Last modified on 29 September 2014, at 18:44

Foreign relations of Kazakhstan

Emblem of Kazakhstan.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Kazakhstan

Foreign relations of Kazakhstan are primarily based on economic and political security. The Nazarbayev administration has tried to balance relations with Russia and the United States by sending petroleum and natural gas to its northern neighbor at artificially low prices while assisting the U.S. in the War on Terror. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (which it chaired in 2010), North Atlantic Cooperation Council, Commonwealth of Independent States, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and NATO's Partnership for Peace program. Kazakhstan established a customs union with Russia and Belarus. It will be transformed into the Common Economic Space in 2012. On 19 November 2011, the member states put together a joint commission on fostering closer economic ties, planning to create a Eurasian Union by 2015. Kazakhstan established the Eurasian Economic Community with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.

Multi-vectored Foreign Policy Kazakhstan has long prioritized a “multi-vector” foreign policy, which brought growth to Kazakhstan’s economy and the Central Asia region. Kazakhstan has called for “intra-regional integration in Central Asia” and international integration of the region.[1]

Kazakhstan's Chairmanship in the OSCE

In January 2010 Kazakhstan assumed the chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the biggest regional security organization, connecting 56 countries of Europe, North America and Asia. Kazakhstan became the first post Soviet, predominantly Asian and Muslim state to be given the honor of leading the organization. With no doubts, the honor of the chairmanship in the authoritative international organizations symbolizes the success of social, economic and political achievements of Kazakhstan during the 18 years of its independence. Kazakhstan's Chaimanship presents important opportunities for both, Astana and OSCE.

In December 2010 Kazakhstan held the first OSCE summit since 1999.[2]

Foreign Policy Concept for 2014-2020Edit

Kazakhstan's main foreign policy efforts are focused on achieving the following goals:[3]

  1. Measures that will ensure national security, defense capacity, sovereignty and territorial unity of the country;
  2. strengthening peace through regional and global security;
  3. sustainable international position and positive global image of Kazakhstan;
  4. establishment of fair and democratic world order under the guiding and coordinating role of the United Nations Organization (UN);
  5. further integration into the system of regional and international trade-economic relations;
  6. creation of favorable external conditions for the successful implementation of the Strategy 2050; providing high living standards for the population; strengthening unity of the multi-national society; reinforcing rule of law and democratic institutions; protection of human rights and freedoms;
  7. diversification, industrial-technological development and increased competitiveness of the national economy;
  8. focusing the country onto the green development path and bringing it to the list of the 30 top-developed nations of the world;
  9. saving the national-cultural uniqueness and following the own original way of the state development;
  10. protection of the rights of personal, family and business interests of citizens and legal entities of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
  11. support to Kazakh diaspora and Kazakh language overseas.

Border issuesEdit

Not until 2005 did Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan agree to begin demarcating their shared borders. No seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea has been agreed upon and the usage of Caspian Sea water is a matter that remains unsettled by international agreement.[4]

According to Sagintaev Bakytzshan Abdirovich, First Deputy Prime Minister, in 2015 Kazakhstan and China will sign an intergovernmental agreement on water allocation of the 24 transboundary rivers.[5]

Illicit drugsEdit

Illegal cannabis and, to a lesser extent, opium production in Kazakhstan is an international issue since much of the crop ends up being sold in other countries, particularly in other member-states of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).[4] In 1998, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime estimated that a "minimum of 1,517 tons of cannabis was harvested" in Kazakhstan.[6]

With the fall of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan became a major transit country for narcotics produced in Southwest Asia, primarily from Afghanistan.[6] In 2001, Kazakh authorities reported 1,320 cases of drug trafficking and seized 18 metric tons of narcotics. However, this is viewed as a fraction of the actual total volume trafficked and widespread corruption continues to hamper government anti-drug efforts; Transparency International gave Kazakhstan a score of 2.2, on a scale of 0-10 with 0 indicating a "highly corrupt" state.[6][7] Russia and other parts of Europe are the main markets for these drugs although drug use is growing in Kazakhstan as well.[4][6]

Central AsiaEdit

AzerbaijanEdit

Diplomatic relations were established on August 27, 1992. Azerbaijan has an embassy in Astana. Kazakhstan has had an embassy in Baku since December 16, 1994.

