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|• Chinese||福建省 (Fújiàn Shěng)|
|• Abbreviation||simplified Chinese: 闽; traditional Chinese: 閩 (pinyin: Mǐn, POJ: Bân, BUC: Mìng, MNP: Ma̿ing, Pha̍k-fa-sṳ: Mîn)|
|• Min Nan POJ||Hok-kiàn-séng|
|• Min Dong BUC||Hók-gióng-sēng|
|• Min Bei MNP||Hŭ-gṳ̿ing-sǎing|
|• Hinghwa BUC||Ho̤h-ge̤̍ng-sêng|
|• Hakka Pha̍k-fa-sṳ||Fuk-kien-sén|
Map showing the location of Fujian Province
|Named for||福 fú – Fuzhou
建 jiàn – Jianzhou (today's Jian'ou)
|Divisions||9 prefectures, 85 counties, 1107 townships|
|• Secretary||You Quan|
|• Governor||Su Shulin|
|• Total||121,400 km2 (46,900 sq mi)|
|• Density||310/km2 (800/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||14th|
|• Ethnic composition||Han – 98%
She – 1%
Hui – 0.3%
|• Languages and dialects||Min, Hakka, Gan|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-35|
|GDP (2014)||CNY 2.406 trillion
US$ 391.59 billion (12th)
|- per capita||CNY 63,809
US$ 10,387 (9th)
|HDI (2010)||0.714 (high) (11th)|
Fujian (Chinese: 福建; listen (help·info)), formerly romanised as Fukien or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. The name Fujian came from the combination of Fuzhou and Jianzhou (a former name for Jian'ou) two cities in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty. While its population is chiefly of Han origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China.
Most of Fujian is administered by the People's Republic of China. However, the archipelagos of Kinmen and Matsu are under the control of the Republic of China. Thus, there are two provinces (in the sense of government organizations): the Fujian Province administered by the People's Republic of China and the Fujian Province of the Republic of China.
Recent archaeological discoveries demonstrate that Fujian had entered the Neolithic Age by the middle of the 6th millennium BC. From the Keqiutou site (7450–5590 BP), an early Neolithic site in Pingtan Island located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Fuzhou, numerous tools made of stones, shells, bones, jades, and ceramics (including wheel-made-ceramics) have been unearthed, together with spinning wheels, a definitive evidence of weaving.
The Tanshishan (昙石山) site (5500–4000 BP) in suburban Fuzhou spans the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Age where semi-underground circular buildings were found in the lower level. The Huangtulun (黄土崙) site (ca.1325 BC), also in suburban Fuzhou, was of the Bronze Age in character.
Fujian was also the place for the kingdom of Minyue. The word "Mǐnyuè" was derived by combining "Mǐn" (閩/闽; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: bân), perhaps an ethnic name and associated with the Chinese word for barbarians (蠻/蛮; pinyin: mán; POJ: bân), and "Yuè", after the State of Yue, a Spring and Autumn Period kingdom in Zhejiang to the north. This is because the royal family of Yuè fled to Fujian after their kingdom was annexed by the State of Chu in 306 BC. Mǐn is also the name of the main river in this area, but the ethnonym is probably earlier.
Minyue was a de facto kingdom until the emperor of Qin dynasty, the first unified imperial Chinese state, abolished the status. In the aftermath of the fall of the Qin dynasty, however, civil war broke out between two warlords, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang; the Minyue king Wuzhu sent his troops to fight side-by-side with Liu Bang and his gamble paid off. Liu Bang was victorious and founded the Han dynasty; in 202 BC, he restored Minyue's status as a tributary independent kingdom. Thus, Wuzhu was allowed to construct his fortified city in Fuzhou as well as a few locations in the Wuyi Mountains, which have been excavated in recent years. His kingdom extended beyond the borders of contemporary Fujian into eastern Guangdong, eastern Jiangxi, and southern Zhejiang.
