was known to play cards, backgammon, and billiards. Like most Virginia planters, he imported luxuries and other goods from England and paid for them by exporting his tobacco crop.
Washington began to pull himself out of debt in the mid-1760s by diversifying his previously tobacco-centric business interests into other ventures and paying more attention to his affairs. In 1766, he started switching Mount Vernon's primary cash crop away from tobacco to wheat, a crop that could be processed and then sold in various forms in the colonies, and further diversified operations to include flour milling, fishing, horse breeding, spinning, weaving and (in the 1790s) whiskey production. Patsy Custis's death in 1773 from epilepsy enabled Washington to pay off his British creditors, since half of her inheritance passed to him.
A successful planter, he was a leader in the social elite in Virginia. From 1768 to 1775, he invited some 2000 guests to his Mount Vernon estate, mostly those he considered "people of rank". As for people not of high social status, his advice was to "treat them civilly" but "keep them at a proper distance, for they will grow upon familiarity, in proportion as you sink in authority". In 1769, he became more politically active, presenting the Virginia Assembly with legislation to ban the importation of goods from Great Britain.
American Revolution (1775–1783)
Washington opposed the 1765 Stamp Act, the first direct tax on the colonies, and began taking a leading role in the growing colonial resistance when protests against the Townshend Acts (enacted in 1767) became widespread. In May 1769, Washington introduced a proposal, drafted by his friend George Mason, calling for Virginia to boycott English goods until the Acts were repealed. Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts in 1770. However, Washington regarded the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774 as "an Invasion of our Rights and Privileges".
In July 1774, he chaired the meeting at which the "Fairfax Resolves" were adopted, which called for the convening of a Continental Congress, among other things. In August, Washington attended the First Virginia Convention, where he was selected as a delegate to the First Continental Congress.
Commander in chief
After the Battles of Lexington and Concord near Boston in April 1775, the colonies went to war. Washington appeared at the Second Continental Congress in a military uniform, signaling that he was prepared for war. Washington had the prestige, military experience, charisma and military bearing of a military leader and was known as a strong patriot. Virginia, the largest colony, deserved recognition, and New England—where the fighting began—realized it needed Southern support. Washington did not explicitly seek the office of commander and said that he was not equal to it, but there was no serious competition. Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, 1775. Nominated by John Adams of Massachusetts, Washington was then appointed General and Commander-in-chief.
Washington had three roles during the war. In 1775–77, and again in 1781 he led his men against the main British forces. Although he lost many of his battles, he never surrendered his army during the war, and he continued to fight the British relentlessly until the war's end. He plotted the overall strategy of the war, in cooperation with Congress.
Second, he was charged with organizing and training the army. He recruited regulars and assigned Baron von Steuben, a veteran of the Prussian general staff, to train them. The war effort and getting supplies to the troops were under the purview of Congress, but Washington pressured the Congress to provide the essentials.
In June 1776, Congress' first attempt at running the war effort was established with the committee known as "Board of War and Ordnance", succeeded by the Board of War in July 1777, a committee which eventually included members of the military. The command structure of the armed forces was a hodgepodge of Congressional appointees (and Congress sometimes made those appointments without Washington's input) with state-appointments filling the lower ranks and of all of the militia-officers. The results of his general staff were mixed, as some of his favorites (like John Sullivan) never mastered the art of command.
Eventually, he found capable officers, such as General Nathanael Greene, General Daniel Morgan, "the old wagoner", with whom he had served in The French and Indian War, Henry Knox, his chief of artillery, and his chief-of-staff Alexander Hamilton. The American officers never equaled their opponents in tactics and maneuver, and consequently they lost most of the pitched battles. The great successes, at Boston (1776), Saratoga (1777) and Yorktown (1781), came from trapping the British far from base with much larger numbers of troops. Daniel Morgan's annihilation of Banastre Tarleton's legion of dragoons at Cowpens in February 1781, came as a result of Morgan's employment of superior line tactics against his British opponent, resulting in one of the very few double envelopments in military history, another being Hannibal's defeat of the Romans at Cannae in 216 b.c. The decisive defeat of Col. Patrick Ferguson's Tory Regiment at King's Mountain demonstrated the superiority of the riflery of American "over mountain men" over British-trained troops armed with musket and bayonet. These "over-mountain men" were led by a variety of elected officers, including the 6'6" William Campbell who had become one of Washington's officers by the time of Yorktown. Similarly, Morgan's Virginia riflemen proved themselves superior to the British at Saratoga, a post-revolutionary war development being the creation of trained "rifle battalions" in the European armies.
Third, and most important, Washington was the embodiment of armed resistance to the Crown—the representative man of the Revolution. His long-term strategy was to maintain an army in the field at all times, and eventually this strategy worked. His enormous personal and political stature and his political skills kept Congress, the army, the French, the militias, and the states all pointed toward a common goal. Furthermore, by voluntarily resigning his commission and disbanding his army when the war was won (rather than declaring himself monarch), he permanently established the principle of civilian supremacy in military affairs. Yet his constant reiteration of the point that well-disciplined professional soldiers counted for twice as much as erratic militias (clearly demonstrated in the rout at Camden, where only the Maryland and Delaware Continentals under Baron DeKalb held firm), helped overcome the ideological distrust of a standing army.
Victory at Boston
Washington assumed command of the Continental Army in the field at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in July 1775, during the ongoing siege of Boston. Realizing his army's desperate shortage of gunpowder, Washington asked for new sources. American troops raided British arsenals, including some in the Caribbean, and some manufacturing was attempted. They obtained a barely adequate supply (about 2.5 million pounds) by the end of 1776, mostly from France.
Washington reorganized the army during the long standoff, and forced the British to withdraw by putting artillery on Dorchester Heights overlooking the city. The British evacuated Boston in March 1776 and Washington moved his army to New York City.
Although highly disparaging toward most of the Patriots, British newspapers routinely praised Washington's personal character and qualities as a military commander. These articles were bold, as Washington was an enemy general who commanded an army in a cause that many Britons believed would ruin the empire.
Defeat at New York City and Fabian tactics
In August 1776, British General William Howe launched a massive naval and land campaign designed to seize New York. The Continental Army under Washington engaged the enemy for the first time as an army of the newly independent United States at the Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the entire war. The Americans were heavily outnumbered, many men deserted, and Washington was badly beaten. Subsequently, Washington was forced to retreat across the East River at night. He did so without loss of life or materiel.
Washington retreated north from the city to avoid encirclement, enabling Howe to take the offensive and capture Fort Washington on November 16 with high Continental casualties. Washington then retreated across New Jersey; the future of the Continental Army was in doubt due to expiring enlistments and the string of losses. On the night of December 25, 1776, Washington staged a comeback with a surprise attack on a Hessian outpost in western New Jersey. He led his army across the Delaware River to capture nearly 1,000 Hessians in Trenton, New Jersey. Washington followed up his victory at Trenton with another over British regulars at Princeton in early January. The British retreated back to New York City and its environs, which they held until the peace treaty of 1783. Washington's victories wrecked the British carrot-and-stick strategy of showing overwhelming force then offering generous terms. The Americans would not negotiate for anything short of independence. These victories alone were not enough to ensure ultimate Patriot victory, however, since many soldiers did not reenlist or deserted during the harsh winter. Washington and Congress reorganized the army with increased rewards for staying and punishment for desertion, which raised troop numbers effectively for subsequent battles.
Historians debate whether or not Washington preferred a Fabian strategy[Note 4] to harass the British with quick, sharp attacks followed by a retreat so the larger British army could not catch him, or whether he preferred to fight major battles.[Note 5] While his southern commander Greene in 1780–81 did use Fabian tactics, Washington did so only in fall 1776 to spring 1777, after losing New York City and seeing much of his army melt away. Trenton and Princeton were Fabian examples. By summer 1777, however, Washington had rebuilt his strength and his confidence; he stopped using raids and went for large-scale confrontations, as at Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth and Yorktown.
In the late summer of 1777, the British under John Burgoyne sent a major invasion army south from Quebec, with the intention of splitting off rebellious New England. General Howe in New York took his army south to Philadelphia instead of going up the Hudson River to join with Burgoyne near Albany. It was a major strategic mistake for the British, and Washington rushed to Philadelphia to engage Howe, while closely following the action in upstate New York. In pitched battles that were too complex for his relatively inexperienced men, Washington was defeated. At the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777, Howe outmaneuvered Washington, and marched into the American capital at Philadelphia unopposed on September 26. Washington's army unsuccessfully attacked the British garrison at Germantown in early October. Meanwhile, Burgoyne, out of reach from help from Howe, was trapped and forced to surrender his entire army at Saratoga, New York. It was a major turning point militarily and diplomatically. France responded to Burgoyne's defeat by entering the war, openly allying with America and turning the Revolutionary War into a major worldwide war. Washington's loss of Philadelphia prompted some members of Congress to discuss removing Washington from command. This attempt failed after Washington's supporters rallied behind him.
Washington's army of 11,000 went into winter quarters at Valley Forge north of Philadelphia in December 1777. Over the next six months, the deaths in camp numbered in the thousands (the majority being from disease), with historians' death toll estimates ranging from 2000 to 2500, to over 3000 men. The next spring, however, the army emerged from Valley Forge in good order, thanks in part to a full-scale training program supervised by General von Steuben. The British evacuated Philadelphia to New York in 1778, shadowed by Washington. Washington attacked them at Monmouth, fighting to an effective draw in one of the war's largest battles. Afterwards, the British continued to head towards New York, and Washington moved his army outside of New York.
