Last modified on 30 August 2014, at 17:13

Demographics of Kosovo

The demographic features of the population of Kosovo, includes various factors such as population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. The dominant ethnic group is Albanian, with significant minorities of Serbs and others.

The final results of the 2011 Census recorded Kosovo as having a population of 1,739,825 (excluding North Kosovo).[1]

PopulationEdit

The 2000 Living Standard Measurement Survey by Statistical Office of Kosovo (rejected by Belgrade[2]): Total population estimated between 1.8-2.0 million.[3] From 2000, AMSJ (confirmed by Kosovo Statistical Office in 2003), estimating a 1,900,000 strong population.

Kosovo currently has the youngest population in Europe, with a fertility estimated by the Census Bureau of 2.4 children per woman. [2] As recently as 1990, [3] Kosovo's population structure resembled those of countries like Haiti, and was in stark contrast to the rest of Serbia [4] and other European countries. In recent years, however, Kosovo's population growth rate has begun to slow and its birth rate has decreased.

Vital statisticsEdit

In 2009 in Kosovo were registered 34,477 births, 34,240 of them were born alive, while 237 were born dead.[4] The vitality ratio (ratio between live births and total deaths) was 9. Ratio of dead births-fetal deaths in 1000 births was 6.9 promil. The age group of mothers was as following: 25–29 years age group with 35.1%, 20–24 years old age groups with 26.4%, age group 30–34 years with 23.3%, and other age group compose 15.2% of the total number of births. The average age of women who have children born in 2009, is 27.7 years. Under the weight of children born in health institutions, the majority of infants with weight is 3000-3499gr. or 31.4% from 3500 to 3999 gr. 23.7%, from 2500 to 2999 gr.12.7%, etc. Live babies born weighing less than 1000 gr. constitute only 0.3%.[5] Under education, mothers with primary school dominate the top with 44.9% of secondary but not tertiary and university with 7.2%, etc. Frequent names in 2009 for girls were Erza(114 times)and Suela (108 times) while for boys was the names Leon (159 times) and Leart(124 times).[6] https://esk.rks-gov.net/ENG/pop/publications

Year Born alive Dead (total) Dead (infant) Natural increase Wedlock Divorce
2002 36,136 5,654 403 30,482 18,280 :
2003 31,994 6,417 483 25,577 17,034 :
2004 35,063 6,399 415 28,664 16,989 1,293
2005 37,218 7,207 357 30,011 15,732 1,445
2006 34,187 7,479 410 26,708 15,825 1,480
2007 33,112 6,681 366 26,431 16,824 1,558
2008 34,399 6,852 335 27,547 17,950 1,026
2009 34,240 7,030 288 27,210 20,209 1,555
2010 33,751 7,234 274 26,517 18,289 1,453
2011 34,262 7,556 337 26,706 17,343 1,469
2012 34.932 7.839 169 27,093 18.174 1.328

VITAL PHENOMENA IN KOSOVO ACCORDING TO YEAR 2002 - 2011 result

' Total Male Female Sex Ratio
2002 36,136 18,752 17,384 107.9
2003 31,994 16,777 15,217 110.3
2004 35,063 18,213 16,850 108.1
2005 37,218 19,431 17,787 109.2
2006 34,187 17,827 16,360 109
2007 33,112 17,394 15,718 110.7
2008 34,399 17,857 16,542 107.9
2009 34,240 17,853 16,387 108.9
2010 33,751 17,805 15,946 111.7
2011 34,262 17,837 16,425 108.6

DEATHS ACCORDING YEARS AND GENDER, 2002-2011

Year Total Male Female Male % Female %
2002 5654 3348 2306 59.2 40.8
2003 6417 3741 2676 58.3 41.7
2004 6399 3654 2745 57.1 42.9
2005 7207 4058 3149 56.3 43.7
2006 7479 4313 3166 57.7 42.3
2007 6681 3867 2814 57.9 42.1
2008 6852 3963 2889 57.8 42.2
2009 7030 4079 2951 58 42
2010 7234 4263 2971 58.9 41.1
2011 7556 4442 3114 58.8 41.2
Source: KAS, Vital Statistics

Population estimates in the table below may be unreliable since the 1990s. Besides, births and deaths exclude territories with a Serbian majority.

