|Map of European Parliament constituencies|
This article is part of a series on the
Elections to the European Parliament will be held in all member states of the European Union (EU) between 22 and 25 May 2014, as decided unanimously by the Council. It will be the eighth Europe-wide election to the European Parliament since the first direct elections in 1979.
Candidates for Commission presidentEdit
The Lisbon Treaty, which entered into force on 1 December 2009, provides that the European Parliament shall elect the European Commission president, head of the "EU Executive", on the basis of a proposal made by the European Council taking into account the European elections (article 17, paragraph 7 of the TEU). This provision will apply for the first time for the 2014 elections.
Basing on these new provisions, at least five European political parties have officially committed to designate their frontrunners and nominees for Commission president ahead of the 2014 election: the Party of European Socialists (PES), the European People's Party (EPP), the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (ALDE party), the European Green Party (EGP), and the Party of European Left (EL).
Nevertheless, major EU politicians such as European Council president Herman Van Rompuy, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, and former Commission president Jacques Delors question the aspiration of European political parties to link the presidency of the European Commission with the result of the European elections and insist that the future Commission president has to suit Member States expectations first.
European People's PartyEdit
The European People's Party will hold a special Congress on the 6 and 7 March 2014 in Dublin, during which its 2.000 delegates will select the party's candidate for Commission president and vote on the election manifesto.
However, views are differing within the EPP on the meaning and procedure of this designation. In 2012, the late EPP President Wilfried Martens committed the party to an "open, transparent and competitive process for selecting our presidential candidate". However, some of the party's prominent leaders still question the sense of having an EPP candidate for Commission president, including European Council president Herman Van Rompuy and German Chancellor Angela Merkel.
Internal negotiations are under way in order to determine the "profile" of the party's next top candidate, and prominent EPP leaders are taking sides.
- Possible candidates: José Manuel Durão Barroso, Donald Tusk, Valdis Dombrovskis, Viviane Reding
- Declared candidates: -
Party of European SocialistsEdit
- 1 October 2013: opening of nominations.
- 31 October 2013: close of nominations.
- 6 November 2013: PES Presidency meeting to check the candidacies and publish the official list of candidates.
- 1 December 2013 – 31 January 2014: internal selection process within each member Party or organisation.
- February 2014: PES Election Congress to ratify the votes on the candidate, adopt the Manifesto, and launch the PES European election campaign.
Following the defeat of the Party of European Socialists during the European elections of June 2009, the PES made the decision that PES would designate its candidate for Commission president in December 2009, which rapidly triggered debates about how to select this candidate. The PES Congress gathering in Brussels in November 2011 made the decision that it would select the PES candidate through internal primaries in each of its member parties and organisations. Member parties and organisations are free to determine their own voting process, including by opening it to non-members.
- Possible candidates: José Luis Zapatero, Margot Wallström, Helle Thorning Schmidt, Frans Timmermans, Borut Pahor, Sergei Stanishev, Wouter Bos, José Sócrates, Werner Faymann, Pascal Lamy.
- Declared candidates: Martin Schulz
- Qualified candidates: Martin Schulz
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe PartyEdit
The timetable of the Alliance for Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (ALDE) for designating its candidate for President of the European Commission is:
- 28–30 November: Nominations opens & Election Manifesto adopted at London Congress
- 19 December: Pre-Summit liberal leaders meeting to discuss nominations received
- 20 December: Nominations formally close
- 1 February: ALDE Party Candidate to be announced at special Electoral Congress, Brussels
In 2012, the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (ALDE) members were said to be "struggling" to find a candidate for Commission president ahead of the 2014 European elections. Verhofstadt was considered to be the likely nominee, but a meeting of the-then ELDR party held in Dublin from 8 to 10 November 2012 did not agree to formally nominate him yet; concerns voiced included the fact that it was considered unlikely that Verhofstadt would have a chance of getting elected as President of the European Commission, as Anders Fogh Rasmussen (the incumbent Secretary General of NATO) was expected to be appointed to the post of President of the European Council or High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy after the 2014 election, and two liberal politicians in the EU's top ranks were not expected to be considered acceptable. While a compromise position was reached (to nominate a candidate for Commission President "in time for the 2014 European Parliamentary election campaign"), the corresponding resolution was not passed due to disagreements on other points included in the resolution. The ALDE political party finally decided to discuss candidates at the party’s pre-summit meeting at the margins of the 19–20 December European Council.
