Climate change has brought about severe and possibly permanent alterations to our planet’s geological, biological and ecological systems. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) contended in 2003 that “there is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities”. These changes have led to the emergence of large-scale environmental hazards to human health, such as extreme weather, ozone depletion, increased danger of wildland fires, loss of biodiversity, stresses to food-producing systems and the global spread of infectious diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 160,000 deaths, since 1950, are directly attributable to climate change. Many believe[weasel words] this to be a conservative estimate.
To date, a neglected aspect of the climate change debate, much less research has been conducted on the impacts of climate change on health, food supply, economic growth, migration, security, societal change, and public goods, such as drinking water, than on the geophysical changes related to global warming. Human impacts can be both negative and positive. Climatic changes in Siberia, for instance, are expected to improve food production and local economic activity, at least in the short to medium term. Numerous studies suggest, however, that the current and future impacts of climate change on human society are and will continue to be overwhelmingly negative.
The majority of the adverse effects of climate change are experienced by poor and low-income communities around the world, who have much higher levels of vulnerability to environmental determinants of health, wealth and other factors, and much lower levels of capacity available for coping with environmental change. A report on the global human impact of climate change published by the Global Humanitarian Forum in 2009, estimated more than 300,000 deaths and about $125 billion in economic losses each year, and indicating that most climate change induced mortality is due to worsening floods and droughts in developing countries. This also raises questions of climate justice, since the 50 least developed countries of the world account for not more than 1% of worldwide emissions of greenhouse gases.
Most of the key vulnerabilities to climate change are related to climate phenomena that exceed thresholds for adaptation; such as extreme weather events or abrupt climate change, as well as limited access to resources (financial, technical, human, institutional) to cope. In 2007, the IPCC published a report of key vulnerabilities of industry, settlements, and society to climate change. This assessment included a level of confidence for each key vulnerability:
- Very high confidence: Interactions between climate change and urbanization: this is most notable in developing countries, where urbanization is often focused in vulnerable coastal areas.
- High confidence:
- Interactions between climate change and global economic growth: Stresses due to climate change are not only linked to the impacts of climate change, but also to the impacts of climate change policies. For example, these policies might affect development paths by requiring high cost fuel choices.
- Fixed physical infrastructures that are important in meeting human needs: These include infrastructures that are susceptible to damage from extreme weather events or sea level rise, and infrastructures that are already close to being inadequate.
- Medium confidence: Interactions with governmental and social cultural structures that already face other pressures, e.g., limited economic resources.
||It has been suggested that this article be merged into Effects of global warming on human health. (Discuss) Proposed since January 2013.|
Climate change poses a wide range of risks to population health - risks that will increase in future decades, often to critical levels, if global climate change continues on its current trajectory. The three main categories of health risks include: (i) direct-acting effects (e.g. due to heat waves, amplified air pollution, and physical weather disasters), (ii) impacts mediated via climate-related changes in ecological systems and relationships (e.g. crop yields, mosquito ecology, marine productivity), and (iii) the more diffuse (indirect) consequences relating to impoverishment, displacement, resource conflicts (e.g. water), and post-disaster mental health problems.
Climate change thus threatens to slow, halt or reverse international progress towards reducing child under-nutrition, deaths from diarrheal diseases and the spread of other infectious diseases. Climate change acts predominantly by exacerbating the existing, often enormous, health problems, especially in the poorer parts of the world. Current variations in weather conditions already have many adverse impacts on the health of poor people in developing nations, and these too are likely to be 'multiplied' by the added stresses of climate change.
A changing climate thus affects the prerequisites of population health: clean air and water, sufficient food, natural constraints on infectious disease agents, and the adequacy and security of shelter. A warmer and more variable climate leads to higher levels of some air pollutants and more frequent extreme weather events. It increases the rates and ranges of transmission of infectious diseases through unclean water and contaminated food, and by affecting vector organisms (such as mosquitoes) and intermediate or reservoir host species that harbour the infectious agent (such as cattle, bats and rodents). Changes in temperature, rainfall and seasonality compromise agricultural production in many regions, including some of the least developed countries, thus jeopardising child health and growth and the overall health and functional capacity of adults. As warming proceeds, the severity (and perhaps frequency) of weather-related disasters will increase - and appears to have done so in a number of regions of the world over the past several decades. Therefore, in summary, global warming, together with resultant changes in food and water supplies, can indirectly cause increases in a range of adverse health outcomes, including malnutrition, diarrhea, injuries, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and water-borne and insect-transmitted diseases.
Health equity and climate change have a major impact on human health and quality of life, and are interlinked in a number of ways. The report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health points out that disadvantaged communities are likely to shoulder a disproportionate share of the burden of climate change because of their increased exposure and vulnerability to health threats. Over 90 percent of malaria and diarrhea deaths are borne by children aged 5 years or younger, mostly in developing countries. Other severely affected population groups include women, the elderly and people living in small island developing states and other coastal regions, mega-cities or mountainous areas.