After the death of Wuzhu, Minyue maintained its militant tradition and launched several expeditions against their neighboring kingdoms in Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang, mostly in the 2nd century BC, only to be stopped by the Han dynasty as it expanded southward. The Han emperor eventually decided to get rid of the potential threat by sending a military campaign against Minyue. Large forces approached Minyue simultaneously from four directions via land and sea in 111 BC. The rulers in Fuzhou surrendered to avoid a futile fight and destruction; thus the first kingdom in Fujian history came to an abrupt end.
The Han dynasty collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the Three Kingdoms era. Sun Quan, the founder of the Kingdom of Wu, spent nearly twenty years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue living in mountains.
The first wave of immigration of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century when the Western Jin dynasty collapsed and the north was torn apart by invasions by nomadic peoples from the north, as well as civil war. These immigrants were primarily from eight families in central China: Lin (林), Huang (黄), Chen (陈), Zheng (郑), Zhan (詹), Qiu (邱), He (何), and Hu (胡). The first four remain as the major surnames of modern Fujian.
Nevertheless, isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain contributed to Fujian's relatively backward economy and level of development, despite major population boost from northern China during the "barbarian" invasions. Population density in Fujian remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two commanderies and sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin dynasty. Like other southern provinces such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan, Fujian often served as a destination for exiled prisoners and dissidents at that time.
Kingdom of MinEdit
The Tang dynasty (618–907) oversaw the next golden age of China. As the Tang dynasty ended, China was torn apart in the period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. During this time, a second major wave of immigration arrived in the safe haven of Fujian, led by General Wang, who set up an independent Kingdom of Min with its capital in Fuzhou. After the death of the founding king, however, the kingdom suffered from internal strife, and was soon swallowed up by Southern Tang, another southern kingdom.
Quanzhou was blooming into a seaport under the reign of the Min Kingdom and is the largest seaport in the world.[when?] Its population is also greater than Fuzhou. Due to the Ispah Rebellion, Quanzhou was severely damaged.
In the early Ming dynasty, Quanzhou was the staging area and supply depot of Zheng He's naval expeditions. Further development was severely hampered by the sea trade ban of the Ming dynasty, and the area was superseded by nearby ports of Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai despite the lifting of the ban in 1550. Large-scale piracy by Wokou was eventually wiped out by Chinese military and Japanese authority of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
Late Ming and early Qing dynasty symbolized an era of large influx of refugees and another 20 years of sea trade ban under the Kangxi Emperor, a measure intended to counter the refuge Ming government of Koxinga in Taiwan. Incoming refugees, however, did not translate into a major labor force owing to their re-migration into prosperous regions of Guangdong. In 1683, the Qing dynasty conquered Taiwan and annexed it into Fujian province, as Taiwan Prefecture. Settlement of Taiwan by Han Chinese followed, and the majority of people in Taiwan are descendants of Hoklo people from Southern Fujian. Fujian arrived at its present extent after Taiwan was split as its own province in 1885. Just ten more years later, Taiwan Province would be lost to Japan due to the Qing losing the First Sino-Japanese War which ended in 1895.
Owing to the mountainous landscape, Fujian was the most secluded province of the PRC in eastern China due to the lack of rail and underdeveloped networks of paved roads before the 1950s. The first railway to the province, the Yingtan-Xiamen Railway, was completed in 1957. Despite its secluded location, Fujian has had a strong academic tradition since the Southern Song dynasty. At the time, north China was occupied by the Jurchen Jin dynasty during the Jin-Song wars, which caused a shift of the cultural center of China to the south, benefiting Fuzhou and other southern cities. In the Chinese Academy of Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering, there are more members from Fuzhou than from any other city. In addition, it should also be pointed out that the slow development of Fujian in its early days has proven a blessing for the province's ecology; today, the province has the highest forest coverage rate and the most diverse biosphere in China whereas central China suffers from severe overpopulation and displays severe signs of soil erosion accompanied by frequent droughts and floods due to lack of forest coverage.