Victory at Yorktown
In the summer of 1779 at Washington's direction, General John Sullivan carried out a scorched earth campaign that destroyed at least 40 Iroquois villages in central and upstate New York; the Indians were British allies who had been raiding American settlements on the frontier. In July 1780, 5,000 veteran French troops led by the comte de Rochambeau arrived at Newport, Rhode Island to aid in the war effort. The Continental Army having been funded by $20,000 in French gold, Washington delivered the final blow to the British in 1781, after a French naval victory allowed American and French forces to trap a British army in Virginia. The surrender at Yorktown on October 19, 1781, marked the end of major fighting in continental North America. The same year he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Washington could not know that after Yorktown, the British would not reopen hostilities. They still had 26,000 troops occupying New York City, Charleston and Savannah, together with a powerful fleet. The French army and navy departed, so the Americans were on their own in 1782–83. The treasury was empty, and the unpaid soldiers were growing restive, almost to the point of mutiny or possible coup d'état. Washington dispelled unrest among officers by suppressing the Newburgh Conspiracy in March 1783, and Congress came up with the promise of a five-year bonus.
With the initial peace treaty articles ratified in April, a recently formed Congressional committee under Hamilton, was considering needs and plans for a peacetime army. On May 2, 1783, the Commander in Chief submitted his Sentiments on a Peace Establishment to the Committee, essentially providing an official Continental Army position. The original proposal was defeated in Congress in two votes (May 1783, October 1783) with a truncated version also being rejected in April 1784.
By the Treaty of Paris (signed that September), Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States. Washington disbanded his army and, on November 2, gave an eloquent farewell address to his soldiers.
On November 25, the British evacuated New York City, and Washington and the governor took possession. At Fraunces Tavern on December 4, Washington formally bade his officers farewell and on December 23, 1783, he resigned his commission as commander-in-chief. Historian Gordon Wood concludes that the greatest act in his life was his resignation as commander of the armies—an act that stunned aristocratic Europe. King George III called Washington "the greatest character of the age" because of this.
Historian John Shy says that by 1783 Washington was "a mediocre military strategist but had become a master political tactician with an almost perfect sense of timing and a developed capacity to exploit his charismatic reputation, using people who thought they were using him".
United States Constitution
Washington's retirement to Mount Vernon was short-lived. He made an exploratory trip to the western frontier in 1784. He was visiting his land holdings in Western Pennsylvania that had been given to him decades earlier by the British in consideration for his service in the French and Indian War. There, he confronted squatters, including David Reed and the Covenanters, who left the land only after losing a 1786 court case heard in Washington, Pennsylvania.
Washington was persuaded to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787, and was unanimously elected president of the Convention. He participated little in the debates (though he did vote for or against the various articles), but his high prestige maintained collegiality and kept the delegates at their labors. The delegates designed the presidency with Washington in mind, and allowed him to define the office once elected. After the Convention, his support convinced many to vote for ratification; the new Constitution was ratified by all thirteen states.
The Electoral College elected Washington unanimously as the first president in 1789,[Note 6] and again in the 1792 election; he remains the only president to have received 100 percent of the electoral votes.[Note 7] John Adams, who received the next highest vote total, was elected Vice President. At his inauguration, Washington took the oath of office as the first President of the United States of America on April 30, 1789, on the balcony of Federal Hall in New York City.
The 1st United States Congress voted to pay Washington a salary of $25,000 a year—a large sum in 1789. Washington, despite facing financial troubles at the time, declined the salary, since he valued his image as a selfless public servant. At the urging of Congress, however, he ultimately accepted the payment, to avoid setting a precedent whereby the presidency would be perceived as limited only to independently wealthy individuals who could serve without any salary. The president, aware that everything he did set a precedent, attended carefully to the pomp and ceremony of office, making sure that the titles and trappings were suitably republican and never emulated European royal courts.[Note 8] To that end, he preferred the title "Mr. President" to the more majestic names proposed by the Senate.
Washington proved an able administrator. An excellent delegator and judge of talent and character, he talked regularly with department heads and listened to their advice before making a final decision. In handling routine tasks, he was "systematic, orderly, energetic, solicitous of the opinion of others ... but decisive, intent upon general goals and the consistency of particular actions with them".
Washington invented the workings of the presidency and established many forms and procedures that became part of the American tradition, such as messages to Congress and a cabinet form of government. Despite fears that a democratic system would lead to political violence, he set the standard for tolerance of opposition voices and conducted a smooth transition of power to his successor.
After reluctantly serving a second term, Washington refused to run for a third, establishing the customary policy of a maximum of two terms for a president.When this tradition was finally broken by the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt to a third term in 1940, Congress and the states responded by codifying the traditional two term limit for a president established by Washington as the Twenty-second Amendment.
Washington was not a member of any political party and hoped that they would not be formed, fearing conflict that would undermine republicanism. His closest advisors formed two factions, setting the framework for the future First Party System. Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton had bold plans to establish the national credit and build a financially powerful nation, and formed the basis of the Federalist Party. Secretary of the State Thomas Jefferson, founder of the Jeffersonian Republicans, strenuously opposed Hamilton's agenda, but Washington typically favored Hamilton over Jefferson, and it was Hamilton's agenda that went into effect. Jefferson's political actions, his support of Philip Freneau's National Gazette, and his attempt to undermine Hamilton, nearly led George Washington to dismiss Jefferson from his cabinet. Though Jefferson left the cabinet voluntarily, Washington never forgave him, and never spoke to him again.
The Residence Act of 1790, which Washington signed, authorized the President to select the specific location of the permanent seat of the government, which would be located along the Potomac River. The Act authorized the President to appoint three commissioners to survey and acquire property for this seat. Washington personally oversaw this effort throughout his term in office. In 1791, the commissioners named the permanent seat of government "The City of Washington in the Territory of Columbia" to honor Washington. In 1800, the Territory of Columbia became the District of Columbia when the federal government moved to the site according to the provisions of the Residence Act.
In 1791, partly as a result of the Copper Panic of 1789, Congress imposed an excise tax on distilled spirits, which led to protests in frontier districts, especially Pennsylvania. By 1794, after Washington ordered the protesters to appear in U.S. district court, the protests turned into full-scale defiance of federal authority known as the Whiskey Rebellion. The federal army was too small to be used, so Washington invoked the Militia Act of 1792 to summon militias from Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland and New Jersey. The governors sent the troops and Washington took command, marching into the rebellious districts. The rebels dispersed and there was no fighting, as Washington's forceful action proved the new government could protect itself. These events marked the first time under the new constitution that the federal government used strong military force to exert authority over the states and citizens.It was also the only time a sitting U.S. president would personally command troops in the field.
In February 1793 a major war broke out between Great Britain and its allies and revolutionary France, launching an era of large-scale warfare that engulfed Europe until 1815. Washington, with cabinet approval, proclaimed American neutrality. The revolutionary government of France sent diplomat Edmond-Charles Genêt, called "Citizen Genêt", to America. Genêt was welcomed with great enthusiasm and propagandized the case for France in the French war against Great Britain, and for this purpose promoted a network of new Democratic Societies in major cities. He issued French letters of marque and reprisal to French ships manned by American sailors so they could capture British merchant ships. Washington, warning and mistrustful of the influence of Illuminism that had been so strong in the French Revolution (as recounted by John Robison and Abbé Augustin Barruel) and its Reign of Terror, demanded the French government recall Genêt, and denounced the societies.
Hamilton and Washington designed the Jay Treaty to normalize trade relations with Great Britain, remove them from western forts, and resolve financial debts left over from the Revolution. John Jay negotiated and signed the treaty on November 19, 1794. The Jeffersonians supported France and strongly attacked the treaty. Washington's strong support mobilized public opinion and proved decisive in securing ratification in the Senate by the necessary two-thirds majority. The British agreed to depart from their forts around the Great Lakes, subsequently the United States-Canadian boundary had to be re-adjusted, numerous pre-Revolutionary debts were liquidated, and the British opened their West Indies colonies to American trade. Most importantly, the treaty delayed war with Great Britain and instead brought a decade of prosperous trade with Great Britain. The treaty angered the French and became a central issue in many political debates. Relations with France deteriorated after the treaty was signed, leaving his successor, John Adams, with the prospect of war.
Washington's Farewell Address (issued as a public letter in 1796) was one of the most influential statements of republicanism. Drafted primarily by Washington himself, with help from Hamilton, it gives advice on the necessity and importance of national union, the value of the Constitution and the rule of law, the evils of political parties, and the proper virtues of a republican people. He called morality "a necessary spring of popular government". He said, "Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle."
Washington's public political address warned against foreign influence in domestic affairs and American meddling in European affairs. He warned against bitter partisanship in domestic politics and called for men to move beyond partisanship and serve the common good. He warned against "permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world", saying the United States must concentrate primarily on American interests. He counseled friendship and commerce with all nations, but warned against involvement in European wars and entering into long-term "entangling" alliances. The address quickly set American values regarding foreign affairs.