KyrgyzstanEdit

Bilateral relationships between the countries are very strong and Kyrgyz and Kazakh are very close in terms of language, culture and religion. Kyrgyz-Kazakh relationships have always been at a very high level and economic and other formal unification of two countries have been greeted with strong appreciation by both nations since the two share a lot in common. On April 26, 2007 the presidents of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan signed an agreement to create an "International Supreme Council" between the two states. This historic event took place during an official visit of the Kazakh president to the Kyrgyzstan capital, Bishkek.[8]

TurkmenistanEdit

  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Ashgabat.
  • Turkmenistan has an embassy in Astana.

UzbekistanEdit

  • Kazakhstan - Uzbekistan relations have always been sincere and strong. Since the rapid development of Kazakhstan the President of Uzbekistan Mr. Karimov has visited Kazakhstan several times.

AsiaEdit

Bilateral relations have grown steadily since that time. Cooperation between the two nations has grown in political, economic, and educational spheres. The presence of 100,000 ethnic Koreans living in Kazakhstan (known as Koryo-saram) creates an additional link between the two countries.[23]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia

Kazakhstan formed diplomatic relations with Armenia on 6 November 2006. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev said, "The trade level cannot satisfy either side, this low indicator does not meet our states' demands." Fortunately however, "Documents signed today create a legal base for closer cooperation between our companies... As a result of talks, we confirmed the urge of our states to further strengthen our relations. Increasing trade and economic ties will contribute to this, for Kazakhstan's business and capital not to be afraid to go to Armenia." Former Armenian President Robert Kocharyan echoed Nazarbayev's statements, saying, "We want this visit to prompt the arrival of Kazakh investment in Armenia."[9]

 Bahrain

President Nursultan Nazarbayev welcomed Sheikh Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa, King of the Kingdom of Bahrain, on his first ever trip and the first by an Arab leader to the Republic.[10] He has stressed Bahrain as a key partner in the Arab world at a press conference and has ensured that this visit has led to a new page in the relations between bonding the two nations[11] The Kazakh Government has created the Bahraini-Kazakh Business Council, unveiling plans to sign an agreement on encouraging and protecting investment, avoiding taxation and fiscal evasion.[12]

 India See India–Kazakhstan relations

Diplomatic relations have increased in importance in the 21st century after initially remaining passive in the 1990s. Both nations seek to develop an extensive commercial and strategic partnership in the Central Asia region.

 Israel See Israel–Kazakhstan relations

Notwithstanding its membership in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Kazakhstan has good relations with Israel. Diplomatic relations were established in 1992 and President Nazarbayev paid official visits to Israel in 1995 and 2000.[13] In 2006, during a state visit by Kazakh Deputy Prime Minister Karim Masimov, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert remarked, "Kazakhstan can show a beautiful face of Islam ... Contemporary, ever-developing Kazakhstan is a perfect example of both economic development and interethnic accord that should be followed by more Muslim states."[14] Bilateral trade between the two countries amounted to $724 million in 2005.[13]

In 2008, Kazkahstan and Israel began to embark on joint military developments which include Self-Propelled Guns and Multiple Launch Rocket Systems.[1]

 Japan 1992
 Malaysia 16 March 1992 See Kazakhstan–Malaysia relations

Kazakhstan has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur while Malaysia has an embassy in Almaty. Both are members of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

 Pakistan See Kazakhstan–Pakistan relations

Relations between the two countries began when Pakistan recognized Kazakhstan on December 20, 1991. On February 24, 1992, diplomatic and consular relations were established during an official visit by Kazakhstani president Nursultan Nazarbayev to Pakistan.[15] Kazakhstan is an emerging market for Pakistani goods.[16]

 Philippines 1992-03-19 See Kazakhstan–Philippines relations

Diplomatic relations between the Kazakhstan and the Philippines were formally established on March 19, 1992. The Philippines maintains relations with Kazakhstan through its embassy in Moscow in Russia. Kazakhstan has an honorary consulate in Manila.[17][18]

Trade between Kazakhstan and the Philippines amounted to 7.3 million during January to November 2010. In 2009, about 1,500 Kazakh tourists visited the Philippines. As of 2009, there are about 7,000 Overseas Filipino Workers are working in Western Kazakhstan, mostly in the oil and gas sector. Kazakhstan is attracting Philippine companies to invest in the country.[19]