Estimated population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1948 733 27 792 10 324 17 468 37.9 14.1 23.8
1949 751 31 643 12 937 18 706 42.1 17.2 24.9
1950 764 35 222 12 991 22 231 46.1 17.0 29.1
1951 780 29 299 14 833 14 466 37.6 19.0 18.5
1952 793 35 619 13 867 21 752 44.9 17.5 27.4
1953 813 34 595 16 726 17 869 42.6 20.6 22.0
1954 832 38 595 13 201 25 394 46.4 15.9 30.5
1955 842 36 736 15 292 21 444 43.6 18.2 25.5
1956 859 37 819 13 692 24 127 44.0 15.9 28.1
1957 873 34 159 15 300 18 859 39.1 17.5 21.6
1958 890 39 285 11 598 27 687 44.1 13.0 31.1
1959 921 37 364 12 878 24 486 40.6 14.0 26.6
1960 944 41 631 13 365 28 266 44.1 14.2 29.9
1961 972 40 561 11 759 28 802 41.7 12.1 29.6
1962 997 41 336 15 024 26 312 41.5 15.1 26.4
1963 1 021 41 525 12 423 29 102 40.7 12.2 28.5
1964 1 046 42 557 12 731 29 826 40.7 12.2 28.5
1965 1 075 43 569 11 767 31 802 40.5 10.9 29.6
1966 1 101 42 429 10 266 32 163 38.5 9.3 29.2
1967 1 131 44 001 11 308 32 693 38.9 10.0 28.9
1968 1 159 44 627 10 781 33 846 38.5 9.3 29.2
1969 1 189 46 480 10 892 35 588 39.1 9.2 29.9
1970 1 220 44 496 10 829 33 667 36.5 8.9 27.6
1971 1 254 47 060 10 312 36 748 37.5 8.2 29.3
1972 1 291 47 943 10 270 37 673 37.1 8.0 29.2
1973 1 329 47 714 10 358 37 356 35.9 7.8 28.1
1974 1 367 49 847 10 075 39 772 36.5 7.4 29.1
1975 1 406 49 310 10 018 39 292 35.1 7.1 27.9
1976 1 446 51 355 10 149 41 206 35.5 7.0 28.5
1977 1 487 49 849 9 811 40 038 33.5 6.6 26.9
1978 1 526 49 027 9 776 39 251 32.1 6.4 25.7
1979 1 566 48 125 9 575 38 550 30.7 6.1 24.6
1980 1 555 53 147 8 909 44 238 34.2 5.7 28.4
1981 1 595 48 111 9 677 38 434 30.2 6.1 24.1
1982 1 629 52 865 10 479 42 386 32.5 6.4 26.0
1983 1 664 49 645 11 040 38 605 29.8 6.6 23.2
1984 1 699 55 243 10 573 44 670 32.5 6.2 26.3
1985 1 735 53 925 11 826 42 099 31.1 6.8 24.3
1986 1 773 54 519 10 446 44 073 30.7 5.9 24.9
1987 1 811 56 221 10 307 45 914 31.0 5.7 25.4
1988 1 850 56 283 10 257 46 026 30.4 5.5 24.9
1989 1 889 53 656 10 181 43 475 28.4 5.4 23.0
1990 1 930 55 175 8 214 46 961 28.6 4.3 24.3
1991 1 967 52 263 8 526 43 737 26.6 4.3 22.2
1992 2 006 44 418 8 004 36 414 22.1 4.0 18.2
1993 2 043 44 132 7 804 36 328 21.6 3.8 17.8
1994 2 077 43 450 7 667 35 783 20.9 3.7 17.2
1995 2 113 44 776 8 671 36 105 21.2 4.1 17.1
1996 2 151 46 041 8 392 37 649 21.4 3.9 17.5
1997 2 186 42 920 8 624 34 296 19.6 3.9 15.7
1998 2 000 41 752 8 123 33 629 20.9 4.1 16.8
1999 2 000 40 020 7 569 32 451 20.0 3.8 16.2
2000 2 000 38 667 7 115 31 552 19.3 3.6 15.8
2001 2 000 37 412 6 672 30 740 18.7 3.3 15.4
2002 1 985 36 136 5 654 30 482 18.2 2.8 15.4
2003 2 016 31 994 6 417 25 577 15.9 3.2 12.7
2004 2 041 35 063 6 399 28 664 17.2 3.1 14.0
2005 2 070 37 218 7 207 30 011 18.0 3.5 14.5
2006 2 100 34 187 7 479 26 708 16.3 3.6 12.7
2007 2 126 33 112 6 681 26 431 15.6 3.1 12.4
2008 2 153 34 399 6 852 27 547 16.0 3.2 12.8
2009 2 175 34 240 7 030 27 210 15.7 3.2 12.5
2010 2 199 33 751 7 234 26 517 15.3
2011 1 739* 34 262* 7 556 26 706 19.7*
2012 34 932 7 839 27 093
  • 2011 - census population

Wedlocks and divorcesEdit

In 2009, in Kosovo were registered 20209 marriages. The average age of couples was 29.5 years. The average age for male is 31 years old, while the average age for women was 28 years old. Municipality of Prizren takes first place in Kosovo with 1720 marriages or 8.5% then comes Pristina with 1643 or 8.1%, Podujeva with 1302 or 6.4%, etc. According to the education, to male dominates the secondary education by 75,3.4%, also to women, dominates the secondary education with 64.5%.[7]

