Last modified on 1 October 2014, at 22:19

Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos

Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos
El Nacional, El Coloso de Ñuñoa
Estadio Nacional de Chile - vista desde Av. Grecia.jpg
Former names Estadio Nacional
Location Av. Grecia 2001, Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile
Coordinates 33°27′52″S 70°36′38″W / 33.46444°S 70.61056°W / -33.46444; -70.61056
Owner Municipality of Ñuñoa
Operator Chiledeportes
Capacity 48,665 (50.000+ in concerts)
Record attendance 85,268 (Universidad de Chile-Universidad Católica, 29 December 1962)
Field size 105 m x 68 m
Surface Grass
Construction
Broke ground February 1937
Opened December 3, 1938
Renovated 2009-2010
Expanded 1962
Construction cost $18,000,000
Architect Karl Brunner
Tenants
Chile national football team
Universidad de Chile

The Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos is the national stadium of Chile, and is located in the Ñuñoa district of Santiago). It is the largest stadium in Chile with an official capacity of 47,000. It is part of a 62 hectare sporting complex which also features tennis courts, an aquatics center, a modern gymnasium, a velodrome, a BMX circuit, and an assistant ground/warmup athletics track.

Construction began in February 1937 and the stadium was inaugurated on December 3, 1938. The architecture was based on the Olympiastadion in Berlin, Germany. The stadium was one of the venues for the FIFA World Cup in 1962, and hosted the final where Brazil defeated Czechoslovakia 3-1. It was later used as a prison camp by the military regime following the 1973 Chilean coup d'état.

In 2009, a complete modernization plan was unveiled for the stadium and surrounding facilities. President Michelle Bachelet said it would become the most modern stadium in South America.[1]

180° Panorama Estadio Nacional Santiago Chile.jpg

HistoryEdit

The stadium was built on former farmland, donated in 1918 by farmer Jose Domingo Canas. The first sporting event in the new stadium took place on 3 December 1938, with a friendly match between the Chilean club Colo-Colo and Brazilian club São Cristóvão. Colo-Colo won the fixture 6-3.

The stadium hosted the final stages of the 1959 World Basketball Championship that was held outdoors due to the intended venue, the Metropolitan Indoor Stadium, not ready in time for the original date of 1958.

In the early 1960s, under the government of Jorge Alessandri, the stadium was expanded to host the 1962 FIFA World Cup. The main change was that the velodrome that surrounded the stadium was replaced by galleries, thereby increasing its original capacity to around 95,000.

The stadium hosted group stage games between Italy, West Germany, Switzerland and Chile, including a notoriously ill-tempered and violent clash between Italy and Chile which became known as the Battle of Santiago. Also held at the ground were a quarter-final, a semi-final, the third place play-off, and the final, in which Brazil were crowned world champions for the second time. In the third-place play-off, Chile defeated Yugoslavia 1-0, marking the team's greatest success in international football.

Today, the ground serves as the home field for both the national team and first-division club Universidad de Chile. It also hosts non-sporting events, such as political celebrations, charity events and concerts.

In the Telethon since 1995, the stadium is used as the final leg of the 28-hour telecast. The stadium can hold 100,000 people for this amazing occasion with the Jumbotron showing the required amount to reach the goal and its current total.

On July 5, 2008, the stadium was officially renamed Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos, in honor of a recently deceased sports journalist.[2]

Use as a Detention CenterEdit

Estadio Nacional de Chile after the 1973 Chilean coup d'etat.

After the coup d'état of September 11, 1973 that ousted President Salvador Allende, the stadium began to be used as a detention facility. An article in Harvard Review of Latin America reported that "there were over eighty detention centers in Santiago alone" and gave details of the National Stadium and others.[3]

Over 40,000 people spent time in the compound during the junta regime. Twelve thousand detainees were interned between September 11 and November 7.[4] The field and gallery were used to hold men, while women were held in the swimming pool changing rooms and associated buildings. Locker rooms and corridors were all used as prison facilities while interrogations were carried out in the velodrome.[5] The Red Cross estimated that 7,000 prisoners occupied the stadium at one point, of whom about 300 were foreigners. According to the testimonies of survivors collected by the humanitarian group, detainees were tortured and threatened with death by shooting. Some were shot on the premises and then taken to unknown locations for execution.

FIFA President Sir Stanley Rous insisted the USSR team play a World Cup qualifier at the time. They however refused to do so and Chile qualified automatically for the 1974 World Cup, where they failed to advance from a group containing both West and the East Germany as well as Australia.

The use of the stadium during the coup d'état is depicted in the 2002 documentary film Estadio Nacional, directed and produced by Carmen Luz Parot. The 1982 film Missing by Greek filmmaker Costa-Gavras depicts the September 11, 1973 coup d'état and execution of American journalists Charles Horman and Frank Teruggi at the Estadio Nacional de Chile.