Since the late 1970s, the economy of Fujian along the coast has greatly benefited from its geographic and cultural proximity to Taiwan. In 2003, Xiamen ranked number eight GDP per capita among 659 Chinese cities, ahead of Shanghai and Beijing, while Fuzhou ranked no. 21 (number 4 among 30 provincial capitals). The development has been accompanied by a large influx of population from the over-populated areas in the north and west, and much of the farmland and forest as well as cultural heritage sites such as the temples of king Wuzhu have given way to ubiquitous high-rise buildings, and the government faces a challenge at all levels to sustain development while, at the same time, preserving the unique and vital natural and cultural heritage of Fujian.
The province is mostly mountainous, and is traditionally described to be "Eight parts mountain, one part water, and one part farmland" (八山一水一分田). The northwest is higher in altitude, with the Wuyi Mountains forming the border between Fujian and Jiangxi. It is the most forested provincial level administrative region in China, with a 62.96% forest coverage rate in 2009. The highest point of Fujian is Huanggang Peak in the Wuyi Mountains, with an altitude of 2157 m.
Fujian province faces East China Sea to the east, South China Sea to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the southeast. The coastline is rugged and has many bays and islands. Major islands include Quemoy (also known as Kinmen) (controlled by the Republic of China), Haitan Island, and Nanri Island. Meizhou Island occupies a central place in the cult of the goddess Matsu, the patron deity of Chinese sailors.
The Min River (闽江) and its tributaries cut through much of northern and central Fujian. Other rivers include the Jin River and the Jiulong River. Due to its uneven topography, Fujian has many cliffs and rapids.
Fujian is separated from Taiwan by the 180 kilometres (110 mi)-wide Taiwan Strait. Some of the small islands in the Taiwan Strait are also part of the province. Small parts of the province, namely the islands of Quemoy and Matsu, are under the administration of the Republic of China.
Fujian has a subtropical climate, with mild winters. In January the coastal regions average around 7–10 °C (45–50 °F) while the hills average 6–8 °C (43–46 °F). In the summer, temperatures are high, and the province is threatened by typhoons coming in from the Pacific. Average annual precipitation is 1,400–2,000 millimetres (55–79 in).
The province has worked to improve its infrastructure; adding 166 kilometres (103 mi) of new roads and 155 kilometres (96 mi) of railways.[when?]
As of 2012, there are 54,876 kilometres (34,098 mi) of highways in Fujian, including 3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi) of expressways. The top infrastructure projects in recent years have been the Zhangzhou-Zhaoan Expressway (US$624 million) and the Sanmingshi-Fuzhou expressway (US$1.40 billion). The 12th Five-Year Plan, covering the period from 2011 to 2015, aims to double the length of the province's expressways to 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi).
Due to Fujian's mountainous terrain and traditional reliance on maritime transportation, railways came to the province comparatively late. The first rail links to neighboring Jiangxi, Guangdong and Zhejiang Province, opened respectively, in 1959, 2000 and 2009. As of October 2013, Fujian has four rail links with Jiangxi to the northwest: the Yingtan–Xiamen Railway (opened 1957), the Hengfeng–Nanping Railway (1998), Ganzhou–Longyan Railway (2005) and the high-speed Xiangtang–Putian Railway (2013). Fujian's lone rail link to Guangdong to the west, the Zhangping–Longchuan Railway (2000), will be joined with the high-speed Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway (Xiashen Line) in late 2013. The Xiashen Line forms the southern-most section of China's Southeast Coast High-Speed Rail Corridor. The Wenzhou–Fuzhou and Fuzhou–Xiamen sections of this corridor entered operation in 2009 and links Fujian with Zhejiang with trains running at speeds of up to 250 km/h (155 mph).
Within Fujian, coastal and interior cities are linked by the Nanping–Fuzhou (1959), Zhangping–Quanzhou–Xiaocuo (2007) and Longyan–Xiamen Railways (2012). To attract Taiwanese investment, the province intends to increase its rail length by 50 percent to 2,500 km (1,553 mi).