- Direct - "Acute or traumatic effects of extreme weather events and a changed environment"
- Indirect - "Threats to emotional well-being based on observation of impacts and concern or uncertainty about future risks"
- Psychosocial - "Chronic social and community effects of heat, drought, migrations, and climate-related conﬂicts, and postdisaster adjustment"
Extreme weather eventsEdit
El Nino can lead to drastic, though temporary, changes in the environment such as temperature fluctuations and flash floods. In addition, with global warming, there has been a marked trend towards more variable and anomalous weather. This has led to an increase in the number and severity of extreme weather events. This trend towards more variability and fluctuation is perhaps more important, in terms of its impact on human health, than that of a gradual and long-term trend towards higher average temperature. Infectious disease often accompanies extreme weather events, such as floods, earthquakes and drought. These local epidemics occur due to loss of infrastructure, such as hospitals and sanitation services, but also because of changes in local ecology and environment. For example, malaria outbreaks have been strongly associated with the El Nino cycles of a number of countries (India and Venezuela, for example).
Climate change can lead to dramatic increases in prevalence of a variety of infectious diseases. Beginning in the mid-'70s, there has been an “emergence, resurgence and redistribution of infectious diseases”. Reasons for this are likely multicausal, dependent on a variety of social, environmental and climatic factors, however, many argue that the “volatility of infectious disease may be one of the earliest biological expressions of climate instability”. Though many infectious diseases are affected by changes in climate, vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, dengue fever and leishmaniasis, present the strongest causal relationship. Observation and research detect a shift of pests and pathogens in the distribution away from the equator and towards Earth's poles. It is estimated that one-fourth of the world’s diseases are because of the environmentally based contamination of air, water, soil, and food, it increases in temperatures and the resulting consequences have led to loss of life and decreased well-being of hundreds of thousands of people worldwide.[unreliable source?]
Increased precipitation can increase mosquito population indirectly by expanding larval habitat and food supply. Malaria kills approximately 300,000 children annually, poses an imminent threat through temperature increase. Models suggest, conservatively, that risk of malaria will increase 5-15% by 2100 due to climate change. In Africa alone, according to the MARA Project (Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa), there is a projected increase of 16-28% in person-month exposures to malaria by 2100.
Sociodemographic factors include, but are not limited to: patterns of human migration and travel, effectiveness of public health and medical infrastructure in controlling and treating disease, the extent of anti-malarial drug resistance and the underlying health status of the population at hand. Environmental factors include: changes in land-use (e.g. deforestation), expansion of agricultural and water development projects (which tend to increase mosquito breeding habitat), and the overall trend towards urbanization (i.e. increased concentration of human hosts). Patz and Olson argue that these changes in landscape can alter local weather more than long term climate change. For example, the deforestation and cultivation of natural swamps in the African highlands has created conditions favourable for the survival of mosquito larvae, and has, in part, led to the increasing incidence of malaria. The effects of these non-climatic factors complicate things and make a direct causal relationship between climate change and malaria difficult to confirm. It is highly unlikely that climate exerts an isolated effect.
A sustained wet-bulb temperature exceeding 35°, is a threshold at which the resilience of human systems is no longer able to adequately cool the skin. A study by NOAA from 2013 concluded that heat stress will reduce labor capacity considerably under current emissions scenarios.
The freshwater resources that humans rely on are highly sensitive to variations in weather and climate. In 2007, the IPCC reported with high confidence that climate change has a net negative impact on water resources and freshwater ecosystems in all regions. The IPCC also found with very high confidence that arid and semi-arid areas are particularly exposed to freshwater impacts.
As the climate warms, it changes the nature of global rainfall, evaporation, snow, stream flow and other factors that affect water supply and quality. Specific impacts include:
- Warmer water temperatures affect water quality and accelerate water pollution.
- Sea level rise is projected to increase salt-water intrusion into groundwater in some regions. This reduces the amount of freshwater available for drinking and farming.
- In some areas, shrinking glaciers and snow deposits threaten the water supply. Areas that depend on melted water runoff will likely see that runoff depleted, with less flow in the late summer and spring peaks occurring earlier. This can affect the ability to irrigate crops. (This situation is particularly acute for irrigation in South America, for irrigation and drinking supplies in central Asia, and for hydropower in Norway, the Alps, and the Pacific Northwest of North America.)
- Increased extreme weather means more water falls on hardened ground unable to absorb it, leading to flash floods instead of a replenishment of soil moisture or groundwater levels.
- Increased evaporation will reduce the effectiveness of reservoirs.