MARRIAGES ACCORDING TO YEARS AND OVERAGE AGES OF COUPLES 2002-2011

Year TOTAL The average age women The average age men The average marriage age
2002 18, 280 25.8 29.4 27.3
2003 17, 034 28.2 29.7 27.7
2004 16, 917 27 30.3 28.7
2005 15, 732 27. 0 30.3 29. 0
2006 15, 825 27. 0 30.3 29. 0
2007 16, 824 27. 0 31.0 29. 0
2008 17, 950 28. 0 30.0 26. 0
2009 20, 209 28. 0 31.0 29.5
2010 18, 289 28. 0 30.0 28. 0
2011 17, 343 27.9 32.0 29. 0

Source: KAS, Vital Statistics

DIVORCES ACCORDING YEARS AND DURATION OF MARRIAGES

Year Total Less than a year One year Two years Three years Four years 5–9 years 10–14 years 15–19 years 20–24 years 25 and more Unknown
2004 1 293 54 149 181 129 97 249 221 118 48 45 2
2005 1 445 67 143 186 172 148 272 228 137 52 40 0
2006 1 480 74 152 191 172 177 351 147 128 46 41 1
2007 1 558 149 208 162 177 206 334 128 106 50 38 0
2008 1 026 73 141 121 103 146 258 72 62 24 26 0
2009 1 555 122 213 190 170 170 419 109 67 55 40 0
2010 1 453 124 215 202 170 129 377 86 68 37 45 0
2011 1469 129 211 159 154 139 384 104 77 49 63 0

Source:KAS, Vital Statistics

CitiesEdit

Based on estimations by the Kosovo Agency of Statistics done in late 2011 and published in 2012, the total population of Kosovo is 1,794,303. With the current estimation on population, Kosovo ranks as the 150th largest country in the world based on how populous it is.[8] Some of the largest municipalities by population in Kosovo are Pristina, Prizren, Ferizaj, Peć, Gjakova, Gnjilane and Kosovska Mitrovica. (ask (2011)).

Pristina being the capital city of Kosovo and in the mean time ranked as the largest one is also the city where the commuting phenomenon is present the most.[9] Pristine had a 34% (about 56,000 commuter) increase in population when commuters were added. Pristina commuters come mainly from neighboring municipalities like Podujevo, Kosovo Polje and other municipalities which are further contribute with 30% on commuting.[10] Reasons of these movements can be because of education purposes where about 1/3 of commuters make the youth at 16–22 years old and also for purposes of work.The highest number of commuters however is at age 19-20.[11]

Rank Municipality in English Name in Albanian
(if different)
Name in Serbian
(if different)
Population (2011) Rank Municipalities in English Name in Albanian
(if different)
Name in Serbian
(if different)
Population (2011)
1 Pristina Prishtina Priština, Приштина 198,897 18 Istok Istog Исток 39,289
2 Prizren - Призрен 177,781 19 Klina - Клина 38,496
3 Ferizaj - Uroševac, Урошевац 108,610 20 Kosovska Kamenica Kamenica Косовска Каменица 36,085
4 Peć Peja Пећ 96,450 21 Kosovo Polje Fushë Kosova Косово Поље 34,827
5 Gjakova - Đakovica, Ђаковица 94,556 22 Dragaš Dragash Драгаш 33,997
6 Gnjilane Gjilan Гњилане 90,178 23 Kačanik Kaçanik Качаник 33,409
7 Podujevo Podujeva Подујево 88,499 24 Štimlje Shtime Штимље 27,324
8 Kosovska Mitrovica Mitrovica Косовска Митровица 71,909 25 Obilić Obiliq Обилић 21,549
9 Vučitrn Vushtrri Вучитрн 69,870 26 Gračanica Graçanica Грачаница 10,675
10 Suva Reka Suhareka Сува Река 59,722 27 Đeneral Janković Hani i Elezit Ђенерал Јанковић 9,403
11 Glogovac Drenas Глоговац 58,531 28 Štrpci Shtërpcë Штрпци 6,949
12 Lipljan Lipjan Липљан 57,605 29 Novo Brdo Novobërda Ново Брдо 6,729
13 Orahovac Rahovec Ораховац 56,208 30 Junik - Јуник 6,084
14 Mališevo Malisheva Малишево 54,613 31 Mamuša Mamusha Мамуша 5,507
15 Skënderaj - Srbica, Србица 50,858 32 Ranilug Ranillug Ранилуг 3,866
16 Vitina Vitia Витина 46,987 33 Klokot Kllokot Клокот 2,556
17 Deçan - Dečani, Дечани 40,019 34 Parteš Partesh Партеш 1,787

Ethnic groupsEdit

The official results of the censuses in Kosovo after World War II are tabulated below. The proportion of Albanians was below 70% until 1961, but increased to 81.6% in 1991. The figures for Albanians in the 1991 census were estimates only, since that census was boycotted by most Albanians. Similarly, the figures for Serbs in the 2011 census omit those in North Kosovska Mitrovica, Leposavić, Zubin Potok, and Zvečan.