2009 - 2010 renovationEdit

On June 15, 2009, President Michelle Bachelet announced several infrastructure improvements in order to modernize the stadium and its immediate facilities. Out of the total 24 billion pesos (US$42.3 million) contemplated in the plan, 20 billion pesos (US$35.3 million) are destined to bring the stadium up to modern standards. The changes include, a roof covering all the seats, which will also provide illumination; installation of seats around the entire stadium, lowering the current capacity to 47,000; a new state-of-the-art scoreboard; a 2.5 m deep 2 m wide pit will separate the track and the spectators to replace the fence; and several other changes. Because the stadium is a national monument the façade will remain the same, with the roof structure placed on top, without modifying the exterior. The stadium was closed on August 15, 2009. The stadium was scheduled to be reinaugurated in March 2010 to stage a double friendly match between Chile and North Korea and Panama, but the works were not finished on time. The construction of the roof has since been postponed by the government of President Sebastián Piñera due to financial constraints brought about by the February 27, 2010 earthquake. Although the stadium suffered minor damage from the earthquake, it partially opened to host the match between C.F. Universidad de Chile and C.D. Guadalajara for Copa Libertadores 2010. It was officially re-inaugurated on September 12, 2010, during Chile's bicentennial festivities.

2014 South American Games renovationEdit

On September 12, 2010, during the Chilean bicentennial festivities, President Sebastián Piñera announced that the capacity of the stadium will be increased so as to reach 70,000 seats for the 2014 South American Games that will take place in Santiago.[6] The works are expected to begin in 2012.[7]

On June 3, 2011 further renovation plans were announced by the government. The complete area surrounding the stadium will be turned into a park to be called "Citizenry Park" (Parque de la Ciudadanía). Over 70% of the new 64 hectare park will consist of green areas, and the rest will include new infrastructure such as a lagoon or restaurants. The new park is expected to be ready for the 2014 games. New sporting venues will be built for the 2014 games, such as two modern gymnasiums, a new heated pool for synchronized swimming, a renovated velodrome and an expanded CAR, which will also serve as residence of the future Ministry of Sports. The only venues that will remain are the stadium, the main tennis court, the velodrome, the CAR, the athletics track, the skating track, the hockey field and the caracolas.[8]

AttendancesEdit

The highest attendance for a match at Estadio Nacional to date is 85,268, for a Primera Division match played on December 29, 1962; Universidad de Chile defeated Universidad Catolica 4-1.[citation needed]

ConcertsEdit

The stadium hosts many international concerts during the year. Rod Stewart was the first international artist to perform at the stadium. The concert brought more than 75,000 fans to the venue and was broadcast throughout the country. After that, the city started being included in many tours from international artists. Other major performances include :

The view of the stadium during Madonna´s concert in 2008.
Band/Artist Tour Year Date
Rod Stewart Out of Order Tour 1989 March 7
Cindy Lauper A Night to Remember World Tour 1989 November 10
Bon Jovi New Jersey Syndicate Tour 1990 February 6
Guns & Roses Use Your Illusion Tour 1992 December 2
Metallica Nowhere Else to Roam 1993 May 4
Michael Jackson Dangerous World Tour 1993 October 23
Bon Jovi I'll Sleep When I'm Dead Tour 1993 November 10
Paul McCartney The New World Tour 1993 December 16
Depeche Mode Exotic Tour/Summer Tour '94 1994 April 10
The Rolling Stones Voodoo Lounge Tour 1995 February 19
Elton John Made in England Tour 1995 November 7
AC/DC Ballbreaker World Tour 1996 October 22
Luis Miguel Tour America 1996 1996 November 30
David Bowie Earthling Tour 1997 November 7
U2 PopMart Tour 1998 February 11
Shakira Tour Anfibio 2000 March 29
Roger Waters In the Flesh Tour 2002 March 2
Luis Miguel Mis Romances Tour 2002 November 16
Shakira Tour of the Mongoose 2003 March 8
U2 Vertigo Tour 2006 February 26
Robbie Williams Close Encounters Tour 2006 October 10
Shakira Oral Fixation Tour 2006 November 22
Roger Waters The Dark Side of the Moon Live 2007 March 14
Soda Stereo Me Verás Volver 2007 October 24 & 31
Madonna Sticky & Sweet Tour 2008 December 10 & 11
Bon Jovi The Circle Tour 2010 October 1
Rush Time Machine Tour 2010 October 17
Shakira The Sun Comes Out World Tour 2011 March 11
U2 U2 360° Tour 2011 March 25
Iron Maiden The Final Frontier World Tour 2011 April 10
Miley Cyrus Gypsy Heart Tour 2011 May 4
Paul McCartney Up and Coming Tour 2011 May 11
Justin Bieber My World Tour 2011 October 15
Britney Spears Femme Fatale Tour 2011 November 22[9]
Roger Waters The Wall Live 2012 March 2 & 3
Lady Gaga The Born This Way Ball 2012 November 20[10]
Madonna The MDNA Tour 2012 December 19
The Cure Latin America 2013 Tour 2013 April 14
Iron Maiden Maiden England World Tour 2013 October 2
Justin Bieber Believe Tour 2013 November 12
One Direction Where We Are Tour 2014 April 30 & May 1
  • Queen concerts, scheduled for the 24 and 25 January 1985, were cancelled directly by the dictator Augusto Pinochet. This was the second time they were to perform in the country.
  • A Michael Jackson concert on 23 October 1993, during his Dangerous World Tour, received an attendance of 80,000 people. He was also set to perform on October 25 but the show was cancelled due to tour restructuring.[11]
  • 77,765 people attended U2's concert on 25 March 2011, part of their U2 360° Tour.[12]
  • Madonna performed two sold-out dates of her Sticky & Sweet Tour on December 10–11, 2008, it was the first time that the singer performed in Chile, obtaining 146,242 spectators altogether.
  • During The Final Frontier World Tour, Iron Maiden performed to an audience of over 50,000 at the stadium on 10 April 2011.[13] The show was recorded and released on CD, LP, DVD and Blu-ray as En Vivo! in March 2012.[14]
  • Miley Cyrus's concert on 4 May 2011 sold out, with 65,000 tickets sold. Playing for the first time in Chile on her Gypsy Heart Tour, Cyrus became the second female artist, after Madonna, who sold out the stadium.