- At the same time, human demand for water will grow for the purposes of cooling and hydration.
Displacement and migrationEdit
Climate change causes displacement of people in several ways, the most obvious—and dramatic—being through the increased number and severity of weather-related disasters which destroy homes and habitats causing people to seek shelter or livelihoods elsewhere. Effects of climate change such as desertification and rising sea levels gradually erode livelihoods and force communities to abandon traditional homelands for more accommodating environments. This is currently happening in areas of Africa’s Sahel, the semi-arid belt that spans the continent just below its northern deserts. Deteriorating environments triggered by climate change can also lead to increased conflict over resources which in turn can displace people.
The IPCC has estimated that 150 million environmental migrants will exist by the year 2050, due mainly to the effects of coastal flooding, shoreline erosion and agricultural disruption. However, the IPCC also cautions that it is extremely difficult to measure the extent of environmental migration due to the complexity of the issue and a lack of data.
According to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, more than 42 million people were displaced in Asia and the Pacific during 2010 and 2011, more than twice the population of Sri Lanka. This figure includes those displaced by storms, floods, and heat and cold waves. Still others were displaced drought and sea-level rise. Most of those compelled to leave their homes eventually returned when conditions improved, but an undetermined number became migrants, usually within their country, but also across national borders.
Asia and the Pacific is the global area most prone to natural disasters, both in terms of the absolute number of disasters and of populations affected. It is highly exposed to climate impacts, and is home to highly vulnerable population groups, who are disproportionately poor and marginalized. A recent Asian Development Bank report highlights “environmental hot spots” that are particular risk of flooding, cyclones, typhoons, and water stress.
Some Pacific Ocean island nations, such as Tuvalu, Kiribati, and the Maldives, are considering the eventual possibility of evacuation, as flood defense may become economically unrealistic. Tuvalu already has an ad hoc agreement with New Zealand to allow phased relocation.
Governments have considered various approaches to reduce migration compelled by environmental conditions in at-risk communities, including programs of social protection, livelihoods development, basic urban infrastructure development, and disaster risk management. Some experts even support migration as an appropriate way for people to cope with environmental changes. However, this is controversial because migrants – particularly low-skilled ones – are among the most vulnerable people in society and are often denied basic protections and access to services.
Climate change is only one factor that may contribute to a household's decision to migrate; other factors may include poverty, population growth or employment options. For this reason, it is difficult to classify environmental migrants as actual "refugees" as legally defined by the UNHCR. Neither the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change nor its Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement on climate change, includes any provisions concerning specific assistance or protection for those who will be directly affected by climate change.
In small islands and megadeltas, inundation as a result of sea level rise is expected to threaten vital infrastructure and human settlements. This could lead to issues of statelessness for populations in countries such as the Maldives and Tuvalu and homelessness in countries with low lying areas such as Bangladesh.
Climate change has the potential to exacerbate existing tensions or create new ones — serving as a threat multiplier. It can be a catalyst for violent conflict and a threat to international security. The IPCC has suggested that the disruption of environmental migration may serve to exacerbate conflicts, though they are less confident of the role of increased resource scarcity. Of course, climate change does not always lead to violence, and conflicts are often caused by multiple interconnected factors.
A variety of experts have warned that climate change may lead to increased conflict. The Military Advisory Board, a panel of retired U.S. generals and admirals, predicted that global warming will serve as a "threat multiplier" in already volatile regions. The Center for Strategic and International Studies and the Center for a New American Security, two Washington think tanks, have reported that flooding "has the potential to challenge regional and even national identities," leading to "armed conflict over resources." They indicate that the greatest threat would come from "large-scale migrations of people — both inside nations and across existing national borders." However, other researchers have been more skeptical: One study found no statistically meaningful relationship between climate and conflict using data from Europe between the years 1000 and 2000.
The link between climate change and security is a concern for authorities across the world, including United Nations Security Council and the G77 group of developing nations. Climate change's impact as a security threat is expected to hit developing nations particularly hard. In Britain, Foreign Secretary Margaret Beckett has argued that "An unstable climate will exacerbate some of the core drivers of conflict, such as migratory pressures and competition for resources." The links between the human impact of climate change and the threat of violence and armed conflict are particularly important because multiple destabilizing conditions are affected simultaneously.
Experts have suggested links to climate change in several major conflicts:
- War in Darfur, where sustained drought encouraged conflict between herders and farmers
- Syrian Civil War, preceded by the displacement of 1.5 million people due to drought-induced crop and livestock failure
- Islamist insurgency in Nigeria, which exploited natural resource shortages to fuel anti-government sentiment
- Somali Civil War, in which droughts and extreme high temperatures have been linked to violence
Additionally, researchers studying ancient climate patterns (paleoclimatology) have shown that long-term fluctuations of war frequency and population changes have followed cycles of temperature change since the preindustrial era.