- Possible candidates: Anders Fogh Rasmussen, Guy Verhofstadt, Olli Rehn
- Declared candidates: - Guy Verhofstadt, Olli Rehn
European Green PartyEdit
In July 2013 European Green Party (EGP) announced that it will run a first ever European-wide open online primary as the preparation for European elections in 2014. It will be open to all people living in the EU over the age of 16 who "support green values". They will finally elect two transnational candidates who will be the face of the common campaign of the European green parties united in the EGP. The candidates elected in the primary will run for the role of the European Commission president.
On 4 September 2013, the EGP issued a call for candidates and detailed the schedule of the Green Primary:
- September 4 – October 20: Call for Candidates
- October 21 – November 4: Supporting phase: Each EGP affiliated Party can express support for one candidate. Only candidates with the support of at least 4 and maximum of 8 affiliated Parties become contenders of the Primary.
- November 8–10: Launch of Primary (voting phase) at Autumn Council
- November 10 – January 28: Primary Debates
- January 28: End of voting phase
- January 29: Announcement of the results of the Primary, presentation of the leading candidates in a press conference.
- February 21 – 23: Presentation of leading candidates at Electoral Congress.
Party of the European LeftEdit
Meeting on 19 October 2013 in Madrid, the Council of chairpersons of the Party of the European Left (EL) decided to designate a common candidate for the president of the European Commission in order to prevent "the forces responsible for the crisis" to keep the monopoly during the electoral campaign. The Council reaffirmed however that this new measure "will not hide, as European leaders and the troika hope, their authoritarianism". The Council decided to submit to the decision of the next Congress, December 13-14-15 in Madrid, the candidacy of Alexis Tsipras, who "would be the voice of resistance and hope against the ultra-liberal policies and facing the threat of the extreme right". As Alexis Tsipras will therefore be the only candidate for the job, the Council has mandated the Presidency of the EL to consult all members and observers parties of the EL and the GUE/NGL group in the European parliament about this application.
Apportionment of seatsEdit
|A. Duff's 2nd prop.||European
|Germany||99||99||99||99||96||96||96||96||96||81 843 743|
|France||78||72||74||74||83||79||83||83||74||65 397 912|
|United Kingdom||78||72||73||73||80||76||79||80||73||62 989 550|
|Italy||78||72||73||73||78||75||78||78||73||60 820 764|
|Spain||54||50||54||54||61||58||61||61||54||46 196 276|
|Poland||54||50||51||51||51||51||51||51||51||38 538 447|
|Romania||35||33||33||33||31||31||31||31||32||21 355 849|
|Netherlands||27||25||26||26||25||25||25||25||26||16 730 348|
|Greece||24||22||22||22||19||20||19||19||21||11 290 935|
|Belgium||24||22||22||22||18||20||19||19||21||11 041 266|
|Portugal||24||22||22||22||18||20||18||18||21||10 541 840|
|Czech Republic||24||22||22||22||18||20||18||18||21||10 505 445|
|Hungary||24||22||22||22||17||20||18||17||21||9 957 731|
|Sweden||19||18||20||20||17||18||17||17||20||9 482 855|
|Austria||18||17||19||19||16||17||16||16||18||8 443 018|
|Bulgaria||18||17||18||18||15||16||14||14||17||7 327 224|
|Denmark||14||13||13||13||12||12||12||12||13||5 580 516|
|Slovakia||14||13||13||13||12||12||12||12||13||5 404 322|
|Finland||14||13||13||13||12||12||12||12||13||5 401 267|
|Ireland||13||12||12||12||11||11||11||11||11||4 582 769|
|Croatia||—||—||—||12||11||11||11||11||11||4 398 150|
|Lithuania||13||12||12||12||9||10||9||9||11||3 007 758|
|Slovenia||7||7||8||8||8||8||8||8||8||2 055 496|
|Latvia||9||8||9||9||8||8||8||8||8||2 041 763|
|Estonia||6||6||6||6||7||7||7||7||6||1 339 662|
The article 14 of the Treaty of Lisbon lays down that "The European Parliament shall be composed of representatives of the Union’s citizens. They shall not exceed seven hundred and fifty in number, plus the President. Representation of citizens shall be degressively proportional, with a minimum threshold of six members per Member State. No Member State shall be allocated more than ninety-six seats."
It had been the stated desire of the member-state governments to ratify the Treaty of Lisbon before the 2009 election so that its articles governing the European Parliament could enter force as of this election. However, this was blocked by the Irish rejection of the treaty in a referendum. Therefore, in June 2009, the European Parliament was elected under the rules of the Treaty of Nice, which foresaw 736 seats, instead of the 751 foreseen in the Treaty of Lisbon.