After retiring from the presidency in March 1797, Washington returned to Mount Vernon with a profound sense of relief. He devoted much time to his plantations and other business interests, including his distillery which produced its first batch of spirits in February 1797. As Chernow (2010) explains, his plantation operations were at best marginally profitable. The lands out west yielded little income because they were under attack by Indians and the squatters living there refused to pay him rent. Most Americans assumed he was rich because of the well-known "glorified façade of wealth and grandeur" at Mount Vernon. Historians estimate his estate was worth about $1 million in 1799 dollars, equivalent to about $19.3 million in 2012 purchasing power.
By 1798, relations with France had deteriorated to the point that war seemed imminent, and on July 4, 1798, President Adams offered Washington a commission as lieutenant general and Commander-in-chief of the armies raised or to be raised for service in a prospective war. He accepted, and served as the senior officer of the United States Army from July 13, 1798 until his death seventeen months later. He participated in the planning for a Provisional Army to meet any emergency that might arise, but avoided involvement in details as much as possible; he delegated most of the work, including leadership of the army, to Hamilton.
Comparisons with Cincinnatus
During the Revolutionary and Early Republican periods of American history, many commentators compared Washington with the Roman aristocrat and statesman Cincinnatus. The comparison arose as Washington, like Cincinnatus, remained in command of the Continental Army only until the British had been defeated. Thereafter, instead of seeking great political power, he returned as quickly as possible to cultivating his lands. Remarking on Washington's resignation in December 1783, and his decision to retire to Mount Vernon, poet Philip Freneau wrote: Thus He, whom Rome's proud legions sway'd/Return'd, and sought his sylvan shade. Lord Byron's Ode to Napoleon also lionized Washington as "the Cincinnatus of the West".
On Thursday, December 12, 1799, Washington spent several hours inspecting his plantation on horseback, in snow, hail, and freezing rain—later that evening eating his supper without changing from his wet clothes. That Friday he awoke with a severe sore throat and became increasingly hoarse as the day progressed, yet still rode out in the heavy snow, marking trees on the estate that he wanted cut. Sometime around 3 a.m. that Saturday, he suddenly awoke with severe difficulty breathing and almost completely unable to speak or swallow. A firm believer in bloodletting, a standard medical practice of that era which he had used to treat various ailments of enslaved Africans on his plantation, he ordered estate overseer Albin Rawlins to remove half a pint of his blood. A total of three physicians were sent for, including Washington's personal physician Dr. James Craik along with Dr. Gustavus Brown and Dr. Elisha Dick. Craik and Brown thought that Washington had what they diagnosed as "quinsey" or "quincy", while Dick, the younger man, thought the condition was more serious or a "violent inflammation of the throat".  By the time the three physicians had finished their treatments and bloodletting of the President, there had been a massive volume of blood loss—half or more of his total blood content being removed over the course of just a few hours. Recognizing that the bloodletting and other treatments were failing, Dr. Dick proposed performing an emergency tracheotomy, a procedure that few American physicians were familiar with at the time, as a last-ditch effort to save Washington's life, but the other two doctors rejected this proposal.
Washington died at home around 10 p.m. on Saturday, December 14, 1799, aged 67. In his journal, Lear recorded Washington's last words as being "'Tis well."
The diagnosis of Washington's final illness and the immediate cause of his death have been subjects of debate since the day he died. In the days immediately following his death, Craik and Dick's published account stated that they felt his symptoms had been consistent with what they called "cynanche trachealis", a term of that period for describing severe inflammation of the structures of the upper airway. Even at that early date, there were accusations of medical malpractice, with some believing that Washington had been bled to death. Various modern medical authors have speculated that Washington probably died from a severe case of epiglottitis which was complicated by the given treatments (all of which were accepted medical practice in Washington's day)—most notably the massive deliberate blood loss, which almost certainly caused hypovolemic shock.[Note 9]
Throughout the world, men and women were saddened by Washington's death. In France, First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte ordered ten days of mourning throughout the country; in the United States, thousands wore mourning clothes for months. To protect their privacy, Martha Washington burned the correspondence between her husband and her following his death. Only a total of five letters between the couple are known to have survived, two letters from Martha to George and three from him to Martha.
On December 18, 1799, a funeral was held at Mount Vernon, where his body was interred. Congress passed a joint resolution to construct a marble monument in the planned crypt below the rotunda of the center section of the Capitol (then still under construction) for his body, a plan supported by Martha. In December 1800, the House passed an appropriations bill for $200,000 to build the mausoleum, which was to be a pyramid with a 100-foot (30 m) square base. Southern representatives and senators, in later opposition to the plan, defeated the measure because they felt it was best to have Washington's body remain at Mount Vernon.
In 1831, for the centennial of his birth, a new tomb was constructed to receive his remains. That year, an unsuccessful attempt was made to steal the body of Washington. Despite this, a joint Congressional committee in early 1832, debated the removal of President Washington's body from Mount Vernon to a crypt in the Capitol, built by architect Charles Bulfinch in the 1820s during the reconstruction of the burned-out structure after the British set it afire in August 1814, during the "Burning of Washington". Southern opposition was intense, antagonized by an ever-growing rift between North and South. Congressman Wiley Thompson of Georgia expressed the fear of Southerners when he said:
Remove the remains of our venerated Washington from their association with the remains of his consort and his ancestors, from Mount Vernon and from his native State, and deposit them in this capitol, and then let a severance of the Union occur, and behold the remains of Washington on a shore foreign to his native soil.
His remains were moved on October 7, 1837 to the new tomb constructed at Mount Vernon, presented by John Struthers of Philadelphia. After the ceremony, the inner vault's door was closed and the key was thrown into the Potomac.
As Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, hero of the revolution and the first president of the United States, George Washington's legacy remains among the greatest in American history.[Note 10] Congressman Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee, a Revolutionary War comrade, famously eulogized Washington:
First in war—first in peace—and first in the hearts of his countrymen, he was second to none in the humble and enduring scenes of private life; pious, just, humane, temperate, and sincere; uniform, dignified, and commanding, his example was as edifying to all around him as were the effects of that example lasting. To his equals he was condescending, to his inferiors kind, and to the dear object of his affections exemplarily tender; correct throughout, vice shuddered in his presence, and virtue always felt his fostering hand; the purity of his private character gave effulgence to his public virtues. His last scene comported with the whole tenor of his life—although in extreme pain, not a sigh, not a groan escaped him; and with undisturbed serenity he closed his well-spent life. Such was the man America has lost—such was the man for whom our nation mourns.
Lee's words set the standard by which Washington's overwhelming reputation was impressed upon the American memory. Washington set many precedents for the national government, and the presidency in particular, and was called the "Father of His Country" as early as 1778.[Note 11]Washington's Birthday (celebrated on Presidents' Day), is a federal holiday in the United States.
During the United States Bicentennial year, George Washington was posthumously appointed to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States by the congressional joint resolution Public Law 94-479 passed on January 19, 1976, with an effective appointment date of July 4, 1976. This restored Washington's position as the highest-ranking military officer in U.S. history.[Note 12]
Perhaps the best known story about Washington's childhood is that he chopped down his father's favorite cherry tree and admitted the deed when questioned: "I can't tell a lie, Pa." The anecdote was first reported by biographer Parson Weems, who after Washington's death interviewed people who knew him as a child over a half-century earlier. The Weems text was very widely reprinted throughout the 19th century, for example in McGuffey Readers. Adults wanted children to learn moral lessons from history, especially as taught by example from the lives of great national heroes like Washington. After 1890 however, historians insisted on scientific research methods to validate every statement, and there was no documentation for this anecdote apart from Weems' report that he learned it in an interview with an old person. Joseph Rodman in 1904 noted that Weems plagiarized other Washington tales from published fiction set in England, but no one has found an alternative source for the cherry tree story.
Monuments and memorials
Starting with victory in their Revolution, there were many proposals to build a monument to Washington. After his death, Congress authorized a suitable memorial in the national capital, but the decision was reversed when the Republicans took control of Congress in 1801. The Republicans were dismayed that Washington had become the symbol of the Federalist Party; furthermore, the values of Republicanism seemed hostile to the idea of building monuments to powerful men. Further political squabbling, along with the North-South division on the Civil War, blocked the completion of the Washington Monument until the late 19th century. By that time, Washington had the image of a national hero who could be celebrated by both North and South, and memorials to him were no longer controversial. Predating the obelisk on the National Mall by several decades, the first public memorial to Washington was built by the citizens of Boonsboro, Maryland, in 1827.
Today, Washington's face and image are often used as national symbols of the United States. He appears on contemporary currency, including the one-dollar bill and the quarter coin, and on U.S. postage stamps. Along with appearing on the first postage stamps issued by the U.S. Post Office in 1847, Washington, together with Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson, and Lincoln, is depicted in stone at the Mount Rushmore Memorial. The Washington Monument, one of the best known American landmarks, was built in his honor. The George Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria, Virginia, was constructed between 1922 and 1932 with voluntary contributions from all 52 local governing bodies of the Freemasons in the United States.
Many places and entities have been named in honor of Washington. Washington's name became that of the nation's capital, Washington, D.C., one of two national capitals across the globe to be named after an American president (the other is Monrovia, Liberia). The state of Washington is the only state to be named after a United States President. George Washington University and Washington University in St. Louis were named for him, as was Washington and Lee University (once Washington Academy), which was renamed due to Washington's large endowment in 1796. Washington College in Chestertown, Maryland (established by Maryland state charter in 1782) was supported by Washington during his lifetime with a 50 guineas pledge, and with service on the college's Board of Visitors and Governors until 1789 (when Washington was elected President). According to the US Census Bureau's 1993 geographic data, Washington is the 17th most common street name in the United States, and the only person's name so honored.[Note 13]
There are many "Washington Monuments" in the United States, including two well-known equestrian statues, one in Manhattan and one in Richmond, Virginia. The first statue to show Washington on horseback was dedicated in 1856 and is located in Manhattan's Union Square. The second statue is known as either the Virginia Washington Monument or as the George Washington Equestrian Statue and was unveiled in 1858. It was the second American statue of Washington on horseback but figures prominently in the official seal of the Confederate States of America.