The consequences of climate change and poverty are not distributed uniformly within communities. Individual and social factors such as gender, age, education, ethnicity, geography and language lead to differential vulnerability and capacity to adapt to the effects of climate change. Climate change effects such as hunger, poverty and diseases like diarrhea and malaria, disproportionately impact children, i.e. about 90 percent of malaria and diarrhea deaths are among young children.
Social effects of extreme weatherEdit
As the World Meteorological Organization explains, "recent increase in societal impact from tropical cyclones has largely been caused by rising concentrations of population and infrastructure in coastal regions." Pielke et al. (2008) normalized mainland U.S. hurricane damage from 1900 to 2005 to 2005 values and found no remaining trend of increasing absolute damage. The 1970s and 1980s were notable because of the extremely low amounts of damage compared to other decades. The decade 1996–2005 has the second most damage among the past 11 decades, with only the decade 1926–1935 surpassing its costs. The most damaging single storm is the 1926 Miami hurricane, with $157 billion of normalized damage.
The American Insurance Journal predicted that "catastrophe losses should be expected to double roughly every 10 years because of increases in construction costs, increases in the number of structures and changes in their characteristics." The Association of British Insurers has stated that limiting carbon emissions would avoid 80% of the projected additional annual cost of tropical cyclones by the 2080s. The cost is also increasing partly because of building in exposed areas such as coasts and floodplains. The ABI claims that reduction of the vulnerability to some inevitable effects of climate change, for example through more resilient buildings and improved flood defences, could also result in considerable cost-savings in the longterm.
A major challenge for human settlements is sea-level rise, indicated by ongoing observation and research of rapid declines in ice-mass balance from both Greenland and Antarctica. Estimates for 2100 are at least twice as large as previously estimated by IPCC AR4, with an upper limit of about two meters. Depending on regional changes, increased precipitation patterns can cause more flooding or extended drought stresses water resources.
Coasts and low-lying areasEdit
For historical reasons to do with trade, many of the world's largest and most prosperous cities are on the coast. In developing countries, the poorest often live on floodplains, because it is the only available space, or fertile agricultural land. These settlements often lack infrastructure such as dykes and early warning systems. Poorer communities also tend to lack the insurance, savings, or access to credit needed to recover from disasters.
The most vulnerable future worlds to sea-level rise appear to be the A2 and B2 [IPCC] scenarios, which primarily reflects differences in the socio-economic situation (coastal population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and GDP/capita), rather than the magnitude of sea-level rise. Small islands and deltaic settings stand out as being more vulnerable as shown in many earlier analyses. Collectively, these results suggest that human societies will have more choice in how they respond to sea-level rise than is often assumed. However, this conclusion needs to be tempered by recognition that we still do not understand these choices and significant impacts remain possible.
The IPCC reported that socioeconomic impacts of climate change in coastal and low-lying areas would be overwhelmingly adverse. The following impacts were projected with very high confidence:
- Coastal and low-lying areas would be exposed to increasing risks including coastal erosion due to climate change and sea level rise.
- By the 2080s, millions of people would experience floods every year due to sea level rise. The numbers affected were projected to be largest in the densely populated and low-lying mega-deltas of Asia and Africa; and smaller islands were judged to be especially vulnerable.
A study in the April 2007 issue of Environment and Urbanization reports that 634 million people live in coastal areas within 30 feet (9.1 m) of sea level. The study also reported that about two thirds of the world's cities with over five million people are located in these low-lying coastal areas.
Oil, coal and natural gasEdit
Oil and natural gas infrastructure is vulnerable to the effects of climate change and the increased risk of disasters such as storm, cyclones, flooding and long-term increases in sea level. Minimising these risks by building in less disaster prone areas, can be expensive and impossible in countries with coastal locations or island states. All thermal power stations depend on water to cool them. This has to be fresh water as salt water can be corrosive. Not only is there increased demand for fresh water, but climate change can increase the likelihood of drought and fresh water shortages. Another impact for thermal power plants, is that increasing the temperatures in which they operate reduces their efficiency and hence their output. The source of oil often comes from areas prone to high natural disaster risks; such as tropical storms, hurricanes, cyclones, and floods. An example is that of Hurricane Katrina's impact on oil extraction in the Gulf of Mexico; as it destroyed 126 oil and gas platforms and damaged 183 more.