The Lisbon Treaty was subsequently ratified, and provisional measures were ratified in December 2011 to give the additional seats to the "increasing" countries already before the 2014 elections, without withdrawing the 3 extra-seats of Germany. These 18 additional MEPs brought the number of MEPs to 754 for a transitional period until 2014. These 18 "phantom MEPs" would first have an observer statute, before becoming full members of parliament if an additional protocol is ratified by 2014.
As a consequence, the 2014 election will be the first to apply the apportionment of seats foreseen in application of the Lisbon treaty.
However, the accession of Croatia that took place on 1 July 2013 forces the EU to review the distribution of seats within the European Parliament as the number of seats will reach 766 with this new member state, exceeding the ceiling of 751 seats laid down by article 14 of the Treaty on the European Union.
MEP Andrew Duff (ALDE, UK) tabled two reports in March 2011 and September 2012 proposing new aportionments of seats (see opposite table). Decisions on the aportionment of seats within the Parliament are governed by article 14 of the Treaty on the European Union establishing that "The European Council shall adopt by unanimity, on the initiative of the European Parliament and with its consent, a decision establishing the composition of the European Parliament", respecting the principle of degressive proportionality, the threshold of 6 MEPs for smaller member states and the limit of 96 MEPs of bigger member states.
EU electoral lawEdit
Since October 2008, MEP Andrew Duff (ALDE, UK) has advocated within the European Parliament for a reform of EU electoral law for the 2014 elections, including the creation of a single constituency of 25 seats in which each European citizen would be entitled to vote on the basis of pan-European lists. He has been nominated rapporteur, as the European Parliament has the right of initiative in this field ruled by unanimity in the Council.
After the 2009 election, Andrew Duff proposed a new version of his report, which was adopted by the parliamentary Committee on Constitutional Affairs (AFCO) in April 2011. However, the plenary session of the Parliament referred the report back to the AFCO committee in July 2011. A third version of the report  was published in September 2011 and adopted by the AFCO committee in January 2012, but was withdrawn before being discussed in plenary in March 2012 for fear that it would likely be turned down.
Each Member State has different rules determining who can vote for and run as the European Parliamentary candidates.
Every EU citizen residing in an EU country of which he/she is not a national has the right to vote and to stand as a candidate in European Parliamentary elections in his/her country of residence, under the same conditions as nationals of that country - this right is enshrined in Article 39 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. In addition, the right to vote is included in Articles 20(1) and 22(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
It is therefore possible for a person to have the choice of voting in more than one EU member state. For example, a Portuguese citizen who studies at university in France and lives at home outside term-time in the family home in the United Kingdom has the option of voting in the European Parliamentary election in France, Portugal or the United Kingdom. In this scenario, although the Portuguese citizen qualifies to vote in three EU member states, he/she is only permitted to cast one vote in one of the member states.
|Member state||Eligible voters||Eligible candidates|
- COUNCIL DECISION 2013/299/EU, Euratom of 14 June 2013 fixing the period for the eighth election of representatives to the European Parliament by direct universal suffrage, published on 21 June 2013 by the Official Journal of the European Union, L 169/69
- Resolution n°2 "A New Way Forward, A Stronger PES" Adopted by the 8th PES Congress in Prague, 7–8 December 2009
- Resolution n°2 "A democratic and transparent process for designating the PES - candidate for the European Commission Presidency" adopted by the PES Council in Warsaw on 2 December 2010
- Resolution "Selecting our common candidate in 2014" adopted by the PES Council on 24 November 2011
- "Political parties must nominate European Commission president", Public Service Europe, 1 October 2012
- European liberal leader spells out concerns for 2014 elections, Euractiv.com, 8 May 2013
- "European Greens announce innovative and ambitious plans for an open online primary", Press release, European Green Party, 12 May 2013
- European elections: concerning the submission of an EL candidacy for the presidency of the European Commission, EL Website, 19 October 2013
- Euractiv.com Van Rompuy scorns direct election of Commission president 14 October 2013
- EUobserver Merkel: EU vote not decisive on commission President 25.10.13
- Euractiv.fr, Jacques Delors verrait bien Pascal Lamy à la tête de la Commission, 15 October 2013
- The European Citizen,Primaries Update #2: ALDE and EPP 20 October 2013
- EPP to draw 'profile' of next EU Commission President, Euractiv, 12 October 2012
- Euractiv, Reding calls for Barroso third term, 4 September 2012
- Reding calls for Barroso third term, Actmedia, September 5, 2012