A marble statue of Washington was made from life by sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon, and now sits in the Rotunda of the State Capitol in Richmond, Virginia. A duplicate, one of 22 bronze exact replicas, was given to the British in 1921 by the Commonwealth of Virginia and now stands in front of the National Gallery at Trafalgar Square.
The serious collection and publication of Washington's documentary record began with the pioneer work of Jared Sparks in the 1830s, Life and Writings of George Washington (12 vols., 1834–1837). The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745–1799 (1931–44) is a 37 volume set edited by John C. Fitzpatrick. It contains over 17,000 letters and documents and is available online from the University of Virginia.
The definitive letterpress edition of his writings was begun by the University of Virginia in 1968, and today comprises 52 published volumes, with more to come. It contains everything written by Washington, or signed by him, together with most of his incoming letters. Part of the collection is available online from the University of Virginia.
Personal property auction record
On June 22, 2012, George Washington‘s personal annotated copy of the “Acts Passed at a Congress of the United States of America” from 1789, which includes The Constitution of the United States and a draft of the Bill of Rights, was sold at Christie's for a record $9,826,500, with fees the final cost, to The Mount Vernon Ladies' Association. This was the record for a document sold at auction.
Along with Martha's biological family, George Washington had a close relationship with his nephew and heir, Bushrod Washington, son of George's younger brother, John Augustine Washington. The year before his uncle's death, Bushrod became an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. George, however, apparently did not get along well with his mother, Mary Ball Washington (Augustine's second wife), who was a very demanding and difficult person.
As a young man, Washington had red hair. A popular myth is that he wore a wig, as was the fashion among some at the time. However, Washington did not wear a wig; instead, he powdered his hair, as is represented in several portraits, including the well-known, unfinished Gilbert Stuart depiction, The Athenaeum portrait.
Washington had unusually great physical strength that amazed younger men. Jefferson called Washington "the best horseman of his age", and both American and European observers praised his riding; the horsemanship benefited his hunting, a favorite hobby. Washington was an excellent dancer and frequently attended the theater, often referencing Shakespeare in letters. He drank in moderation and precisely recorded gambling wins and losses, but Washington disliked the excessive drinking, gambling, smoking, and profanity that was common in colonial Virginia. Although he grew tobacco, he eventually stopped smoking, and considered drunkenness a man's worst vice; Washington was glad that post-Revolutionary Virginia society was less likely to "force [guests] to drink and to make it an honor to send them home drunk."
Washington suffered from problems with his teeth throughout his life. He lost his first adult tooth when he was twenty-two and had only one left by the time he became President. John Adams claims he lost them because he used them to crack Brazil nuts but modern historians suggest the mercury oxide, which he was given to treat illnesses such as smallpox and malaria, probably contributed to the loss. He had several sets of false teeth made, four of them by a dentist named John Greenwood. Contrary to popular belief, none of the sets were made from wood. The set made when he became President was carved from hippopotamus and elephant ivory, held together with gold springs. Prior to these, he had a set made with real human teeth, likely ones he purchased from "several unnamed 'Negroes,' presumably Mount Vernon slaves" in 1784. Dental problems left Washington in constant pain, for which he took laudanum. This distress may be apparent in many of the portraits painted while he was still in office, including the one still used on the $1 bill.[Note 14]
Washington was the only prominent Founding Father to arrange in his will for the manumission of all his slaves following his death. He privately opposed slavery as an institution which he viewed as economically unsound and morally indefensible. He also regarded the divisiveness of his countrymen's feelings about slavery as a potentially mortal threat to the unity of the nation. Yet, as general of the army, president of the Constitutional Convention, and the first president of the United States, he never publicly challenged the institution of slavery, possibly because he wanted to avoid provoking a split in the new republic over so inflammatory an issue.
Washington had owned slaves since the death of his father in 1743, when at the age of eleven, he inherited 10 slaves. At the time of his marriage to Martha Custis in 1759, he personally owned at least 36 slaves, which meant he had achieved the status of a major planter (historians[who?] defined this in the Upper South as owning 20 or more slaves). The wealthy widow Martha brought at least 85 "dower slaves" to Mount Vernon by inheriting a third of her late husband's estate. Using his wife's great wealth, Washington bought more land, tripling the size of the plantation at Mount Vernon, and purchased the additional slaves needed to work it. By 1774, he paid taxes on 135 slaves (this figure does not include the "dowers"). The last record of a slave purchase by him was in 1772, although he later received some slaves in repayment of debts. Washington also used some hired staff and white indentured servants; in April 1775, he offered a reward for the return of two runaway white servants.
Washington came to oppose slavery on both moral and economic grounds. Before the American Revolution, he had expressed no moral reservations about slavery. But by 1779, he would tell his manager at Mount Vernon that he wished to sell his slaves when the war ended, if the Americans were victorious. He concluded that maintaining a large, and increasingly elderly, slave population at Mount Vernon was no longer economically profitable, and that people who were compelled to work would never work hard. Washington could not legally sell the "dower slaves", and because they had long intermarried with his own slaves, he could not sell his slaves without breaking up families, which he wanted to avoid. In 1786, Washington wrote to Robert Morris, saying, "There is not a man living who wishes more sincerely than I do, to see a plan adopted for the abolition of slavery."
As president, following the transfer of the national capital to Pennsylvania in 1790, Washington brought eight enslaved people to work for him in the President's House in Philadelphia, where state law would have automatically granted freedom to any slaves who had resided in the state for more than 6 months. He circumvented that provision of the law by maintaining that he was not a Pennsylvania resident and ensuring that neither he nor any of his slaves stayed in the state for more than six months at a time. When one of the slaves, Oney Judge, a personal attendant to Martha, escaped, Washington complained that the slave had fled "without the least provocation," and he secretly sent agents to hunt her down. Washington could not legally free Judge, since she was Martha's dower slave. Martha urged Washington to advertise a reward for her capture, and the ad was placed in the Pennsylvania Gazette on May 24, 1796. When the escaped former slave was spotted in New Hampshire, she said that she would agree to return out of affection for the Washington family, but only if they would guarantee her freedom, a proposal the Washingtons refused. They were still trying, surreptitiously, to recapture her two years later. Another slave, Hercules, who served as Washington's chef in the Presidential House in Philadelphia, managed to escape from Mount Vernon despite Washington's suspicions that he had been planning it. Washington would eventually replace the slaves at the President's House with immigrant German indentured servants.
By 1794, as he contemplated retirement, Washington began organizing his affairs so that in his will he could free all the slaves whom he owned outright. As historian Gordon S. Wood writes in his review of Joseph Ellis' biography of Washington, "He did this in the teeth of opposition from his relatives, his neighbors, and perhaps even Martha. It was a courageous act, and one of his greatest legacies." At the time of Washington's death in 1799, 317 slaves lived at Mount Vernon: 123 were owned by Washington himself, 154 were held by his wife as "dower slaves", and 40 others were rented from a neighbor. Washington's will provided for all of his slaves to be unconditionally freed upon the death of his widow, but she chose to free them about 12 months after his death. Washington, in his will, expressly forbid his heirs from selling or transporting his slaves out of Virginia. Hercules, who had earlier escaped Washington, was freed and no longer a fugitive slave. The will also provided for the training of the younger former-slaves in useful skills and for the creation of an old-age pension fund for the older ones.
The exact nature of Washington's religious beliefs has been debated by historians and biographers for over two hundred years. Although he visited several denominations in his public life, he was primarily affiliated with the Anglican and, later, Episcopal church. He served as a vestryman and as church warden for both Fairfax Parish in Alexandria and Truro Parish, administrative positions that, like all positions in Virginia while it had an official religion, required one to swear they would not speak or act in a way that did not conform to the tenets of the Church.
Eyewitness accounts exist of Washington engaging in private devotions.
Washington frequently accompanied his wife to church services. Although third-hand reports say he took communion, he is usually characterized as never or rarely participating in the rite. He would regularly leave services before communion with the other non-communicants (as was the custom of the day), until, after being admonished by a rector, he ceased attending at all on communion Sundays.
Chernow, in a 2010 podcast, summed up Washington's religious views:
There has been a huge controversy, to put it mildly, about Washington's religious beliefs. Before the Revolutionary War he was Anglican – Church of England – which meant after the war, he was Episcopalian. So, he was clearly Christian ... He was quite intensely religious, because even though he uses the word Providence, he constantly sees Providence as an active force in life, particularly in American life. I mean, every single victory in war he credits to Providence. The miracle of the Constitutional Convention he credits to Providence. The creation of the federal government and the prosperity of the early republic, he credits to Providence ... I was struck at how frequently in his letters he's referring to Providence, and it's Providence where there's a sense of design and purpose, which sounds to me very much like religion ... Unfortunately, this particular issue has become very very politicized.