On 2011, Kazakhstan is planning to put up a Kazakhstan house in the Philippines either in the Bonifacio Global City or Makati to showcase Kazakh products and promote its tourist destinations. There is also plans to put up a Philippine House in Kazakhstan for the same purpose and there is also plans to put Filipino art exhibits in Kazakhstan[20]

Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev, and his 27 delegates arrived in the Philippines for a three day state visit on November 10, 2003 at the Villamor Airbase in Pasay City. The Kazakh officials met with their Filipino counterparts and conducted meetings. Former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo met with Nazarbayev to finalize the Philippine's intent to import oil and coal from Kazakhstan and discussed possible infrastructure projects in the Central Asian country.[17]

The Philippines also supported Kazakhstan bid to become a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum on security.[19]

 People's Republic of China 1992-01-03 See People's Republic of China – Kazakhstan relations
  • The two nations signed their first boundary agreement in April 1994, and their second supplementary boundary agreement in July 1998 to mark their 1,700 km shared border.[21]
 South Korea 1992-01-28 See Kazakhstan – South Korea relations
 Turkey 1992-03-02 See Kazakh–Turkish relations

Turkey and Kazakhstan, both being Turkic nations, are founding members of the Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture TURKSOY on July 12, 1993. Turkey recognized Kazakhstan on 16 December 1991, on the same day Kazakhstan declared its independence. Diplomatic relations have developed positively on the international stage as well as in commerce and strategic affairs.[22] Kazakhstan has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul. Turkey has an embassy in Almaty and a branch office in Astana.

EuropeEdit

European Free Trade AssociationEdit

Delegations from the EFTA States, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland met with Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan for a first round of negotiations on a broad-based Free Trade Agreement on 11–13 January 2011 in Geneva.

The launching of EFTA-Russia/Belarus/Kazakhstan free trade negotiations had been announced in November 2010 by Ministers from the seven participating States, following a preparatory process including a Joint Feasibility Study.

The 11th round of free trade negotiations was conducted from 27 to 30 January 2014 in Astana, Kazakhstan. A 12th round of negotiations scheduled for April 2014 has been postponed. No new dates have been set yet.

European UnionEdit

The Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) with Kazakhstan has been the legal framework for European Union-Kazakhstan bilateral relations since it entered into force in 1999. In November 2006 a Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation in the field of energy between the EU and Kazakhstan has been signed establishing the basis for enhanced cooperation.

The future European Commission assistance will focus on the following priority areas: promotion of the ongoing reform process at political, economic, judiciary and social level, infrastructure building, and cooperation in the energy sector.

The overall EU co-operation objectives, policy responses and priority fields for Central Asia can be found in the EC Regional Strategy Paper for Central Asia 2007-2013. In addition to the assistance under the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI), Kazakhstan participates in several ongoing regional programs.[24]

European countriesEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania
  • Albania is represented in through its embassy in Moscow, (Russia).
  • Kazakhstan is represented in Albania through its embassy in Ankara, (Turkey).
 Belarus See Foreign relations of Belarus
 Bulgaria 1992-07-05 See Bulgaria–Kazakhstan relations
  • Since 1994, Bulgaria has had an embassy in Almaty.[25]
  • Since November 2004, Kazakhstan has had an embassy and an honorary consulate in Sofia.
 Croatia See Foreign relations of Croatia
 Czech Republic See Foreign relations of the Czech Republic
 Denmark 1992-05-06 See Denmark–Kazakhstan relations
 France 1993
  • Kazakhstan and France formed bilateral relation in 1993 under President Mitterrand.
  • President Nazarbayev has visited the country ten times since its independence.
  • President Nicolas Sarkozy visited Kazakhstan in 2009.
  • The Franco-Kazakh relationship has become stronger from #Kazakhstan hosting the 2017 World Expo.
  • Kazakhstan and France implemented 11 technology projects focusing on aerospace.[26]
 Greece See Foreign relations of Greece
 Hungary 1992-03-23
  • March 1992 was when Hungary opened their embassy in Kazakhstan
  • Kazakhstan opened their embassy in Hungary in September 1993.
  • Foreign Minister Erlan Idrisov made his first state visit to Hungary on 20 November 2013[27]
  • Hungarian Foreign Minister Viktor Orbán has intensified the bilateral relationship with "progress of the brotherly people."[28]
  • Kazakhstan Embassy in Hungary
 Latvia 1992-12-30
 Lithuania
 Monaco
  • Kazakhstan and Monaco signed a tourism cooperation agreement on September 27, 2013[33]
  • Kazakhstan and Monaco signed a trade and investment agreement worth $73 billion in 2013[34]
 Norway
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Oslo.
 Romania 1992-07-15
 Russia See Kazakhstan–Russia relations

Kazakhstan has an Embassy of Kazakhstan in Moscow, consulate-general in Saint Petersburg, Astrakhan and Omsk. Russia has an embassy in Astana and consulates in Almaty and Uralsk.