Climate change, along with extreme weather and natural disasters can affect nuclear power plants in a similar way to those using oil, coal, and natural gas. The damage caused to nuclear power plants is most tragically demonstrated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. However, the impact of water shortages on nuclear power plants is perhaps more visible than on other thermal power plants. Seawater is corrosive and so nuclear energy supply is likely to be negatively affected by a fresh water shortage. This generic problem may become increasingly significant over time. This situation could subsequently force nuclear reactors to be shut down as happened in France during the 2003 and 2006 heat waves. Nuclear power supply was severely diminished by low river ﬂow rates and droughts, which meant rivers had reached the maximum temperatures for cooling reactors. During the heat waves, 17 reactors had to limit output or shut down. 77% of French electricity is produced by nuclear power; and in 2009 a similar situation created a 8GW shortage, and forced the French government to import electricity. Other cases have been reported from Germany, where extreme temperatures have reduced nuclear power production 9 times due to high temperatures between 1979 and 2007. In particular:
- The Unterweser nuclear power plant reduced output by 90% between June and September 2003
- The Isar nuclear power plant cut production by 60% for 14 days due to excess river temperatures and low stream ﬂow in the river Isar in 2006
Changes in the amount of river flow will correlate with the amount of energy produced by a dam. Lower river flows because of drought, climate change, or upstream dams and diversions, will reduce the amount of live storage in a reservoir; therefore reducing the amount of water that can be used for hydroelectricity. The result of diminished river flow can be a power shortage in areas that depend heavily on hydroelectric power. The risk of flow shortage may increase as a result of climate change. Studies from the Colorado River in the United States suggests that modest climate changes (such as a 2 degree change in Celsius that could result in a 10% decline in precipitation), might reduce river run-off by up to 40%. Brazil in particular, is vulnerable due to its having reliance on hydroelectricity as increasing temperatures, lower water ﬂow, and alterations in the rainfall regime, could reduce total energy production by 7% annually by the end of the century.
The scientific evidence for links between global warming and the increasing cost of natural disasters due to weather events is weak, but, nevertheless, prominent mainstream environmental spokesmen such as Barack Obama and Al Gore have emphasized the possible connection. For the most part increased costs due to events such as Hurricane Sandy are due to increased exposure to loss resulting from building insured facilities in vulnerable locations. This information has been denounced by Paul Krugman and ThinkProgress as climate change denial.
An industry directly affected by the risks of climate change is the insurance industry. According to a 2005 report from the Association of British Insurers, limiting carbon emissions could avoid 80% of the projected additional annual cost of tropical cyclones by the 2080s. A June 2004 report by the Association of British Insurers declared "Climate change is not a remote issue for future generations to deal with; it is, in various forms here already, impacting on insurers' businesses now." The report noted that weather-related risks for households and property were already increasing by 2–4% per year due to the changing weather conditions, and claims for storm and flood damages in the UK had doubled to over £6 billion over the period from 1998–2003 compared to the previous five years. The results are rising insurance premiums, and the risk that in some areas flood insurance will become unaffordable for those in the lower income brackets.
Financial institutions, including the world's two largest insurance companies: Munich Re and Swiss Re, warned in a 2002 study that "the increasing frequency of severe climatic events, coupled with social trends could cost almost 150 billion US$ each year in the next decade". These costs would burden customers, taxpayers, and the insurance industry, with increased costs related to insurance and disaster relief.
In the United States, insurance losses have also greatly increased. It has been shown that a 1% climb in annual precipitation can increase catastrophe loss by as much as 2.8%. Gross increases are mostly attributed to increased population and property values in vulnerable coastal areas; though there was also an increase in frequency of weather-related events like heavy rainfalls since the 1950s.
Roads, airport runways, railway lines and pipelines, (including oil pipelines, sewers, water mains etc.) may require increased maintenance and renewal as they become subject to greater temperature variation. Regions already adversely affected include areas of permafrost, which are subject to high levels of subsidence, resulting in buckling roads, sunken foundations, and severely cracked runways.
- America's Climate Choices. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. 2011. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-309-14585-5.
The average temperature of the Earth’s surface increased by about 1.4 °F (0.8 °C) over the past 100 years, with about 1.0 °F (0.6 °C) of this warming occurring over just the past three decades
- A. J. McMichael (2003). A. McMichael; D. Campbell-Lendrum; C. Corvalan; K. Ebi; A. Githeko; J. Scheraga; A. Woodward, eds. "Global Climate Change and Health: An Old Story Writ Large". World Health Organization (Geneva). Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- MPIBGC/PH (2013). "Extreme meteorological events and global warming: a vicious cycle?". Max Planck Research.
- Tang, Ying, S. Zhong, L. Luo, X. Bian, W.E. Heilman, J. Winkler. "The Potential Impact of Regional Climate Change on Fire Weather in the United States". Annals of the Association of American Geographers 105 (1): 1–21. doi:10.1080/00045608.2014.968892.
- Sahney, S., Benton, M.J. and Ferry, P.A. (2010). "Links between global taxonomic diversity, ecological diversity and the expansion of vertebrates on land" (PDF). Biology Letters 6 (4): 544–547. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.1024. PMC 2936204. PMID 20106856.