Population of Kosovo according to ethnic group 1948-2011

Ethnic
group
census 1948 census 1953 census 1961 census 1971 census 1981 census 1991 census 2011
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Albanians 498,244 68.5 524,559 64.9 646,605 67.1 916,168 73.7 1,226,736 77.4 1,596,072 81.6 1,616,869 92.9
Serbs 171,911 23.6 189,869 23.5 227,016 23.5 228,264 18.4 209,498 13.2 194,190 9.9 25,532 1.5
Muslims 9,679 1.3 6,241 0.8 8,026 0.8 26,357 2.1 58,562 3.7 66,189 3.4
Bosniaks 27,533 1.6
Gorani 10,265 0.6
Montenegrins 28,050 3.9 31,343 3.9 37,588 3.9 31,555 2.5 27,028 1.7 20,365 1.1
Croats 5,290 0.7 6,201 0.8 7,251 0.8 8,264 0.7 8,718 0.6 8,062 0.4
Yugoslavs 5,206 0.5 920 0.1 2,676 0.2 3,457 0.2
Romani 11,230 1.5 11,904 1.5 3,202 0.3 14.593 1.2 34,126 2.2 45,760 2.3 8,824 0,5
Ashkali 15,436 0.9
Egyptians 11,524 0.6
Turks 1,315 0.2 34,583 4.3 25,764 2.7 12,244 1.0 12,513 0.8 10,445 0.5 18,738 1.1
Macedonians 526 0.1 972 0.1 1,142 0.1 1,048 0.1 1,056 0.1
Others or unspecified 1,577 0.2 2,469 0.3 2,188 0.2 4,280 0.3 3,454 0.2 11,656 0.6 3,264 0.6
Total 727,820 808,141 963,988 1,243,693 1,584,441 1,956,196 1,739,825
Breakdown of the municipalities based on ethnic groups

The results of the census 2011 of ethnic groups in municipalities are tabulated below.[12]

Municipality Not in disposal Albanians Serbs Turkish Bosniak Roma Ashkali Egyptian Goran Other Prefer not to answer Total
Deçan 64 39,402 3 0 60 33 42 393 1 19 2 40,019
Glogovac 38 58,445 2 5 14 0 0 3 0 22 3 58,531
Gjakova 134 87,672 17 16 73 738 613 5,177 13 92 71 94,556
Gnjilane 65 87,814 624 978 121 361 15 1 69 95 35 90,178
Dragaš 22 20,287 7 202 4,100 3 4 3 8,957 283 129 33,997
Ferizaj 220 104,152 32 55 83 204 3,629 24 64 102 45 108,610
Istok 31 36,154 194 10 1,142 39 111 1,544 0 45 19 39,289
Kačanik 11 33,362 1 2 20 5 1 0 0 7 0 33,409
Klina 32 37,216 98 3 20 78 85 934 0 23 7 38,496
Kosovo Polje 32 30,275 321 62 34 436 3,230 282 15 131 9 34,827
Kosovska Kamenica 31 34,186 1,554 5 9 240 0 0 29 27 4 36,085
Kosovska Mitrovica 152 69,497 14 518 416 528 647 6 23 47 61 71,909
Leposavić - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lipljan 27 54,467 513 128 42 342 1,812 4 6 260 4 57,605
Novo Brdo 3 3,524 3,122 7 5 63 3 0 0 2 0 6,729
Obilić 12 19,854 276 2 58 661 578 27 5 48 28 21,549
Orahovac 83 55,166 134 2 10 84 404 299 0 11 15 56.208
Peć 79 87,975 332 59 3,786 993 143 2,700 189 132 62 96,450
Podujevo 120 87,523 12 5 33 74 680 2 0 43 7 88,499
Pristina 220 194,452 430 2,156 400 56 557 8 205 334 79 198,897
Prizren 159 145,718 237 9,091 16,869 2,899 1,350 168 655 386 222 177,781
Skenderaj 60 50,685 50 1 42 0 10 1 0 5 4 50,858
Štimlje 19 26,447 49 1 20 23 750 0 2 13 0 27,324
Štrpce 6 3,757 3,148 0 2 24 1 0 0 7 4 6,949
Suva Reka 49 59,076 2 4 15 41 493 5 0 15 22 58,722
Vitina 48 46,669 113 4 25 12 14 0 7 83 12 46,987
Vučitrn 53 68,840 384 278 33 68 143 1 3 50 17 69,870
Zubin Potok - - - - - - - - - - - -
Zvečan - - - - - - - - - - - -
Mališevo 36 54,501 0 0 15 26 5 0 0 8 22 54,613
Junik 9 6,069 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 6,084
Mamuša 0 327 0 5,182 1 39 12 0 0 0 0 5,507
Đeneral Janković 1 9,357 0 0 42 0 0 0 0 2 1 9,403
Gračanica 17 2,474 7,209 15 15 745 104 3 3 45 26 10,675
Ranilug 6 164 3,692 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 3,866
Parteš 0 0 1,785 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1,787
Klokot 1 1,362 1,777 1 0 9 0 0 0 6 0 2,556
Total 1,840 1,616,869 25,532 18,738 27,533 8,824 15,436 11,524 10,265 2,365 912 1,739,825
Ethnic composition of Kosovo in 2005 according to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The 2000 Living Standard Measurement Survey by Statistical Office of Kosovo found an ethnic composition of the population as follows:

A most comprehensive (October 2002) estimate (for the 1.9 million inhabitants) for these years:

During the Kosovo War in 1999, over 700,000 ethnic Albanians,[13] around 100,000 ethnic Serbs and more than 40,000 Bosniaks were forced out of Kosovo to neighbouring Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Serbia. After the United Nations took over administration of Kosovo following the war, the vast majority of the Albanian refugees returned.[citation needed] The largest diaspora communities of Kosovo Albanians are in Germany and Switzerland accounting for some 200,000 individuals each, or for 20% of the population resident in Kosovo.

Many non-Albanians – chiefly Serbs and Romani – fled or were expelled, mostly to the rest of Serbia at the end of the war, with further refugee outflows occurring as the result of sporadic ethnic violence. The number of registered refugees is around 250,000.[14][unreliable source?][15][16] The non-Albanian population in Kosovo is now about half of its pre-war total[citation needed]. The largest concentration of Serbs in the province is in the north, but many remain in Kosovo Serb enclaves surrounded by Albanian-populated areas.

The Third Demographic, Social and Reproductive Health Survey in KosovoEdit

Demographic and Socioeconomic Findings

Nearly two-thirds (63.2%) live in rural areas. The overwhelming majority (94.7%) of respondents are of the Muslim religion, with Orthodox (3.9%) being the majority of the remainder [17] The vast majority (92.4%) of the surveyed population belongs to the Albanian ethnicity, 3.9% are Serbian, and 1.1% are Bosnian. The remaining 2.6% are distributed across other minorities. Ethnic distributions are virtually the same for females and males.

Age, Sex, and Residency

Half of the total survey sample (50.1%) is male. Similar to the 2003 survey, distribution of population by sex is virtually the same in both urban and rural areas – 50.1% male and 49.9% female in urban areas and 50.2% male and 49.8% female in rural areas.

School Attendance

As Table 2.6 displays, school participation rates are high, especially at ages 10–14, where they reach 98 percent of the people of these ages. The lower rate (80%) at ages 5–9 can be explained by the late starting age for some pupils, though it is noticeably higher than the 66 percent in the 2003 survey (see Figure 2.8). The school attendance rate for people aged 15–19 also increased between 2003 and 2009, from 63 percent to 77 percent. School attendance rates have also increased for other age groups.[18]

There are differences in the attendance rates between rural and urban residents as well as between males and females. Males and females in rural areas who are age 15 or older attend school at a lower rate than their urban counterparts. The school attendance gap between rural and urban residents progressively widens in relative amounts as age increases. The urban-rural gap at older ages probably reflects the scarcity of higher educational opportunities in rural areas. In both urban and rural areas, among those aged 5–14, females are slightly more likely to be enrolled in school than males, but at older age groups males are more likely to be in school than females.

Literacy

Seven percent of people aged 15 years and above are unable to read and write in any language. Figure 2.10 shows clear differences between the sexes for all age groups, especially older ones, in both urban and rural areas, with females overall being more than two times as likely to be illiterate as males (7.5% versus 3.3% in urban areas, and 11.3% versus 5.5% in rural areas). Furthermore, illiteracy is highly correlated with age. The level of illiteracy is very low at ages between 15 and 34—less than 2 percent—and is particularly low (0.4%) among males of this age group. However, at older ages, the illiteracy rate increases considerably, with 22 percent of females and 9 percent of males aged 55–64 being illiterate, and 56 percent of females and 25 percent of males aged 65 and older not being able to read and write in any language.[19]

Income

The total of all sources of household income; answers were recorded in the categories seen in Table 2.13. Table 2.13 shows the distribution of households across these income categories, for the total sample and separately for urban and rural areas. Figure 2.16 shows the urban and rural data graphically.[20]

63% of all households in the 2009 reported that they earned 300 Euros or less monthly, 17.5 percent earned 301 to 400, 14.0 percent earned 401 to 800, and 4.7% earned more than that. People in rural areas were more likely to have monthly incomes of 300 Euros or less (66.0%) than those urban areas (58.5%), while the proportion of households earning 400 Euros or more monthly is higher in urban areas (22.3% versus 16.0%)

Crude Birth Rate

In 2009 there were a total of 9,896 births to female respondents age 15-49 at the time of the survey, of which 370 occurred in the 12 months before the survey. From this we can calculate the crude birth rate (CBR) for the 12 months before the survey.[21]

HealthEdit

[22] Harvard medical school and NATO published an interesting study on the impact of the conflict on Kosovo health system in 2014.[23]

Group of diseases

The data in the table below are from the Kosovo Agency of Statistics.