Diplomatic relations between Russia and Kazakhstan have fluctuated since the fall of the Soviet Union but both nations remain particularly strong partners in regional affairs and major supporters of the Collective Security Treaty Organization and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Kazakhstani-Russian relations have been strained at times by Astana's military and economic cooperation with the United States as well as negotiations over Russia's continued use of the Baikonur Cosmodrome, however the two nations retain high-level military and economic cooperation perhaps second among former Soviet states only to that between Russia and Belarus. Kazakhstan sells oil and gas to Russia at a significantly reduced rate and Russian businesses are heavily invested in Kazakhstan's economy.

  Switzerland

Rakhat Aliyev, the First Vice Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan met with Anton Tahlmann, the Vice Foreign Minister of Switzerland, in Bern, Switzerland from 13–14 November 2006. Tahlmann announced that the Swiss Federal Council is considering opening an embassy in Kazakhstan, saying, "Switzerland is interested in comprehensive development of relations with your country because of its dynamic development and the growing role in the region. In relation with this Bern regards an increase of its diplomatic presence in this country, an opening of the Swiss embassy in perspective." He confirmed his government's support for Kazakhstan's candidacy for the Chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe in 2009. The two ministers also discussed trade, migration, and the environment.[35][36]

 Ukraine 1991 See Kazakhstan–Ukraine relations
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Kiev and an honorary consulate in Odessa.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Astana and a consulate-general in Almaty.
 United Kingdom 1992-02-19 See Kazakhstan – United Kingdom relations

Latin AmericaEdit

Kazakhstan’s Deputy Foreign Minister Yerzhan Ashikbayev said that Kazakhstan is seeking “new perspectives” and boosting its relations with Latin American nations via a series of diplomatic visits.[38]

Ashikbayev attended the 44th General Assembly of the Organization of American States in Asuncion, Paraguay on June 4. Kazakhstan was the largest delegation among the conference’s 39 observer nations.[38]

The Secretary General of the Organization of American States (OAS), José Miguel Insulza, on June 3rd met with the Deputy Foreign Minister, Yerzhan Ashikbayev, in Asunción, Paraguay, for the 44th OAS General Assembly where Ashikbayev presented a contribution to help fund important OAS programs.[39]

Foreign Minister Erlan Idrissov conducted a four-day visit to Mexico on September 17 - 20, 2014.[40] During his visit Idrissov met with Mexican Economy Secretary Ildefonso Guajardo, Foreign Secretary Jose Antonio Meade, former President Vincente Fox, other senior officials and business leaders.[40] The Minister and his delegation will view the future site of Kazakhstan's embassy in Mexico City.[41] Idrissov said that the main objective of his visit was to build a bridge between Latin America and Eurasia.[40] The Foreign Minister underlined that economic and trade collaboration with Kazakhstan will allow investors to reach neighboring markets, such as Russia and China.[40] Idrissov also said that Kazakhstan seeks to expand its presence in Latin America and considers Mexico as a strategic ally in building these relations, while Kazakhstan can offer the same support to Mexico in the Eurasian region.[40]

Rest of worldEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Canada See Canada–Kazakhstan relations

The countries established diplomatic relations with each other in 1992. Canada has an embassy in Almaty. Kazakhstan has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate in Toronto. Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, made an official visit to Canada in May 2003.

 Brazil President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva visited Astana in 2009
 Chile
  • Kazakhstan and Chile signed an agreement on mining and energy as well as citizens can visit visa free[42][43]
 Cuba
 Egypt See Foreign relations of Egypt
 United States See Kazakhstan – United States relations

Visa RegimesEdit

At the at the 27th meeting of the Foreign Investors' Council, President Nazarbayev announced visa-free entry for citizens of the United States, the Netherlands, UK, France, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, the UAE, South Korea, and Japan.[45] It should be noted that currently Kazakhstan and the United States issue 5-year visas to citizens of each other.