Michael Novak and Jana Novak suggest that it may have been "Washington’s intention to maintain a studied ambiguity (and personal privacy) regarding his own deepest religious convictions, so that all Americans, both in his own time and for all time to come, might feel free to approach him on their own terms—and might also feel like full members of the new republic, equal with every other". They conclude: "He was educated in the Episcopal Church, to which he always adhered; and my[sic] conviction is, that he believed in the fundamental doctrines of Christianity as usually taught in that Church, according to his understanding of them; but without a particle of intolerance, or disrespect for the faith and modes of worship adopted by Christians of other denominations."
Washington was initiated into Freemasonry in 1752. He had a high regard for the Masonic Order and often praised it, but he seldom attended lodge meetings. He was attracted by the movement's dedication to the Enlightenment principles of rationality, reason and fraternalism; the American lodges did not share the anti-clerical perspective that made the European lodges so controversial. In 1777, a convention of Virginia lodges recommended Washington to be the Grand Master of the newly established Grand Lodge of Virginia; however, Washington declined, due to his necessity to lead the Continental Army at a critical stage, and because he had never been installed as Master or Warden of a lodge, he did not consider it Masonically legal to serve as Grand Master. In 1788, Washington, with his personal consent, was named Master in the Virginia charter of Alexandria Lodge No. 22.
Postage and currency
Since 1847, one of the defining hallmarks of a U.S. President is his appearance on U.S. currency and postage. George Washington appears on contemporary U.S. currency, including the one-dollar bill and the U.S. quarter dollar. On U.S. postage stamps Washington, along with Benjamin Franklin, appeared on the nation's first postage stamps in 1847. Throughout U.S. postal history Washington appears on many postage issues, more than all other presidents combined.
Not only is Washington pictured in regular issues, he is commemorated in central events at the Founding, the "Father of his country". Washington’s victory over British General Cornwallis was commemorated with a 2-cent stamp on the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Yorktown on October 19, 1931. The 150th anniversary of the signing of the Constitution with George Washington as presiding officer was celebrated with a 3-cent issue on September 17, 1937, was adapted from the painting by Julius Brutus Stearns. Washington’s inauguration as President under the new Constitution at Federal Hall in New York City was celebrated on its 150th anniversary on April 30, 1939.
- American gentry
- List of federal judges appointed by George Washington
- List of Notable Freemasons
- List of Presidents of the United States, sortable by previous experience
- List of slave owners
- Where's George?
- Contemporary records, which used the Julian calendar and the Annunciation Style of enumerating years, recorded his birth as February 11, 1731. The provisions of the British Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, implemented in 1752, altered the official British dating method to the Gregorian calendar with the start of the year on January 1 (it had been March 25). These changes resulted in dates being moved forward 11 days, and for those between January 1 and March 25, an advance of one year. For a further explanation, see: Old Style and New Style dates.
- Engber, Daniel (January 18, 2006). "What's Benjamin Franklin's Birthday?". Slate. Retrieved May 21, 2011. (Both Franklin's and Washington's confusing birth dates are clearly explained.)
- Ellis and Ferling, for example, do not discuss this stance in reference to Washington's French and Indian War service, and cast it almost exclusively in terms of his negative experiences dealing with the Continental Congress during the Revolution. See Ellis (2004, p. 218); Ferling (2009, pp. 32–33, 200, 258–272, 316). Don Higginbotham places Washington's first formal advocacy of a strong central government in 1783. Higginbotham (2002, p. 37).
- The term comes from the Roman strategy used by General Fabius against Hannibal's invasion in the Second Punic War.
- Ferling and Ellis argue that Washington favored Fabian tactics and Higginbotham denies it. Ferling (2010, pp. 212, 264); Ellis (2004, p. 11); Higginbotham (1971, p. 211).
- Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress called its presiding officer "President of the United States in Congress Assembled". That person had no executive powers, but the similarity of titles has confused some into thinking there were other presidents before Washington.
- Under the system in place at the time, each elector cast two votes, with the winner becoming president and the runner-up vice president. All electors in the elections of 1789 and 1792 cast one of their votes for Washington; thus it may be said that he was elected president unanimously.
- Washington was aware that his actions would set precedents for later American presidents. He wrote to James Madison: ""As the first of everything in our situation will serve to establish a precedent, it is devoutly wished on my part that these precedents be fixed on true principles." Washington to James Madison, May 5, 1789, cited by Unger, 2013, p. 76.
- At least three modern medical authors (Wallenborn (1997), Shapiro 1975, Scheidemandel 1976) concluded that Washington most probably died from acute bacterial epiglottitis complicated by the administered treatments. These treatments included multiple doses of calomel (a cathartic or purgative), and extensive bloodletting (with 3.75 total liters of blood being taken, which is at least half of a normal adult's blood volume).
- See Vadakan (2005, Footnotes) for Shapiro and Scheidemandel references. Vadakan's article also directly quotes Doctors Craik and Dick's account (as published in the Times of Alexandria newspaper) of their treatment of Washington during his fatal illness.
- Historians Jay A. Parry and Andrew M. Allison declare that Washington "was the dominant personality in three of the most critical events in that founding: the Revolutionary War, the Constitutional Convention, and the first national administration. Had he not served as America's leader in those three events, all three likely would have failed. And America as we know it today would not exist." Parry, 1991, p. xi.
- The earliest known image in which Washington is identified as the Father of (His/Our/the) Country is in the frontispiece of a 1779 German-language almanac. With calculations by David Rittenhouse and published by Francis Bailey in Lancaster County Pennsylvania, Der Gantz Neue Nord-Americanishe Calendar has Fame appearing with an image of Washington, holding a trumpet to her lips from which the words "Der Landes Vater" (translated as "the father of the country" or "the father of the land") comes forth.
- In Bell (2005), William Gardner Bell states that when Washington was recalled back into military service from his retirement in 1798, "Congress passed legislation that would have made him General of the Armies of the United States, but his services were not required in the field and the appointment was not made until the Bicentennial in 1976, when it was bestowed posthumously as a commemorative honor." How many U.S. Army five-star generals have there been and who were they? states that with Public Law 94-479, President Ford specified that Washington would "rank first among all officers of the Army, past and present. "General of the Armies of the United States" is only associated with two people...one being Washington and the other being John J. Pershing.
- The rest of the Top 20 street names are all descriptive (Hill, View and so on), arboreal (Pine, Maple, etc.) or numeric (Second, Third, etc.).
- The Smithsonian Institution states in "The Portrait—George Washington: A National Treasure" that:
- Stuart admired the sculpture of Washington by French artist Jean-Antoine Houdon, probably because it was based on a life mask and therefore extremely accurate. Stuart explained, "When I painted him, he had just had a set of false teeth inserted, which accounts for the constrained expression so noticeable about the mouth and lower part of the face. Houdon's bust does not suffer from this defect. I wanted him as he looked at that time." Stuart preferred the Athenaeum pose and, except for the gaze, used the same pose for the Lansdowne painting.
- Encyclopedia Of The Enlightenment Ellen Judy Wilson, Peter Hanns Reill, 2004 p. 148, retrieved April 26, 2012
- Chernow, Ron (October 18, 2010). Ron Chernow on George Washington (MP3). We The People Stories (Podcast) (Philadelphia: National Constitution Center). Retrieved December 29, 2011.
- Parry (1991, p. xi)
- Unger (2013, pp. 61, 146)
- Chernow (2010)
- Michael Kazin et al., eds (2009). The Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History. (Two volume set). Princeton University Press. p. 589.
- Unger (2013, pp. 236–237)
- Rupert Cornwell, "George Washington: The father of the nation" (January 17, 2009). . The Independent
- Grizzard (2002, pp. 105–107)
- Unger (2013, p. 18)
- Unger (2013, p. 236)
- Cayton, Andrew (September 30, 2010). "Learning to Be Washington". The New York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
- O'Brien (2009, p. 19)
- Cunliffe (1958, pp. 24–26)
- "Bible Record for Washington Family". The Papers of George Washington. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on January 1, 2008. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
- Randall (1997, pp. 8, 11)
- Ellis (2004, p. 8)
- Dorothy Twohig, "The Making of George Washington" in Hofstra (1998)
- Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619–1877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1993, p. 28
- "George Washington's Family Chart". Mount Vernon Ladies' Association. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- "Burials at George Washington Birthplace National Monument". George Washington Birthplace National Monument. National Park Service. Archived from the original on June 23, 2008. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
- Freeman (1948, pp. 1:15–72)
- "Life Before the Presidency". American President: George Washington (1732–1799). Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- Ferling (2010, pp. 5–6)
- Freeman (1948, p. 1:199)
- Chernow (2010, p. 53)
- Flexner (1974, p. 8)
- Freeman (1948, p. 1:264)
- Freeman (1948, p. 1:268)
- Randall (1997, p. 67)
- Freeman (1948, pp. 1:274–327).
- Lengel (2005, pp. 23–24)
- Washington, George. The Journal of Major George Washington, Sent by the Hon. Robert Dinwiddie to the Commandment of the French Forces in Ohio. New York: Reprinted for J. Sabin, 1865.
- Grizzard, Frank E. George Washington: A Biographical Companion. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2002.
- Lengel (2005, pp. 31–38)
- Anderson (2000, pp. 53–58)
- Grizzard (2002, pp. 115–119)
- Ellis (2004, pp. 17–18)
- Anderson (2005, pp. 100–101)
- Ellis (2004, p. 22)
- Flexner (1965, p. 138)
- Fischer (2004, pp. 15–16)
- Ellis (2004, p. 38)
- Lengel (2005, pp. 75–76, 81)
- Chernow (2010, ch. 8)
- Freeman (1968, pp. 135–139); Flexner (1974, pp. 32–36); Ellis (2004, ch. 1); Higginbotham (1985, ch. 1); Lengel (2005, pp. 77–80).