Structure of group of diseases according to ICD-10 recorded in PHC in 2010 ' '
Group of diseases No Percentage
Parasitic diseases 53762 28
Tumors/cancers 2943 1.5
Blood and homopotetic organ disease and immunity disorders 5091 2.6
Endocrinic disorder of feeding and metabolism 25212 13.1
Psychic and personality disorder 13488 7
SQN diseases 15490 8.1
Eye diseases 21320 11.1
Ear and mastoid process diseases 18989 9.9
Diseases of blood circulation system 5139 2.7
Diseases of respiratory system 6962 3.6
Diseases of digestive system 3192 1.7
Dermic and hypodermic tissue diseases 1453 0.8
Diseases of locomotor system and connective tissue 1775 0.9
Disease of urogenital system 2198 1.1
Pregnancy, delivery and maternity 5737 3
Certain states resulting from perinatal periods 200 0.1
Inborn deformity, chromosomal deformities and anomalies 248 0.1
Symptoms, indications, analyses and clinical abnormal ascertainments 1556 0.8
Injuries, poisoning, and other consequences caused by external factors 2871 1.5
External factors of morbidity and mortality 579 0.3 579 0.3
Factors influencing on health conditions and contact with health services 3948 2.1
Total 192154

MigrationEdit

Lifetime Internal Migration

Table 7.1 shows the percentages of persons who moved into or out of each of the seven regions of Kosovo during their lifetimes; for each percentage for each region, the denominator is the number of people in the survey sample who were born in the region (including those no longer living in it but living elsewhere in Kosovo). The final column of the table shows net migration (in-migration less out-migration), making it possible to see which regions have gained or lost population from the process of lifetime internal migration. The table also shows the percentage of all respondents to the 2009 KDHS who were born abroad – 1.7 percent. Altogether, 6.4 percent of 2009 KDHS survey respondents are lifetime migrants (i.e., lived in a different region [or country] at the time of the 2009 KDHS from where they were born).

Pristina is the region with the highest in-migration. Nearly 11 percent of respondents now living in Pristina region stated that they were born in other regions of Kosovo (or abroad). However, around 3 percent of respondents born in Pristina region now live in a different region of Kosovo. On net, the population of Pristina region is 7.7 percent larger because of net internal lifetime migration. Peja region has the next highest rates of migration, with lifetime net immigration of 6.7 percent. The regions of Gjakova and Mitrovica have suffered relatively large losses of lifetime migrants over the years, on net losing 6.4 percent and 5.2 percent, respectively, of the people born there (who are still alive and still in Kosovo) to net out-migration to other regions of Kosovo. This is not surprising given the very poor economic prospects in these two regions, as well as the political and security issues in Mitrovica.[24]

Emigration
[25]

ReligionEdit

Church and mosque in Prizren.
New mosque in Obilić
Religious map of Kosovo in 2011 by settlement's

The results of the 2011 census gave the following religious affiliations for the population included in the census:[26]

Religion in Kosovo
Religion Population %
Islam 1,663,412 95.60
Christians
Catholic
Orthodox
64,275
38,438
25,837
3.69
2.20
1.48
Other 1,188 0.06
None 1,242 0.07
No answer 9,708 0.55%

These figures do not represent individual sects operating in Kosovo such as Sufism or Bektashism which are sometimes classified generally under the under the category of "Islam."[27]

The Serb population is largely Serbian Orthodox. The Catholic Albanian communities are mostly concentrated in Gjakova, Prizren, Klina and a few villages near Peć and Vitina.

2011 CensusEdit

The final results of the 2011 census recorded Kosovo excluding North Kosovo as having 1,739,825 inhabitants.[28] This was below most previous estimates. The census enjoyed considerable technical assistance from international agencies and appears to have been endorsed by Eurostat; it was, however, the first full census since 1981, and not one of an uninterrupted series. The results show that there were no people temporarily resident in hotels or refugee camps at the time of the census;[29] that out of 312,711 conventional dwellings, 99,808 (over 30%) were unoccupied;[30] and that three municipalities designed under the Ahtisaari Plan - Klokot, Novo Brdo, and Štrpce to have Serb majorities in fact had ethnic Albanian majorities (although their municipal assemblies have Serb majorities).[31]

HistoryEdit

Archeological findings show that Bronze and Iron Age tombs were found only in Metohija, not in Kosovo proper.[32][unreliable source?]

The region was inhabited by Illyrians, Celts[33][34] and Thracians.[34][35] After Roman conquest of Illyria at 168 BC, Romans colonized and founded several cities in the region.[36]

Slavs are mentioned in the area since the 520s AD, with the Slav tribe of Sklavenoi settling the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum, the mythological founders of the Serbs were the White Serbs; "who settled in the Balkans during the rule of Emperor Heraclius" (610-641).[37] In the 12th century, according to Anna Komnena, the Serbs were the main inhabitants of Kosovo (Eastern Dalmatia and former Moesia Superior).[38]

In 1054 the Great Schism occurred in the realm, the Byzantine Empire (Roman) was divided on religious basis and Kosovo & Metohija was part of the Orthodox world (Subsequently the base of the Serbian Orthodox Church).