CapacityEdit

The stadium was built with an original capacity of 48,000 spectators in 1937. At the time was called "white elephant" because it was thought could never be filled. The term white elephant also referred to the charges of corruption against the administration of Arturo Alessandri, which oversaw the stadium's costly construction.[15]

For the 1962 FIFA World Cup its capacity was expanded to comfortably seat 74,000 people may go to more than 80,000 people, for it eliminated the cycling track that was moved to another location. Over the years, visits were reduced in order to keep escape routes clear and prevent accidents.

For the 2000 World Junior Championships in Athletics, the installation of individual seats was required, which reduced its capacity to 66,000 spectators. This requirement ensured that the stadium could not exceed capacity, as seen with the visit of Pope John Paul II in 1987 (believed to be attended by more than 90,000 people, though no accurate measurement could be taken as attendance was free, with no control), or the closing of the Telethon. The official capacity of the stadium as of 2014 is 48,665.[16]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Estadio Nacional costará US$ 42 millones y la "Roja" se va al Monumental". La Tercera (in Spanish). 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  2. ^ "Publicada Ley que denomina Julio Martínez al Estadio Nacional de Santiago — Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile" (in Spanish). Bcn.cl. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 
  3. ^ "Harvard Review of Latin America: Chile's National Stadium, with details on several detention centers". Drclas.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 
  4. ^ ":: Chile Audio Visual ::". Consejodelacultura.cl. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 
  5. ^ Carmen Luz Parot, 2002, Estadio Nacional. Documental (National Stadium Documentary). Produced by Sello Alerce, Chile, 2002.
  6. ^ "La Tercera Edición Impresa". Diario.latercera.com. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 
  7. ^ "La Tercera Edición Impresa". Diario.latercera.com. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 
  8. ^ "Parque del Estadio Nacional tendrá una laguna, restaurantes y cafés | Santiago | La Tercera Edición Impresa". Diario.latercera.com. 1990-01-01. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 
  9. ^ http://diario.latercera.com/2011/11/23/01/contenido/cultura-entretencion/30-91499-9-playback-fervor-y-efectos-visuales-marcan-debut-de-britney-spears-en-chile.shtml
  10. ^ http://www.freezepage.com/1357154753HCLSPXVDMW
  11. ^ Campbell, Lisa D. (1994-09-01). Michael Jackson - The King of Pop: His Darkest Hour. Branden Books. 
  12. ^ "Hot Tours: U2, Elton John, Rod Stewart & Stevie Nicks". Billboard.com. 2009-09-14. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 
  13. ^ "Iron Maiden En Chile, 60.000 aficionados disfrutaron del espectáculo". Retrieved 2012-04-22. 
  14. ^ "Iron Maiden To Release 'En Vivo!' Concert Blu-Ray, Two-DVD Set And Double Soundtrack Album". Retrieved 2012-01-17. 
  15. ^ Brenda Elsey, Citizens and Sportsmen: Futbol and Politics in Twentieth Century Chile (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2011)
  16. ^ http://www.stadiumguide.com/nacionaldechile/

External linksEdit

Preceded by
Estadio Nacional
Lima
South American Championship
Finals Venue

1941
Succeeded by
Centenario Stadium
Montevideo
Preceded by
Ginásio do Maracanãzinho
Rio de Janeiro
FIBA World Championship
Final Venue

1959
Succeeded by
Ginásio do Maracanãzinho
Rio de Janeiro
Preceded by
Råsunda Stadium
Stockholm
FIFA World Cup
Final Venue

1962
Succeeded by
Wembley Stadium
London
Preceded by
Estádio do Maracanã
Rio de Janeiro
Copa América
Final Round Matches

1991
Succeeded by
Estadio Monumental Isidro Romero Carbo
Guayaquil
Preceded by
Kungliga Tennishallen
Stockholm
Davis Cup
Final Venue

1976
Succeeded by
White City Stadium
Sydney

Coordinates: 33°27′52″S 70°36′38″W / 33.46444°S 70.61056°W / -33.46444; -70.61056