- A.J. McMichael; R. Woodruff; S. Hales (2006). "Climate Change and Human Health: Present and Future Risks". Lancet 367 (9513): 859–69. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68079-3. PMID 16530580.
- "Ghfgeneva.org" (PDF).
- "Oxfam GB - leading UK charity fighting global poverty" (PDF). Oxfam GB.
- "Yale Environment 360: Study Claims 300,000 Deaths Attributable to Global Warming Each Year".
- "- Human Development Reports" (PDF).
- Wilbanks, T.J. et al. (2007). "Industry, settlement and society. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Parry et al. (eds.)". Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y., U.S.A. Retrieved 20 May 2009. . PDF version with page numbers.
- http://www.wmo.int/pages/publications/bulletin_en/documents/57_4_short_en.pdf WMO
- Lunde, T.M. & Lindtjørn, B. (2013). "Cattle and climate in Africa: How climate variability has influenced national cattle holdings from 1961–2008". PeerJ 1 (1): e55. doi:10.7717/peerj.55.
- Munich Climate-Insurance Initiative (2013). "Climate Change and Rising Weather Related Disasters".
- "WHO - The global burden of disease: 2004 update".
- Doherty, Thomas J.; Clayton, Susan (2011). "The psychological impacts of global climate change". PsycNET 66 (4): 265–276. doi:10.1037/a0023141.
- P. Epstein (2002). "Climate Change and Infectious Disease: Stormy Weather Ahead?". Epidemiology 13 (4): 373–375. doi:10.1097/00001648-200207000-00001.
- Daniel P. Bebber, Mark A. T. Ramotowski & Sarah J. Gurr (2013). "Crop pests and pathogens move polewards in a warming world". Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/nclimate1990.
- "Human Health Effects: Human Health as an Indicator of Global Climate Change". Exploring The Environment. Wheeling Jesuit University/Center for Educational Technologies. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- J. Patz; S. Olson (2006). "Malaria Risk and Temperature: Influences from Global Climate Change and Local Land Use Practices". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (15): 5635–5636. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103.5635P. doi:10.1073/pnas.0601493103. PMC 1458623. PMID 16595623.
- S. Bhattacharya; C. Sharma; R. Dhiman; A. Mitra (2006). "Climate Change and Malaria in India". Current Science 90 (3): 369–375.
- "Nigeria: Duration of the Malaria Transmission Season" (PDF). mara.org.za. MARA/ARMA (Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa / Atlas du Risque de la Malaria en Afrique). July 2001. Retrieved 24 January 2007.
- J. Patz; D. Campbell-Lendrum; T. Holloway; J. Foley (2005). "Impact of Regional Climate Change on Human Health". Nature (journal) 438 (7066): 310–317. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..310P. doi:10.1038/nature04188.
- J. Patz; A.K. Githeko; J.P. McCarty; S. Hussein; U. Confalonieri; N. de Wet (2003). A. McMichael; D. Campbell-Lendrum; C. Corvalan; K. Ebi; A. Githeko; J. Scheraga; A. Woodward, eds. "Climate Change and Infectious Diseases". Climate Change and Human Health: Risks and Responses (Geneva: World Health Organization).
- Sahney, S., Benton, M.J. & Falcon-Lang, H.J. (2010). "Rainforest collapse triggered Pennsylvanian tetrapod diversification in Euramerica" (PDF). Geology 38 (12): 1079–1082. doi:10.1130/G31182.1.
- John P. Dunne, Ronald J. Stouffer, and Jasmin G. John (2013). "Heat stress reduces labor capacity under climate warming". Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. Bibcode:2013NatCC...3..563D. doi:10.1038/nclimate1827.
- Kundzewicz Z.W. et al. (2007). "Freshwater resources and their management. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change M.L. Parry et al. (eds.)". Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y., U.S.A. pp. 173–210. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- "Dr. Kathleen Miller's Research: Climate Change Impacts on Water".
- EPA : Global Warming : Resource Center : Publications : Sea Level Rise : Sea Level Rise Reports
- Kazakhstan: glaciers and geopolitics Stephan Harrison openDemocracy May 2005
- News, BBC (October 9, 2003). "Melting glaciers threaten Peru". BBC News.
- "Environment a Growing Driver in Displacement of People".
- Hidden statistics: environmental refugees Hidden statistics: environmental refugees.
- Bogumil Terminski, Environmentally-Induced Displacement. Theoretical Frameworks and Current Challenges. CEDEM, Université de Liège, 2012
- Addressing Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific, 2012
- "First wave".