- Ellis (2004, pp. 38, 69)
- Fischer (2004, p. 13)
- Higginbotham (1985, pp. 14–15)
- Lengel (2005, p. 80)
- Higginbotham (1985, pp. 22–25)
- Freeman (1968, pp. 136–137)
- Ferling (2000, p. 34)
- Ferling (2000, pp. 33–34)
- Chernow (2010, p. 103) Washington may not have been able to admit to his own sterility while privately he grieved over not having his own children. Bumgarner (1994, pp. 1–8)
- Flexner (1974, pp. 42–43)
- "Guide to American Presidents: George Washington 1732–99". Burke's Peerage and Gentry. Archived from the original on December 24, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- Rasmussen & Tilton (1999, p. 100)
- "Washington As Land Speculator: Western Lands and the Bounty of War". George Washington: Surveyor and Mapmaker. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- Grizzard (2002, pp. 135–137)
- Ellis (2004, pp. 41–42, 48)
- Ferling (2000, p. 44)
- Ferling (2000, pp. 43–44)
- Pogue, Dennis J. (January 2004). "Shad, Wheat, and Rye (Whiskey): George Washington, Entrepreneur". The Society for Historical Archaeology Annual Meeting. St. Louis, Missouri: Mount Vernon Ladies' Association. pp. 2–10.
- Pogue, Dennis J. (Spring–Summer 2003). "George Washington And The Politics of Slavery". Historic Alexandria Quarterly (Virginia: Office of Historic Alexandria). Retrieved January 3, 2011.
- Fox hunting: Ellis (2004, p. 44). Mount Vernon economy: Ferling (2010, pp. 66–67); Ellis (2004, pp. 50–53); Bruce A. Ragsdale, "George Washington, the British Tobacco Trade, and Economic Opportunity in Pre-Revolutionary Virginia", in Higginbotham (2001, pp. 67–93).
- Fischer (2004, p. 14)
- Ferling (2000, pp. 73–76)
- Freeman (1968, pp. 174–176)
- Randall (1997, p. 262)
- Ferling (2010, p. 100)
- Rasmussen & Tilton (1999, p. 294)
- Ellis (2004, pp. 68–72)
- Bell (2005)
- Higginbotham (1985, ch. 3)
- "Creation of the War Department". Papers of the War Department, 1784–1800. Fairfax, Virginia: Center for History and New Media. January 20, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2011.
- Carp (1990, p. 220)
- Jensen, Richard (February 12, 2002). "Military History of the American Revolution". Jensen's Web Guides. University of Illinois at Chicago. Retrieved January 18, 2011.
- Stephenson, Orlando W. (January 1925). "The Supply of Gunpowder in 1776". The American Historical Review (University of Chicago) 30 (2): 271–281. doi:10.2307/1836657.
- Lengel (2005); Higginbotham (1985, pp. 125–134)
- Bickham, Troy O. (January 2002). "Sympathizing with Sedition? George Washington, the British Press, and British Attitudes during the American War of Independence". The William and Mary Quarterly (Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture) 59 (1): 101–122. doi:10.2307/3491639. ISSN 0043-5597. JSTOR 3491639.
- McCullough (2005, pp. 186–195)
- Ketchum (1999, p. 235)
- Fischer (2004, p. 367)
- "American Presidents: George Washington". American-Presidents.com. 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Buchanan (2004, p. 226)
- Higginbotham (1971, ch. 8)
- Heydt, Bruce (December 2005). "'Vexatious Evils': George Washington and the Conway Cabal". American History 40 (5): 50–73.
- Chai, Jane; Homol, Lindley (2009). "The Forging of an Army". Pennsylvania Center for the Book. Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
- "History & Culture". Valley Forge National Historical Park. National Park Service. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
- Fowler, William Morgan, Jr. "Valley Forge". World Book Encyclopedia 20 (2002 ed.). World Book Inc. p. 266.
- Rogers, J. David. "George Washington: God's Man for America". Missouri University of Science and Technology. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
- Ferling (2000, p. 186)
- Peale, Charles Willson. "Frederick William Augustus, Baron Von Steuben". Portraits from the Middle Theater, American Revolutionary War. Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service Museum Collections. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- "This Day in History: American Revolution – June 18, 1778, British abandon Philadelphia". History.com. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- "Battle of Monmouth 1778". Rediscovering George Washington. PBS. 2002. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- Grizzard (2002, p. 303)
- Lancaster & Plumb (1985, p. 311)
- Mann (2005, p. 38); Lancaster & Plumb (1985, p. 254).
- "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter W". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- Kohn, Richard H. (April 1970). "The Inside History of the Newburgh Conspiracy: America and the Coup d'Etat". The William and Mary Quarterly (Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture) 27 (2): 187–220. doi:10.2307/1918650. JSTOR 1918650.
- Wright, Robert K.; Morris J. MacGregor (1987). "The Peace Establishment (George Washington, Sentiments on a Peace Establishment, 2 May 1783)". Soldier-statesmen of the Constitution. U.S. Army Center of Military History (U.S. Government). p. 193. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
- Wright, Robert K.; Morris J. MacGregor (1987). "The Articles of Confederation". Soldier-statesmen of the Constitution. U.S. Army Center of Military History (U.S. Government). p. 27. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
- Washington, George. "Letter to Continental Army, November 2, 1783, Farewell Orders; Letter to Henry Knox, November 2, 1783". George Washington Papers, 1741–1799: Series 3b Varick Transcripts. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Wood (1992, pp. 105–106)
- Brookhiser (1996, p. 103)
- John Shi, "Review," Journal of Southern History (May 1990) 46:2 p. 336.
- "George Washington, Covenanter squatters Historical Marker". ExplorePA. WITF. 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
- Unger (2013, p. 33)
- "The President's House: Freedom and Slavery in the Making of a New Nation". Independence National Historical Park. National Park Service. Retrieved January 3, 2011.
- "Constitution of the United States". The Charters of Freedom. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved January 3, 2011.
- Jensen (1948, pp. 178–179)
- "Presidential Oaths of Office". Presidential Inaugurations. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Chernow (2010, Kindle location 11,386)
- Unger (2013, p. 79)
- John Spencer Bassett (1906). The Federalist System, 1789-1801. Harper & Brothers. p. 155.
- Ellis (2004, pp. 197–198)
- White, Leonard D. (1948). The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co. p. 100. OCLC 1830658.
- Unger (2013, p. 237)
- "Impact and Legacy". American President: George Washington (1732–1799). Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Elkins & McKitrick (1995, p. 290)
- Elkins & McKitrick (1995, pp. 240, 285, 290, 361)
- Chernow, Ron (2004). Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press. p. 427. ISBN 1-59420-009-2.
- Webb, William B.; Wooldridge, John (1892). "Chapter IV: Permanent Capital Site Selected". In Crew, Harvey W. Centennial History of the City of Washington, D.C. Dayton, Ohio: United Brethren Publishing House. p. 87. OCLC 2843595. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
- Coakley, Robert W. (1996) . The Role of Federal Military Forces in Domestic Disorders, 1789–1878. DIANE Publishing. pp. 43–49. ISBN 978-0-7881-2818-9. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Kohn, Richard H. (December 1972). "The Washington Administration's Decision to Crush the Whiskey Rebellion". The Journal of American History 59 (3): 567–584. doi:10.2307/1900658. JSTOR 1900658.
- Elkins & McKitrick (1995, pp. 335–354)
- Elkins & McKitrick (1995, ch. 9)
- Estes, Todd (Autumn 2000). "Shaping the Politics of Public Opinion: Federalists and the Jay Treaty Debate". Journal of the Early Republic 20 (3): 393–422. doi:10.2307/3125063. JSTOR 3125063.; Estes, Todd (2001). "The Art of Presidential Leadership: George Washington and the Jay Treaty". The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 109 (2): 127–158. JSTOR 4249911.
- Varg, Paul A. (1963). Foreign Policies of the Founding Fathers. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. pp. 95–122. OCLC 425621.
- Grizzard (2005, p. 263)
- Lengel (2005, p. 357)
- "VI. Religion and the Federal Government". Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. Library of Congress Exhibition. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Washington, George (1796). "Washington's Farewell Address". Avalon Project. Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. Retrieved November 29, 2010.
- Matthew Spalding, "The Command of its own Fortunes: Reconsidering Washington's Farewell Address" in Fishman, Pederson & Rozell (2001, ch. 2); Virginia Arbery, "Washington's Farewell Address and the Form of the American Regime" in Gregg & Spalding (1999, pp. 199–216)
- Breen, Eleanor E.; White, Esther C. (December 2006). "A Pretty Considerable Distillery—Excavating George Washington's Whiskey Distillery". Quarterly Bulletin of the Archeological Society of Virginia (Archeological Society of Virginia) 61 (4): 209–220. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- Chernow (2010, ch. 57, note 38)
- Dalzell & Dalzell (1998, p. 219); Purchasing power was calculated at Officer, Lawrence H.; Williamson, Samuel H. (2011). "Purchasing Power of Money in the United States from 1774 to Present". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
- Kohn, Richard H. (1975). Eagle and Sword: The Federalists and the Creation of the Military Establishment in America, 1783–1802. New York: Free Press. pp. 225–42. ISBN 0-02-917551-8.