- Toomas Hõbemägi (2012-10-22). "bbn.ee - PM: Latvia on track to join euro in 2014". Balticbusinessnews.com. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
- "Race for next Commission president begins". euractiv.com. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- PES website PES opens nominations for ‘Common Candidate’ selection for next year’s European elections 01/10/2013
- See for example the contribution by Dr. Ania Skrzypek, FEPS Policy Advisor Models of (s)electing a pan-European Leading candidate[dead link] 24 June 2010
- PES Resolution Selecting our common candidate in 2014, adopted by the PES Council on 24 November 2011
- PES candidates for Commission President, Jon Worth's blog
- PES Council in Bulgaria: Martin Schultz to be PES candidate for EC President
- S&D Group website S&D Group endorses Martin Schulz's application as PES candidate for Commission president, October 10th, 2013
- "Martin Schulz a déjà rempli la condition requise en obtenant le soutien de plus de six partis ou organisations membres du PSE, dont celui du PS français", in Les Echos, UE : Schulz plus que jamais favori à gauche pour la Commission, 10 October 2013
- ALDE Party ALDE Party candidate for Commission President to be announced 1 February, 14/10/2013
- Verhofstadt to be left out of the race for Barroso successor, Euractiv, 12 November 2012
- Barroso: I proposed putting a 'face' on EU elections, Euractiv, 13 September 2013
- By : david Bennett (2013-08-21). "Olli Rehn throws hat into ring for Commission president's job". EurActiv. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
- EGP announce innovative common campaign for European Elections  on July 11, 2013
- EGP primary infographic
- Green European party leaders move elections campaign forward - call for candidates is on, European Green Party, 4 September 2013
- European greens
- SYRIZA warns of "bail out number 4" To Bhma. Retrieved 11 June 2013
- Riunione dei Presidenti e dei Segretari dei partiti della Sinistra Europea. Rifondazione Comunista. Retrieved 10 June 2013
- The Austrian-born former body builder, 63, at loose ends as he tries to figure out what his next act should be, reportedly is being advised by aides to return to his native Europe to run for the EU presidency.
- Amendments to the protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the EU treaties ratified on 1 December 2011, according to the European Parliament Press release on the ratification of Parliament's 18 additional MEPs, 1 December 2011
- Accession of Croatia to the EU in compliance with the Treaty concerning the accession of the Republic of Croatia signed on 9 December 2011
- First proposal by Member of European Parliament Andrew Duff in his draft report entitled Proposal for a modification of the Act concerning the election of the Members of the European Parliament by direct universal suffrage of 20 September 1976, published on 4 November 2010
- Report of the European Parliament staff, The allocation between the EU member states of seats in the European Parliament - Cambridge Compromise March 2011
- Euractiv, Countries set to lose MEPs as their population shrinks, 11 September 2012
- Official Journal of the European Union, 2013/312/EU: European Council Decision of 28 June 2013 establishing the composition of the European Parliament, 28 June 2013
- Eurostat, as of 1 January 2012
- Europa.eu, EP Press Release 16/12/08
- Waterfield, Bruno (2009-05-22). "Eighteen 'phantom' MEPs will do no work for two years". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
- "MaltaMedia.com". Maltamediaonline.com. 2009-06-10. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- Euractiv, MEP: 'Radical' electoral reform 'badly needed' for 2014 13 October 2008
- Europolitics, Célia Sampol, European elections: Andrew Duff proposes creation of transnational list 26 April 2010
- Legislative observatory of the European Parliament, Procedure files on the Proposal for a modification of the Act concerning the election of the Members of the European Parliament by direct universal suffrage of 20 September 1976
- BM.I - Wahlen - Europawahlen
- Les conditions d'électorat pour les différentes élections - Elections européennes et régionales 2009
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- ELECTION CODE Promulgated, State Gazette No. 9/28.01.2011
- The Bulgarian Election Code, (2011), as amended by Act to Amend and Supplement the Election Code (2011)
- Act to Amend and Supplement the Election Code (2011)
- Republic of Croatia European Parliamentary Elections Act, Article 4 (Zakon o izborima zastupnika iz RH u Europski parlament, Članak 4)
- Republic of Croatia European Parliamentary Elections Act, Article 5 (Zakon o izborima zastupnika iz RH u Europski parlament, Članak 5)
- Information for citizens of other EU member states on voting in the European Parliament elections in the Czech Republic - Ministry of the interior of the Czech Republic
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- Right to vote
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- Service-Public.fr (Élections : Français domicilié à l'étranger)
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- Ministry of Interior - General Information
- Ministry of Interior - Information for Greek residents abroad
- Hellenic Republic Ministry of the Interior: EU Citizens
- Citizens Information: Registering to vote
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