- Unnatural disasters Andrew Simms The Guardian October 2003
- Bogumil Terminski, Environmentally-Induced Displacement. Theoretical Frameworks and Current Challenges, CEDEM, University of Liège, 2012
- "UNHCR - Environmental refugees: myth or reality?, Richard Black" (PDF). UNHCR.
- "Making Sense of Climate Change, Natural Disasters, and Displacement: A Work in Progress". The Brookings Institution. 14 December 2007.
- IPCC AR4 SYR 2007. 3.3.3 Especially affected systems, sectors and regions. Synthesis report.
- Mimura, N. and others (2007). "Executive summary". In Parry, M.L., et al. (eds.). Chapter 16: Small Islands. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press (CUP): Cambridge, UK: Print version: CUP. This version: IPCC website. ISBN 0521880106. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Climate change and the risk of statelessness" (PDF). May 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
- Smith, Dan; Vivekananda, Janani (2007). "A climate of conflict". International Alert.
- "World in Transition: Climate Change as a Security Risk". German Advisory Council on Global Change. 2007.
- Schneider, S.H. et al. (2007). "Assessing key vulnerabilities and the risk from climate change. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [M.L. Parry et al. (eds.)]". Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y., U.S.A. pp. 779–810. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- Ryan P. Harrod and Martin, Debra L. The Bioarchaeology of Climate Change and Violence. New York: Springer, 2013.
- "National Security and the Threat of Climate Change". Military Advisory Board, April 15, 2007.
- Kurt M. Campbell, Jay Gulledge, J.R. McNeill, John Podesta, Peter Ogden, Leon Fuerth, R. James Woolsey, Alexander T.J. Lennon, Julianne Smith, Richard Weitz, Derek Mix (October 2007). "The Age of Consequences: The Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Global Climate Change" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-07-14.
- "Cool heads or heated conflicts?". The Economist. 10 October 2009. p. 88.
- Reuters. U.N. Council Hits Impasse Over Debate on Warming. The New York Times, April 17, 2007. Retrieved on May 29, 2007.
- Borger, Julian (2007-06-22). "Darfur conflict heralds era of wars triggered by climate change, UN report warns". The Guardian.
- Biello, David (2009-11-23). "Can Climate Change Cause Conflict? Recent History Suggests So". Scientific American.
- "Sudan Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment" (PDF). United Nations Environment Programme. June 2007.
- Merchant, Brian (2014-09-04). "How Climate Change Warmed Syria Up for War". Motherboard.
- Plumer, Brad (2013-09-10). "Drought helped cause Syria’s war. Will climate change bring more like it?". The Washington Post.
- Gleick, Peter (July 2014). "Water, Drought, Climate Change, and Conflict in Syria". Weather, Climate, and Society 6 (3): 331–340. doi:10.1175/WCAS-D-13-00059.1. ISSN 1948-8335.
- Ahmed, Nafeez (2014-05-09). "Behind the rise of Boko Haram - ecological disaster, oil crisis, spy games". The Guardian.
- Sayne, Aaron (2011). "Climate Change Adaptation and Conflict in Nigeria" (PDF). United States Institute of Peace.
- Maystadt, Jean-François; Ecker, Olivier (October 2014). "Extreme Weather and Civil War: Does Drought Fuel Conflict in Somalia through Livestock Price Shocks?". American Journal of Agricultural Economics 96 (5): 1157–1182.
- "Climate variability and conflict risk in East Africa measured". University of Colorado Boulder. 2012-10-22.
- Zhang, D.; Brecke, P.; Lee, H.; He, Y.; Zhang, J. (2007). "Global climate change, war, and population decline in recent human history". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (49): 19214–19219. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10419214Z. doi:10.1073/pnas.0703073104. PMC 2148270. PMID 18048343.
- "Summary Statement on Tropical Cyclones and Climate Change" (PDF) (Press release). World Meteorological Organization. 2006-12-04.
- Pielke, Roger A., Jr.; Gratz, Joel et al. (2008). "Normalized Hurricane Damage in the United States: 1900–2005" (PDF). Natural Hazards Review 9 (1): 29–42. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1527-6988(2008)9:1(29).
- Insurance Journal: Sound Risk Management, Strong Investment Results Prove Positive for P/C Industry, April 18, 2006.
- "Financial risks of climate change" (PDF). Association of British Insurers. June 2005.
- I. Allison, N.L. Bindoff, R.A. Bindschadler, P.M. Cox, N. de Noblet, M.H. England, J.E. Francis, N. Gruber, A.M. Haywood, D.J. Karoly, G. Kaser, C. Le Quéré, T.M. Lenton, M.E. Mann, B.I. McNeil, A.J. Pitman, S. Rahmstorf, E. Rignot, H.J. Schellnhuber, S.H. Schneider, S.C. Sherwood, R.C.J. Somerville, K. Steffen, E.J. Steig, M. Visbeck, A.J. Weaver (2009). "The Copenhagen Diagnosis, 2009: Updating the World on the Latest Climate Science".