The major airports are Fuzhou Changle International Airport, Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport, Quanzhou Jinjiang International Airport, Nanping Wuyishan Airport and Longyan Guanzhishan Airport. Xiamen is capable of handling 15.75 million passengers in 2011. Fuzhou is capable of handling 6.5 million passengers annually with a cargo capacity of more than 200,000 tons. The airport offers direct links to 45 destinations including international routes to Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Hong Kong.
|— Sub-provincial city —|
|— Prefecture-level city —|
All of the prefecture-level cities except Longyan, Sanming, and Nanping are found along the coast.
The nine prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 85 county-level divisions (26 districts, 14 county-level cities, and 45 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1107 township-level divisions (605 towns, 328 townships, 18 ethnic townships, and 156 subdistricts). Note: these are the official PRC numbers. Thus, Quemoy (Jinmen) is included as one of the 45 counties and Matsu (Mazu) as one of the 334 townships.
Quemoy (Jinmen) County is nominally controlled by Quanzhou Prefecture-Level city, but it is administered in its entirety by the Republic of China. The PRC-administered Lianjiang County, under the jurisdiction of Fuzhou Prefecture-level City, nominally includes the Matsu Islands (Mazu), but Matsu (Mazu) is in reality controlled by the Republic of China, which administers Matsu as Lienchiang County (same name Romanized differently). The Wuchiu (Wuqiu) islands are nominally administered in the PRC by Xiuyu District of Putian Prefecture, but is in reality controlled by the Republic of China, which administers Wuchiu (Wuqiu) as part of Quemoyy (Jinmen) County.
List of the Secretaries of the CPC Fujian Committee
- Zhang Dingcheng (张鼎丞): June 1949-October 1954
- Ye Fei (叶飞): October 1954-June 1958
- Jiang Yizhen (江一真): acting 1958–1970
- Han Xianchu (韩先楚): April 1971-December 1973
- Liao Zhigao (廖志高): December 1974-February 1982
- Xiang Nan (项南): February 1982-March 1986
- Chen Guangyi (陈光毅)； March 1986-December 1993
- Jia Qinglin (贾庆林): December 1993-October 1996
- Chen Mingyi (陈明义): October 1996-December 2000
- Song Defu (宋德福): December 2000-February 2004
- Lu Zhangong (卢展工): February 2004-November 2009
- Sun Chunlan(孙春兰)：November 2009-incumbent
List of Governors
- Zhang Dingcheng (张鼎丞): August 1949-October 1954
- Ye Fei (叶飞): October 1954-January 1959
- Jiang Yizhen (江一真): October 1959-December 1962
- Wen Jinshui (魏金水): December 1962-August 1968
- Han Xianchu (韩先楚): August 1968-December 1973
- Liao Zhigao (廖志高): November 1974-December 1979
- Ma Xingyuan (马兴元): December 1979-January 1983
- Hu Ping (胡平): January 1983-September 1987
- Wang Zhaoguo (王兆国): September 1987-November 1990
- Jia Qinglin (贾庆林): November 1990-April 1994
- Chen Mingyi (陈明义): April 1994-October 1996
- He Guoqiang (贺国强): October 1996-August 1999
- Xi Jinping (习近平): August 1999-October 2002
- Lu Zhangong (卢展工): October 2002-December 2004
- Huang Xiaojing (黄小晶): December 2004-April 2011
- Su Shulin(苏树林)：April 2011-incumbent
Fujian is one of the more affluent provinces with many industries spanning tea production, clothing and sports manufacturers such as Anta, 361 Degrees, Xtep, Peak Sport Products and Septwolves. Many foreign firms have operations in Fujian. They include Boeing, Dell, GE, Kodak, Nokia, Siemens, Swire, TDK and Panasonic.
In terms of agricultural land, Fujian is hilly and farmland is sparse. Rice is the main crop, supplemented by sweet potatoes and wheat and barley. Cash crops include sugar cane and rapeseed. Fujian leads the provinces of China in longan production, and is also a major producer of lychees and tea. Seafood is another important product, with shellfish production especially prominent.