This will fulfill a goal of diversifying the economy while also helping the world become more acquainted with Kazakhstan’s cultural patrimony. Since 2001 to 2012, Kazakhstan has doubled its tourism earnings.[46] Experts expect that Kazakhstan will continue to benefit from tourism from the eased visa regime.[47]

United NationsEdit

Kazakhstan became a member of the United Nations on 2 March 1992, nearly three months after gaining independence.[48]

During the General Assembly on November 12, 2012, Kazakhstan was elected to a seat on the United Nations Human Rights Council for the first time. Their seat is with the Asian Group and their term will expire in 2015.[49]

At United Nations Day 2013, Foreign Minister Erlan Idrisov addressed the UN General Assembly saying the UN should develop a regional center in Almaty. Since the United Nations has no regional offices between Vienna and Bangkok, Almaty is home to 18 international organization's regional offices and would be vital to the development of Central Asia and its neighbors.[50]

At the 68th Assembly of the United Nations, Foreign Minister Idrisov announced Kazakhstan's bid for a non-permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council for 2017-2018. So far they and Thailand have announced their bids.[51][52][53]

Shanghai Cooperation OrganisationEdit

Kazakhstan is one of the original founding members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, known as the Shanghai Five. They formally began the organization on April 26, 1996 with the signing of the Treaty on Deepening Military Trust in Border Regions in Shanghai. Since then, Kazakhstan has become a very active member in global politics within the organization.

At the SCO Summit in Bishkek, Kyrygyzstan on September 20, 2013, Kazakhstan met with leaders to discuss many issues. One of the main issues discussed was the focus on regional stability for Afghanistan after the United States withdraws its troop. Kazakhstan also signed the Bishkek Declaration along with members and observers to find diplomatic solutions for Iran and Syria. On Syria, Kazakhstan wanted to help find a diplomatic solution that would not involve direct intervention due to the need of UN authorization. On Iran, Kazakhstan wanted to see a diplomatic solution between Iran and the P5+1 group for Iran to enrich uranium at levels for energy consumption.[54]

OverviewEdit

Foreign relations of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan has established diplomatic relations with 130 sovereign entities (including the Vatican City, Order of Malta and State of Palestine)[55] and the European Union.[56][57]

Kazakhstan has not yet established diplomatic relations with:

  • Andorra
  • Belize, Bahamas, Haiti, St.Kitts and Nevis, St.Lucia, St.Vincent and the Grenadines, Dominica, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Guyana, Suriname
  • Guatemala, El Salvador, Bolivia, Uruguay
  • Gambia, Mali, Burkina Faso, Benin, Togo, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, São Tomé and Príncipe, Gabon, DR Congo, South Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Seychelles, Comoros, Mauritius, Malawi, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, Botswana
  • Bhutan, Nepal
  • Timor-Leste, Palau, Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Kiribati, Tuvalu, Nauru, Samoa, Tonga, Cook Islands, Niue, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji, Papua New Guinea
  • the rest of states with limited recognition.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Kazakh Foreign Policy Concept for 2014 – 2020 and the Ukraine Crisi". Turkish Weekly. 
  2. ^ OSCE Summit 2010
  3. ^ "Foreign Policy Concept". Embassy of Kazakhstan in United States. 
  4. ^ a b c Kazakhstan - Transnational Issues CIA World Factbook
  5. ^ "Kazakhstan and China develop economic and politic al cooperation". www.inform.kz. 
  6. ^ a b c d Kazakhstan Narcotics Factsheet 2004 The Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program
  7. ^ 2004 Annual Report Transparency International
  8. ^ s". Central Asia: A Kyrgyz-Kazakh Step Towards Regional Union This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  9. ^ Kazakhstan, Armenia sign agreements to develop relations RIA Novosti
  10. ^ http://www.gulf-daily-news.com/NewsDetails.aspx?storyid=374924
  11. ^ Bahrain 'Key partner in the Arab world'
  12. ^ http://www.tradearabia.com/news/LAW_256132.html
  13. ^ a b About Kazakhstan–Israeli relations Embassy of Kazakhstan in Israel
  14. ^ Eglash, Ruth (November 6, 2006). "Kazakhs seek stronger ties with Israel". Jerusalem Post. 
  15. ^ Cooperation of the Republic of Kazakhstan with the Islamic Republic of Pakistan Kazakhstan Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  16. ^ Trade Development Authority of Pakistan
  17. ^ a b http://www.philstar.com/headlines/227525/kazakh-leader-arrives-state-visit
  18. ^ http://www.kazakhstan.com.ph/index.html
  19. ^ a b http://www.kazembassy.org.my/kaz_phi.htm
  20. ^ http://www.kazakhstan.com.ph/news.html
  21. ^ Brief introduction to relations between China and Kazakhstan China Daily
  22. ^ Yermukanov, Marat (2006-12-07). "Kazakhstan and Turkey spearhead the integration of Turkic nations". Eurasian Daily Monitor (Jamestown Foundation) 3 (226). Retrieved 2008-10-10. [dead link]
  23. ^ Kazakhstan Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  24. ^ European Union and Kazakhstan. European Commission: External Relations
  25. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Almaty
  26. ^ http://bnews.kz/en/news/post/186885/
  27. ^ http://www.bnews.kz/en/news/post/172155/
  28. ^ http://www.kazinform.kz/eng/article/2606884
  29. ^ Kazakh embassy in Vilnius (also accredited to Latvia)
  30. ^ Kazakh embassy in Vilnius
  31. ^ Lithuanian embassy in Astana (in Lithuanian and Russian only)
  32. ^ http://www.bnews.kz/en/news/post/183396/
  33. ^ http://www.inform.kz/eng/article/2592923
  34. ^ http://kazpravda.kz/eng/?p=1694
  35. ^ Switzerland confirms support of Kazakhstan's candidacy for OSCE chairmanship Gazeta. KZ
  36. ^ Switzerland considers opening embassy in Kazakhstan Gazeta. KZ
  37. ^ British OM to pay official visit to Kazakhstan http://bnews.kz/en/news/post/144416/
  38. ^ a b "Kazakhstan seeking "new perspectives" for cooperation with LatAm". Fox News Latino. 
  39. ^ "OAS Secretary General and Deputy Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan Met in the Context of the General Assembly". Organization of American States. 
  40. ^ a b c d e "Mexico, Kazakhstan seek to link Eurasia with Latin America". Fox News Latino. 
  41. ^ "Kazakh foreign minister makes historic visit to Mexico". Fox News Latino. 
  42. ^ http://www.santiagotimes.cl/world/chile-abroad/26786-chile-and-kazakhstan-sign-milestone-cooperation-agreements
  43. ^ http://en.trend.az/regions/casia/kazakhstan/2196364.html
  44. ^ Cheney, Visiting Kazakhstan, Wades Into Energy Battle New York Times
  45. ^ "Kazakhstan announces visa-free entry for investors from 10 nations". TengriNews. 
  46. ^ "International tourism, receipts (current US$) - Kazakhstan". World Bank. 
  47. ^ "The New Kazakhstan Visa Regime and Investment". Silk Road Reporters. 
  48. ^ Gast, Alice P. (9 March 2012). "From Cold War to Warm Relations". Science & Diplomacy. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  49. ^ http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/foreign-policy/271693-kazakhstans-appointment-to-unhcr
  50. ^ http://issuu.com/kazakhstan_mfa/docs/astana_calling_no_327
  51. ^ http://www.usnews.com/opinion/articles/2013/10/21/kazakhstan-is-a-serious-candidate-for-the-un-security-council?page=2
  52. ^ http://en.trend.az/regions/casia/kazakhstan/2194408.html
  53. ^ http://www.nationmultimedia.com/politics/Thailand-lobbies-for-position-on-UN-Security-Counc-30215627.html
  54. ^ http://mfa.gov.kz/en/#!/blog-of-the-minister/
  55. ^ 02-The list of countries established diplomatic relations with Republic of Kazakhstan
  56. ^ Foreign Mission in Kazakhstan
  57. ^ On 2 February 1993 the parties signed an agreement that set up diplomatic relations between the EU and Kazakhstan.

Further readingEdit

  • Bukkvoll, Tor (September 2004). "Astana's privatized independence: private and national interests in the foreign policy of Nursultan Nazarbayev". Nationalities Papers 32 (3): 631–650. doi:10.1080/0090599042000246424. 
  • Shiryayev, Boris (2008). Großmächte auf dem Weg zur neuen Konfrontation?. Das "Great Game" am Kaspischen Meer: eine Untersuchung der neuen Konfliktlage am Beispiel Kasachstan. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovac. ISBN 978-3-8300-3749-1. 

External linksEdit