- Nicholls, R.J. and R.S.J. Tol (2006). "Impacts and responses to sea-level rise: a global analysis of the SRES scenarios over the twenty-first century" (PDF). Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364 (1841): 1073. Bibcode:2006RSPTA.364.1073N. doi:10.1098/rsta.2006.1754. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
- Nicholls, R.J. et al. (2007). M.L. Parry et al. (eds.), ed. "Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change". Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y., U.S.A. pp. 315–356. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
- McGranahan, G.; Balk, D.; Anderson, B. (2007). "The rising tide: Assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones". Environment and Urbanization 19: 17. doi:10.1177/0956247807076960.
- Dr. Frauke Urban and Dr. Tom Mitchell 2011. Climate change, disasters and electricity generation. London: Overseas Development Institute and Institute of Development Studies
- "Ice-Breaking: U.S. Oil Drilling Starts as Nations Mull the Changed Arctic.". National Geographic.
- Roger Pielke Jr (March 21, 2014). "Following Up on Disasters And Climate Change". fivethirtyeight.com. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
- Pielke, Roger (January 29, 2015). The Rightful Place of Science: Disasters and Climate Change (KINDLE EDITION). Consortium for Science, Policy & Outcomes, Arizona State University. p. 6.
there is precious little evidence to suggest that the blame for the increasing tally of disaster costs can be placed on more frequent or extreme weather events attributable to human-caused climate change.
- Roger Pielke Jr. (March 19, 2015). "Disasters Cost More Than Ever — But Not Because of Climate Change". fivethirtyeight.com. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
- Pielke, Roger (January 29, 2015). The Rightful Place of Science: Disasters and Climate Change (KINDLE EDITION). Consortium for Science, Policy & Outcomes, Arizona State University. p. 21.
Economic growth, including greater concentrations of people and wealth in periled areas and rising insurance penetration, is the most important driver of increasing losses.
- Paul Krugman (March 23, 2014). "Tarnished Silver". The New York Times. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
a known irresponsible skeptic
- Emily Atkin (March 19, 2014). "First Climate Article On Nate Silver’s Data Website Uses ‘Deeply Misleading’ Data, Top Climatologists Say". thinkprogress.org. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
- Viewpoint American Association of Insurance Services
- Association of British Insurers (2005) "Financial Risks of Climate Change" summary report
- Association of British Insurers (June 2005) "A Changing Climate for Insurance: A Summary Report for Chief Executives and Policymakers"
- UNEP (2002) "Key findings of UNEP’s Finance Initiatives study" CEObriefing
- Choi, O.; A. Fisher (2003). "The Impacts of Socioeconomic Development and Climate Change on Severe Weather Catastrophe Losses: Mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) and the U.S". Climatic Change 58 (1–2): 149–170. doi:10.1023/A:1023459216609.
- Board on Natural Disasters (1999). "Mitigation Emerges as Major Strategy for Reducing Losses Caused by Natural Disasters". Science 284 (5422): 1943–7. doi:10.1126/science.284.5422.1943. PMID 10373106.
- Studies Show Climate Change Melting Permafrost Under Runways in Western Arctic Weber, Bob Airportbusiness.com October 2007
- Addressing Climate Change in Asia & the Pacific 2012
- Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report, 4th Assessment Report, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
- Report on the Economics of Climate Change (2006), Stern Review
- Human Impact Report: The Anatomy of a Silent Crisis (2009), Global Humanitarian Forum
- Key Points on Climate Justice: Working Paper of the Global Humanitarian Forum
- "What Happened to the Seasons?" (PDF). Oxfam Research Report.
- Human Development Report 2007/2008, United Nations Development Programme
- Maplecroft Climate Change Risk Report 2009/2010
- Woodward, A. (1995). "Doctoring the planet: health effects of global change*". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 25 (1): 46–53. doi:10.1111/j.1445-5994.1995.tb00579.x. ISSN 0004-8291. PMID 7786246.
- UNESCO (2011) 'Migration and Climate Change'
- Piguet, E., Pécoud, A. and de Guchteneire, P. (2010) Migration and Climate Change: an Overview
- Climate change, water stress, conflict and migration Proceedings of a conference in The Hague, September 2011
- Global Humanitarian Forum
- Tck Tck Tck Time for Climate Justice campaign
- United Nations Environment Programme and climate change
- Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights human rights and climate change
- Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees climate change
- Care International Climate Change Information Centre
- Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre
- World Bank and Climate Change
- World Meteorological Organization and climate
- Climate change and human health on World Health Organization
- International Alert climate change and violent conflict
- International Strategy for Disaster Reduction disaster risk reduction and climate change