Because of the geographic location with Taiwan, Fujian has been considered the battlefield frontline in a potential war between mainland China and Taiwan. Hence, it received much less investment from Chinese central government and developed much slower than the rest of China before 1978. Since 1978, when China opened to the world, Fujian has received significant investment from overseas Fujianese around the world, Taiwanese and foreign investment. Today, although Fujian is one of the wealthier provinces of China, its GDP per capita is only about the average of China's coastal administrative divisions.
Fujian province will be the major economic beneficiary of the opening up of direct transport with Taiwan which commenced on December 15, 2008. This includes direct flights from Taiwan to major Fujian cities such as Xiamen and Fuzhou. In addition, ports in Xiamen, Quanzhou and Fuzhou will upgrade their port infrastructure for increased economic trade with Taiwan.
Fujian is the host of China International Fair for Investment and Trade annually. It is held in Xiamen to promote foreign investment for all of China.
By 2015 Fujian expects to have at least 50 enterprises that have over 10 billion RMB in annual revenues. The government also expects 55% of GDP growth to come from the industrial sector.
Economic and Technological Development ZonesEdit
- Dongshan Economic and Technology Development Zone
- Fuzhou Economic & Technical Development Zone
- Fuzhou Free Trade Zone
- Fuzhou Hi-Tech Park
- Fuzhou Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
- Jimei Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
- Meizhou Island National Tourist Holiday Resort
- Wuyi Mountain National Tourist Holiday Resort
- Xiamen Export Processing Zone
- Xiamen Free Trade Zone
- Xiamen Haicang Economic and Technological Development Zone
- Xiamen Torch New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone (Chinese Version)
- Xinglin Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
As of 1832, the province was described as having an estimated "population of fourteen millions."
Han Chinese make up 98% of the population. Various Fujianese peoples (Min-speaking groups) make up the largest subgroups of Han Chinese in Fujian. This includes the Hoklo people, Hokciu people, Teochew people and Putian people.
Hakka, a Han Chinese people with its own distinct identity, live in the southwestern parts of the province. Hui'an, also a Han branch with their distinct culture and fashion, populate Fujian's southeast coastline near Chongwu in Hui'an County. The She, scattered over mountainous regions in the north, is the largest minority ethnic group of the province.
Many ethnic Chinese around the world, especially Southeast Asia, trace their ancestry to Fujian. Descendants of Fujian emigrants make up the predominant majority ethnic Chinese populations of Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Fujian, especially Fuzhou, is also the major source of Chinese immigrants in the United States, especially since the 1990s.
Because of its mountainous nature and the numerous waves of migration from central China in the course of history, Fujian is one of the most linguistically diverse places in all Han Chinese areas of China. Local dialects can become unintelligible within 10 kilometres (6.2 mi). This is reflected in the expression that "if you drive five miles in Fujian the culture changes, and if you drive ten miles, the language does". Classification of these various dialects has confounded linguists. In general, most dialects of Fujian are put into a broad Min category, then subdivided into Min Bei, Min Dong, Min Zhong, Min Nan, Pu Xian, and Shao Jiang. (The seventh subdivision of Min, Qiong Wen, is not spoken in Fujian.) The Fuzhou dialect is part of Min Dong, but some linguists classify it as Min Bei; the Amoy language is part of Min Nan. Hakka, another subdivision of spoken Chinese, is spoken around Longyan by the Hakka people who live there.
Several regions of Fujian have their own form of Chinese opera. Minju (Fujian Opera) is popular around Fuzhou; Gaojiaxi around Jinjiang and Quanzhou; Xiangju around Zhangzhou; Fujian Nanqu throughout the south, and Puxianxi around Putian and Xianyou County.
Fujian cuisine, with an emphasis on seafood, is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It is composed of traditions from various regions, including Fuzhou cuisine and Min Nan cuisine. The most prestigious dish is Fotiaoqiang (literally "Buddha jumps over the wall"), a complex dish making use of many ingredients, including shark fin, sea cucumber, abalone, and Shaoxing wine (a form of "Chinese alcoholic beverage").