- Grizzard (2005, p. 264)
- "Lucius (Titus) Quinctius Cincinnatus". Kentucky Educational Television. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Kristin Fahrenbruck Baumgartner. "American Cincinnatus". characterfirst online library. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "The Poems of Philip Freneau, Volume II (of III)". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 2014-09-06.
- "Ode to Napoleon Buonoparte". Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Vadakan, Vibul V. (Winter–Spring 2005). "A physician looks at the death of Washington". The Early America Review 6 (1).
- "James Craik (1730-1814)". George Washington's Mount Vernon. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
- Lear, Tobias (1799). Page 257 Tobias Lear to William Augustine Washington December 15, 1799 (The Writings of George Washington, Volume 14). G. P Putman & Sons. p. 257. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
- Ernst, Edzard; Singh, Simon (2008). Trick or Treatment: The Undeniable Facts about Alternative Medicine. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 9–12.
- Mitgang, Herbert (December 14, 1999). "Death of a president: a 200-year-old malpractice debate". New York Times.
- Felisati, D; Sperati, G (February 2005). "George Washington (1732-1799)". Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica 25 (1): 55–58. PMC 2639854. PMID 16080317.
- Lear, Tobias (December 14–25, 1799). "Tobias Lear's Journal Account of George Washington's Last Illness and Death 14-25 December 1799". Papers of George Washington (University of Virginia). Archived from the original on July 6, 2006. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
- Wallenborn, White McKenzie (November 5, 1997). "George Washington's Terminal Illness: A Modern Medical Analysis of the Last Illness and Death of George Washington". The Papers of George Washington (University of Virginia). Archived from the original on April 13, 2005. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
- Craik, James; Dick, Elisha (December 31, 1799). "Doctors Craik and Dick's Account of Washington's Last Illness and Death". The Papers of George Washington (University of Virginia). Archived from the original on July 6, 2006. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
- Abbott, John Stevens Cabot (1860) . The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte. London: S.O. Beeton. p. 137. OCLC 721101833.
- "Rare Letter from Martha to George Washington Returns to Mount Vernon". Mount Vernon Ladies' Association. February 3, 2003. Archived from the original on June 4, 2004. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- "Today in History: May 22". Library of Congress. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- "The Funeral". The Papers of George Washington. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on July 5, 2006. Retrieved July 3, 2011.
- Boorstin, Daniel J. (1965). The Americans: The National Experience. New York: Vintage Books. pp. 349–350. ISBN 0-394-70358-8.
- Johnston, Elizabeth Bryant (1889). Visitors' Guide to Mount Vernon (16th ed.). Washington, D.C: Gibson Brothers, printers. pp. 14–15. OCLC 22376201. Retrieved July 3, 2011.
- Washington, George; Jefferson, Thomas; Peters, Richard (1847). Knight, Franklin, ed. Letters on Agriculture. Washington, The editor; Philadelphia, W. S. Martien. pp. 177–180. OCLC 3347675. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Mount Vernon Visited; The Home of Washington As It Exists Today". The New York Times. March 12, 1881. p. 2. "The body was placed in this sarcophagus on October 7, 1837, when the door of the inner vault was closed and the key thrown in the Potomac."
- Safire, William, ed. (2004). Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 185. ISBN 0-393-05931-6. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
- Hindle, Brooke (1980) . David Rittenhouse. New York: Arno Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-405-12569-0. Retrieved October 7, 2010.
- 5 U.S.C. § 6103
- Hughes (1926, pp. 1:24, 501)
- Grizzard (2002, pp. 45–47)
- Cohen, Sheldon S. (April 1991). "Monuments to Greatness: George Dance, Charles Polhill, and Benjamin West's Design for a Memorial to George Washington". Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 99 (2): 187–203. JSTOR 4249215.
- Savage, Kirk (2009). Monument Wars: Washington, D.C., the National Mall, and the Transformation of the Memorial Landscape. Berkeley,Calif: Univ.of California Press. pp. 32–45. ISBN 978-0-520-25654-5.
- "Washington Monument State Park". Annapolis, MD: Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
- Schwartz, Barry (1990) . George Washington: The Making of an American Symbol. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-928141-5.
- Kloetzel, James E., ed. (2009). Scott 2010 Specialized Catalogue of United States Stamps & Covers. Sidney, OH: Scott Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-89487-446-8.
- Callahan, Charles H. (1998) . Washington: The Man and the Mason. Kila, Mont: Kessinger. pp. 329–342. ISBN 0-7661-0245-9. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- Weber, John (2009). An Illustrated Guide to the Lost Symbol. London: Simon & Schuster. p. 137. ISBN 1-4165-2366-9. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Map of Washington". Worldatlas. Retrieved January 3, 2011.
- "George Washington’s 50 Guinea Draft". Philadelphia: C.V. Starr Center for the Study of the American Experience. December 23, 1782. Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- "Board of Visitors and Governors". Chestertown, Maryland: Washington College. Archived from the original on August 19, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- "Most Common U.S. Street Names". Washington, D.C.: National League of Cities. 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- "July 4th Marks 150th Anniversary of the Dedication Of Union Square’s George Washington Monument". City of New York Parks & Recreation. 2006. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- "The George Washington Equestrian Monument". The Virginia State Capitol History Project. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- "Virginia Washington Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- "The Great Seal of the Confederacy". Home of the American Civil War. June 1, 2002. Retrieved January 18, 2011.
- "The addition of the statue of President George Washington to the National Statuary Hall Collection". Office of the Clerk, US House of Representatives. Retrieved July 14, 2012.
- "Houdon Statue of George Washington". The GW and Foggy Bottom Encyclopedia. December 21, 2006. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
- Fitzpatrick, John (ed). "Writings of George Washington – Online Fitzpatrick edition". University of Virginia. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
- Lengel, Edward G. (ed.). "The Papers of George Washington: Digital Edition". University of Virginia. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
- "NYC Auction Of George Washington Document Sets Record". CBS News New York. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
- Dann, John C. (May 8, 2004). "Case 5—Family Background, Part I". George Washington: getting to know the man behind the image. University of Michigan: William L. Clements Library. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
- Homans, Charles (October 6, 2004). "Taking a New Look at George Washington". The Papers of George Washington: Washington in the News. Alderman Library, University of Virginia. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- "Frequently Asked Questions: Did George Washington wear a wig?". The Papers of George Washington. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on November 20, 2005. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
- Stuart, Gilbert. "George Washington (the Athenaeum portrait)". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- Chernow (2010, pp. 172–176)
- Chernow (2010, pp. 187–189)
- Lloyd, John; Mitchinson, John (2006). The Book of General Ignorance. New York: Harmony Books. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-307-39491-0. Retrieved July 3, 2011.
- Glover, Barbara (Summer–Fall 1998). "George Washington—A Dental Victim". The Riversdale Letter. Retrieved June 30, 2006.
- Dentures, 1790-1799, George Washington's Mount Vernon Estate, Museum and Gardens
- Mary V. Thompson, "The Private Life of George Washington's Slaves", Frontline, PBS
- "The Portrait—George Washington:A National Treasure". Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved January 21, 2011.
- Chernow (2010, ch. 66)
- Striner, Richard (2006). Father Abraham: Lincoln's Relentless Struggle to End Slavery. Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-19-518306-1.
- Stewart, David O. (2007). The Summer of 1787. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-7432-8692-3.
- Twohig, Dorothy (October 1994). "'That Species of Property': Washington's Role in the Controversy Over Slavery". The Papers of George Washington. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on April 13, 2005. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- Hirschfeld (1997, pp. 11–12)
- Haworth, Paul Leland (2004) . George Washington: Farmer. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing. pp. 78–80. ISBN 1-4191-2162-6. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- Ellis (2004, p. 192)
- Wood, Gordon (December 16, 2004). "The Man Who Would Not Be King". The New Republic (carried at powells.com). Retrieved August 4, 2006.
- Slave raffle linked to Washington's reassessment of slavery: Wiencek (2003, pp. 135–36, 178–88). Washington's decision to stop selling slaves: Hirschfeld (1997, p. 16). Influence of war and Wheatley: Wiencek (2003, ch. 6). Dilemma of selling slaves: Wiencek (2003, p. 230); Ellis (2004, pp. 164–167); Hirschfeld (1997, pp. 27–29).
- Washington, George (April 12, 1786). "Letter to Robert Morris". The Papers of George Washington: The Confederation Series, Volume 4. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on May 3, 2006. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- Lawler Jr., Edward. "Washington, the Enslaved, and the 1780 Law". Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Nash, Gary B. (2006). "For Whom will the Liberty Bell Toll? From Controversy to Cooperation". In James Oliver Horton & Lois E. Horton. Slavery and Public History: The Tough Stuff of American Memory. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 93–94. ISBN 978-0-8078-5916-2.
- Lawler Jr., Edward. "Oney Judge". Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- For the text of Washington's letters in which he contests the law, see http://www.ushistory.org/presidentshouse/slaves/washingtonand8.htm
- Craig LaBan, "A birthday shock from Washington's chef", Philadelphia Inquirer, February 22, 2010, accessed April 2, 2012
- Grizzard (2005, pp. 285–286)
- "The Will of George Washington: Slave Lists". The Papers of George Washington. University of Virginia. June 1799. Archived from the original on April 27, 2005. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- Ferling (2009, p. 364)
- Thompson, Mary (2008). In The Hands of a Good Providence. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-8139-2763-3.