14th centuryEdit

1321-1331Edit

The Deçan charters (Serbian: Дечанске хрисовуље) from 1321-1331 by Stephen Uroš III Dečanski of Serbia contains a detailed list of households and villages in Metohija and northwestern Albania. The first charter concludes that this region was ethnically Serb.[39]

89 settlements with 2,666 households were recorded of which:[40]

  • 3 Albanian settlements (3,3%)
  • 86 Serbian settlements (96,6%)

2,166 livestock households of 2,666 agricultural households:

  • 44 Albanian households (2%)
  • 2,122 Serbian households (98%)


1455Edit

1455: Turkish cadastral tax census (defter)[41] of the Branković District (covering most of present-day Kosovo) recorded:

  • 480 villages,
  • 13,693 adult males,
  • 12,985 dwellings,
  • 14,087 household heads (480 widows and 13,607 adult males).

Totally there were around 75,000 inhabitants in 590 villages comprising modern-day Kosovo.

1487Edit

1487 defter recorded:

  • Vučitrn district:
    • 16,729 Christian households (412 in Pristina and Vučitrn)
    • 117 Muslim households (94 in Pristina and 83 in rural areas)
  • Ipek (Peć) district:
    • City of Ipek
    • 121 Christian households
    • 33 Muslim households
  • Suho Grlo and Metohija:
    • 131 Christian households of which 52% in Suho Grlo were Serbs
  • Donja Klina - 50% Serbs
  • Deçan - 64% Serbs
  • Rural areas:
    • 6,124 Christian households (99%)
    • 55 Muslim households (1%)

16th centuryEdit

1520-1535Edit

  • Vučitrn: 19,614 households
    • Christians
    • 700 Muslim households (3,5%)
  • Prizren
    • Christians
    • 359 Muslim households (2%)

1582Edit

Ottoman defter of the Shkodra Sandjak (Defter-i Mufassal Liva-i Iskenderiye. № 416 (59))[42]

  • Peć nahiya:
    • 235 villages of which some 30 have Albanian families besides the majorital Orthodox Serbs.
    • City of Peć – 18 mahalas; 3 free, 13 Muslim (newly Islamicised), 5 Serbian (2 houses were Albanian)
    • Village Osek – Muslim (Islamicised) majority, with some settled Christian Albanians
    • Village Selojani – Muslim majority, small Christian Albanian and Serb population
    • Village Mramor – 22 houses. Albanian majority
    • Village Belovci – 50 Serbian houses.
    • Village Granica – 65 Serbian houses.
    • Village Belo Polje – 2 Serbian mahalas. 3 priests.
    • Village Bukovica – Serbian. 2 converts to Islam.
    • Village Lipovac – Islamicised Albanian.
    • Village Trakakin – Albanian. Islamicised majority.
    • Village Baba – Serbian. 1 convert to Islam.
    • Village Videš – Serbian.
    • Village Veliki Đurđevik – 64 Serbian houses. 2 families from Prizren and Vučitrn.
    • 17 Serb villages: 1 Albanian house.
    • Village Suho Grlo – 3 Serbian mahalas. 1 Islamicised Serb.
    • 3 Serb villages
    • 17 Serb villages: 3 Muslim houses. 8 priests.
    • Village Zlokućani – Serbian. 5 Muslim houses.
    • Village Kavlica – Serbian. 8 Muslim houses.
    • Village Strelice – 70 Serbian houses. few Islamicised.
    • 8 Serb villages
    • Village Rusance – Albanian majority. 3 Muslims.
    • Village Muževine – Serbian. 1 priest.
    • Village Srednja Crnja – 8 Albanian Muslim houses.
    • 34 Serb villages: total 2 Albanian houses in 2 villages.
    • Village Njivokos – Serbian majority. Notable Islamicisation.
    • Village Vrela Manastir – Serbian.
    • 13 Serb villages: 1 Islamicised house.
    • Village Gusnica – 20 Albanian Islamicised houses.
    • 15 Serb villages: Islamicisation occurred in 3 villages.
    • Village Vinodol – Serbian. 8 soldier houses from Bosnian Sandzak.
    • Village (?) – Serbs, Albanians and Muslims.
    • 20 Serb villages: occurrence of Islamicisation.
    • 2 Albanian villages: Islamicised.
    • 39 Serb villages: 9 monasteries (one is Deçan). 1 Albanian male.
    • Village Brestovac – 10 Albanian houses.
    • Village Belica – 35 Muslim houses.
    • 56 villages: 42 Serb villages of which 14 with a Muslim minority.
    • Village Novosel – Muslim and Albanian.
    • Village Labranima – Serbian majority. 2 Muslim houses.
    • Village Dubak – 10 Albanian houses and 9 Muslim houses.
    • Village Dobroševo – 28 houses. Albanian majority. 3 Muslim houses.
    • Village Šankovac – Serbian majority. 3 Muslim houses.
    • Village Dobrič-Dol – Muslim.
    • Village Gornji Petrič – Serbian majority. – 50 Serbian houses, 3 Muslim houses.
    • Village Vranić – Muslim and Albanian.
    • Village Crni Potok – 25 Muslim houses.
    • Village Arženik – Serbian. Few Muslim houses.
    • Village Prelopci – Serbs, Albanians and Muslims.
    • Village Rugovo – 86 Serbian houses.
  • Altun-li nahiya:
    • 41 villages – Serb majority, Albanian minority.