Many well-known teas originate from Fujian, including oolong, Wuyi Yancha, Lapsang souchong and Fuzhou jasmine tea. Indeed, the tea processing techniques for three major classes tea, namely, oolong, white tea, and black tea were all developed in the province. Fujian tea ceremony is an elaborate way of preparing and serving tea. In fact, the English word "tea" is borrowed from Min nan language. (Mandarin and Cantonese pronounce the word chá.)
Fuzhou bodiless lacquer ware, a noted type of lacquer ware, is noted for using a body of clay and/or plaster to form its shape; the body later removed. Fuzhou is also known for Shoushan stone carvings.
Places of interest include:
- Fujian Tulou, listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Site (2008)
- Guanghua Temple (Putian), mainland Putian
- Gulangyu Island, Xiamen
- Kaiyuan Temple, Quanzhou
- Mount Tailao, Fuding
- Nanshan Temple, Zhangzhou
- The Matsu pilgrimage centers around Meizhou Island (Putian Municipality), because she was born there and died on the Matsu Islands.
- Wuyi Mountains, listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1999.
- Yongquan Temple, Fuzhou.
The province and its diaspora abroad also has a tradition of educational achievement, and has produced many important scholars, statesmen and other notable persons since the time of the Song dynasty, such as:
- Huang Qiaoshan (871–953), Vice-Minister of Works, Tang dynasty.
- Zheng Qiao (1108–1166), historian.
- Zhu Xi (1130–1200), Confucian philosopher.
- Huang Senping (14th-15th century), Royal son-in-law of Sultan Muhammad Shah of Brunei.
- Hong Chengchou (1593–1665), Ming dynasty official.
- Shi Lang (1621–1696), Qing dynasty admiral.
- Zheng Chenggong (1624–1662), a Ming dynasty general who defeated the Dutch to reconquer Taiwan.
- Lin Zexu (1785–1850), scholar and official.
- Wong Nai Siong (1849–1924), scholar, revolutionary, discovered the town of Sibu in Sarawak, east Malaysia in 1901.
- Lin Shu (1852–1924), translator.
- Yan Fu (1854–1921), scholar and translator.
- Lin Yutang (1894–1976), writer.
- Zheng Zhenduo (1898–1958), literary historian.
- Ong Schan Tchow (Chinese: 翁占秋) (1900 – 1945), artist well known for the painting of the “Book of Chrysanthemums”
- Go Seigen (born 1914), pseudonym of Go champion Wú Qīngyuán.
- Zhang Jingchu (born 1980), actress
- Raymond Lam (born 1979), Hong Kong actor
- Lin Dan (born 1983), Professional Badminton Player
Corporations with headquarters in Fujian include:
Professional sports teams in Fujian include:
- Fuzhou Gezhi High School
- Fuzhou No.1 Middle School
- Fuzhou No.3 Middle School
- Xiamen Foreign Language School
Colleges and universitiesEdit
- Xiamen University (founded 1921, also known as University of Amoy) (Xiamen)
- Huaqiao University (Quanzhou)
- Fuzhou University (founded 1958, one of "211 project" key Universities)(Fuzhou)
- Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (Fuzhou)
- Fujian College of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Fuzhou)
- Fujian Medical University (Fuzhou)
- Fujian Normal University (founded 1907) (Fuzhou)
- Fujian University of Technology (Fuzhou)
- Jimei University (Xiamen)
- Xiamen University of Technology (Xiamen)
- Longyan University (Longyan)
- Zhangzhou Normal College (Zhangzhou)
- Minjiang University (Fuzhou)
- Putian University (Putian)
- Quanzhou Normal College (Quanzhou)
- Wuyi University (Wuyishan)
- Yang-en University (Quanzhou)
- These are the official PRC numbers from 2009 Fujian Statistic Bureau. Quemoy is included as a county and Matsu as a township.
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- Economic data
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fujian.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Fu-kien.|
- Fujian travel guide from Wikivoyage
- (Chinese) Fujian Government Website (PRC)
- (Chinese) Fujian Provincial Government (ROC)
- (English) (Chinese) Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces from 1821-1850
|Guangdong||Taiwan Strait / Taiwan|