- Sparks, Jared (1839). The Life of George Washington. Boston: F. Andrews. pp. 522–523. OCLC 843523. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
- Johnson (1919, pp. 87–195)
- Chernow (2010, ch. 12)
- Espinosa (2009, p. 52)
- Chernow (2010, ch. 12, note 14)
- Novak, M. and Novak, J., Washington's God: Religion, Liberty, and the Father of Our Country, Basic Books, 2007, p. 158.
- Novak, M. and Novak, J., Washington's God: Religion, Liberty, and the Father of Our Country, Basic Books, 2007, p. 161.
- Mackey, Albert G. (November 4, 1852). "Washington as a Freemason". Charleston, SC: Phoenixmasonry Masonic Museum and Library. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
- Chernow (2010, pp. 27, 704)
- Harris, R. W. Claude (August 25, 2000). "Washington and Freemasonry". Lodge Anecdotes. Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22, A.F. & A.M. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- "History". Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22, A.F. & A.M. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- Trotter, Gordon T., “Yorktown Issue”, Arago: people, postage & the post, National Postal Museum online, viewed April 17, 1014.
- Trotter, Gordon T., “Constitution Sesquicentennial Issue”, Arago: people, postage & the post, National Postal Museum online, viewed April 17, 1014.
- Haimann, Alexander T., “Washington Inauguration Issue”, Arago: people, postage & the post, National Postal Museum online, viewed April 17, 1014.
- Anderson, Fred (2000). Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-375-40642-3.
- Anderson, Fred (2005). The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War (abridged ed.). New York: Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-03454-3.
- Bell, William Gardner (2005) . Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff, 1775–2005: Portraits & Biographical Sketches of the United States Army's Senior Officer. Washington, D.C: Center of Military History, United States Army. pp. 52–53, 66–67. ISBN 0-16-072376-0. CMH Pub 70–14.
- Boller, Paul F. (1963). George Washington & Religion. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press. OCLC 563800860.
- Boller, Paul F. (1995). Not So!: Popular Myths About America from Columbus to Clinton. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509186-8.
- Brookhiser, Richard (1996). Founding Father: Rediscovering George Washington. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-684-82291-1.
- Buchanan, John (2004). The Road to Valley Forge: How Washington Built the Army That Won the Revolution. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-44156-4.
- Bumgarner, John R. (1994). The Health of the Presidents: The 41 United States Presidents Through 1993 from a Physician's Point of View. Jefferson, N.C: McFarland & Co. ISBN 0-89950-956-8.
- Carp, E. Wayne (1990) . To Starve the Army at Pleasure: Continental Army Administration and American Political Culture, 1775–1783. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-8078-4269-0. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Chernow, Ron (2010). Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 978-1-59420-266-7., Pulitzer Prize
- Cunliffe, Marcus (1958). George Washington, Man and Monument. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 58007859.
- Dalzell, Robert F., Jr.; Dalzell, Lee Baldwin (1998). George Washington's Mount Vernon: At Home in Revolutionary America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512114-7.
- Elkins, Stanley M.; McKitrick, Eric (1995) . The Age of Federalism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509381-0., standard political history of 1790s
- Ellis, Joseph J. (2004). His Excellency: George Washington. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 1-4000-4031-0.
- Espinosa, Gastón (2009). Religion and the American Presidency: George Washington to George W. Bush with Commentary and Primary Sources. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-14332-5.
- Ferling, John E. (2000). Setting the World Ablaze: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and the American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513409-5.
- Ferling, John E. (2009). The Ascent of George Washington: The Hidden Political Genius of an American Icon. New York: Bloomsbury Press. ISBN 978-1-59691-465-0.
- Ferling, John E. (2010) . First of Men: A Life of George Washington. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-539867-0.
- Fischer, David Hackett (2004). Washington's Crossing. Oxford, England; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517034-2.
- Fishman, Ethan M.; Pederson, William D.; Rozell, Mark J., eds. (2001). George Washington, Foundation of Presidential Leadership and Character. Westport, Conn: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-96868-5.
- Flexner, James Thomas (1965). George Washington: the Forge of Experience, 1732–1775. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 426484.
- Flexner, James Thomas (1974). Washington: The Indispensable Man. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-28605-2.
- Freeman, Douglas Southall (1948). George Washington, a Biography 7 v. New York: Scribner. OCLC 732644234.
- Freeman, Douglas Southall (1968). Harwell, Richard Barksdale, ed. Washington. New York: Scribner. OCLC 426557.
- Gregg, Gary L., II; Spalding, Matthew, eds. (1999). Patriot Sage: George Washington and the American Political Tradition. Wilmington, Del: ISI Books. ISBN 1-882926-38-2.
- Grizzard, Frank E., Jr. (2002). George Washington: A Biographical Companion. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-082-4.
- Grizzard, Frank E., Jr. (2005). George!: A Guide to All Things Washington. Buena Vista, Va: Mariner Pub. ISBN 0-9768238-0-2.
- Higginbotham, Don (1971). The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763–1789. New York: Macmillan. OCLC 142627.
- Higginbotham, Don (1985). George Washington and the American Military Tradition. Athens: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-0786-6.
- Higginbotham, Don, ed. (2001). George Washington Reconsidered. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. ISBN 0-8139-2005-1.
- Higginbotham, Don (2002). George Washington: Uniting a Nation. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 0-7425-2208-3.
- Hirschfeld, Fritz (1997). George Washington and Slavery: A Documentary Portrayal. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 0-8262-1135-6.
- Hofstra, Warren R., ed. (1998). George Washington and the Virginia Backcountry. Madison, Wis: Madison House. ISBN 0-945612-50-8.
- Hughes, Rupert (1926). George Washington... New York: W. Morrow & Co. OCLC 17399028.
- Jensen, Merrill (1948). The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774–1781. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. OCLC 498124.
- Johnson, William (1919). George Washington, the Christian. New York: The Abingdon Press. OCLC 19524242. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
- Ketchum, Richard M. (1999) . The Winter Soldiers: The Battles for Trenton and Princeton. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-6098-7.
- Lancaster, Bruce; Plumb, John H. (1985). The American Revolution. New York: American Heritage Press. ISBN 0-8281-0281-3., heavily illustrated
- Lengel, Edward G. (2005). General George Washington: A Military Life. New York: Random House. ISBN 1-4000-6081-8.
- Mann, Barbara Alice (2005). George Washington's War on Native America. Westport, Conn: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-98177-0.
- McCullough, David (2005). 1776. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2671-2.
- O'Brien, Conor Cruise (2009). First in Peace: How George Washington Set the Course for America. Foreword by Christopher Hitchens. Cambridge: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81619-2.
- Parry, Jay A.; Allison, Andrew M. (1991). The Real George Washington: The True Story of America's Most Indispensable Man. United States: National Center for Constitutional Studies. ISBN 978-0-88080-014-3.
- Randall, Willard Sterne (1997). George Washington: A Life. New York: Henry Holt & Co. ISBN 0-8050-2779-3.
- Rasmussen, William M. S.; Tilton, Robert S. (1999). George Washington-the Man Behind the Myths. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. ISBN 0-8139-1900-2.
- Unger, Harlow Giles (2013). "Mr. President" George Washington and the Making of the Nation's Highest Office. Boston: Da Capo Press, A Member of the Perseus Book Group. ISBN 978-0-306-82241-4.
- Vadakan, Vibul V., M.D. (Winter–Spring 2005). "A Physician Looks At The Death of Washington". The Early America Review (DEV Communications) 6 (1). ISSN 1090-4247.
- Wallenborn, White McKenzie, M.D. (November 5, 1997). "George Washington's Terminal Illness: A Modern Medical Analysis of the Last Illness and Death of George Washington". The Papers of George Washington. University of Virginia.
- Wiencek, Henry (2003). An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-17526-8.
- Wood, Gordon S. (1992). The Radicalism of the American Revolution. New York: A.A. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-40493-7.
|Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- George Washington at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- American President: George Washington (1732–1799) at the Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia
- George Washington: A Resource Guide at the Library of Congress
- George Washington Resources at the University of Virginia Library
- Original Digitized Letters of George Washington Shapell Manuscript Foundation
- George Washington at the White House
- The Papers of George Washington at the Avalon Project
- The Papers of George Washington, subset of Founders Online from the National Archives
- George Washington's Mount Vernon Estate, Museum & Gardens
- Discover the Real George Washington: New Views from Mount Vernon, a traveling exhibit
- George Washington Birthplace National Monument, Virginia from the National Park Service
- Copies of the wills of General George Washington: the first president of the United States and of Martha Washington, his wife (1904), edited by E. R. Holbrook
- George Washington at C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits
- Rediscovering George Washington at PBS
- "What Made George Washington a Good Military Leader?". EDSITEment: Lesson Plans. National Endowment for the Humanities.
- "AT HOME WITH GEORGE WASHINGTON" -- excerpts from James Kirke Pauldings Life of Washington (1835)
- George Washington Diary, 1762. From the Collections at the Library of Congress
- Documenting the Gilded Age: New York City Exhibitions at the Turn of the 20th Century A New York Art Resources Consortium project. Exhibition catalog of Portraits of George Washington.
- The Philanthropy Hall of Fame, George Washington