1591Edit

Ottoman defter from 1591:[43]

  • Prizren – Serbian majority, significant Albanian minority
  • Gora – Serbian.
  • Opolje – Albanian Muslim.

17th – 18th centuriesEdit

The Great Turkish War of 1683–1699 between the Ottomans and the Habsburgs led to the flight of a substantial numbers of Serbs and Albanians who had sided with the Austrians, from within and outside Kosovo, to Austrian held Vojvodina and the Military Frontier – Patriarch Arsenije III, one of the refugees, referred to 30,000 or 40,000 souls, but a much later monastic source referred to 37,000 families. Serbian historians have used this second source to talk of a Great Migration of Serbs. Wars in 1717–1738 led to a second exodus of refugees (both Serbian and Albanian) from inside and outside Kosovo, together with reprisals and the enslavement and deportation of a number of Serbs and Albanians by the victorious Ottomans.[44]

19th centuryEdit

Ethnographic map of Balkans (detail), Atlas Général Vidal-Lablache, Paris, 1898.

19th century data about the population of Kosovo tend to be rather conflicting, giving sometimes numerical superiority to the Serbs and sometimes to the Albanians. The Ottoman statistics are regarded as unreliable, as the empire counted its citizens by religion rather than nationality, using birth records rather than surveys of individuals.

A study in 1838 by an Austrian physician, dr. Joseph Müller found Metohija to be mostly "Slavic" in character.[45] Müller gives data for the three counties (Bezirke) of Prizren, Peć and Gjakova which roughly covered Metohija, the portion adjacent to Albania and most affected by Albanian settlers. Out of 195,000 inhabitants in this region, Müller found:

Müller's observations on towns:

Map published by French ethnographer G. Lejean[46] in 1861 shows that Albanians lived on around 57% Kosovo while a similar map, published by British travellers G. M. Mackenzie and A. P. Irby[46] in 1867 shows slightly less; these maps don't show which population was larger overall. Nevethless, maps cannot be used to measure population as they leave out density.

A study done in 1871 by Austrian colonel Peter Kukulj[47] for the internal use of the Austro-Hungarian army showed that the mutesarifluk of Prizren (corresponding largely to present-day Kosovo) had some 500,000 inhabitants, of which:

Ethnic distribution of Albanians, The Historical Atlas, New York, 1911

Modern Serbian sources estimated that around 400,000[48] Serbs were cleansed out of the Vilayet of Kosovo between 1876 and 1912.

Maps published by German historian Kiepert[46] in 1876, J. Hahn[46] and Austrian consul K. Sax,[46] show that Albanians live on most of the territory of what is now Kosovo, however they don't show which population is larger. According to these, the regions of Kosovska Mitrovica and Kosovo Polje were settled mostly by Serbs, whereas most of the territory of western and eastern parts of today's province was settled by Muslim Albanians.

An Austrian statistics[49] published in 1899 estimated:

At the end of the 19th century, Spiridon Gopchevich, an Austrian traveller – comprised a statistics and published them in Vienna. They established that Prizren had 60,000 citizens of whom 11,000 were Christian Serbs and 36,000 Muslem Serbs. The remaining population were Turks, Albanians, Tzintzars and Roma. For Peć he said that it had 2,530 households of which 1,600 were Mohammedan, 700 Christian Serb, 200 Catholic Albanian and 10 Turkish.

Note: Territory of Ottoman Kosovo Vilayet was quite different from modern-day Kosovo.

20th centuryEdit

Ethnic composition of Kosovo in 1911

British journalist H. Brailsford estimated in 1906[50] that two-thirds of the population of Kosovo was Albanian and one-third Serbian. The most populous western districts of Gjakova and Peć were said to have between 20,000 and 25,000 Albanian households, as against some 5,000 Serbian ones. A map of Alfred Stead,[51] published in 1909, shows that similar numbers of Serbs and Albanians were living in the territory.

German scholar Gustav Weigand gave the following statistical data about the population of Kosovo,[52] based on the pre-war situation in Kosovo in 1912:

  • Pristina District: 67% Albanians, 30% Serbs
  • Prizren District: 63% Albanians, 36% Serbs
  • Vučitrn District: 90% Albanians, 10% Serbs
  • Ferizaj District: 70% Albanians, 30% Serbs
  • Gnjilane District: 75% Albanians, 23% Serbs
  • Mitrovica District: 60% Serbs, 40% Albanians

Metohija with the town of Gjakova is furthermore defined as almost exclusively Albanian by Weigand.[52]

Citing Serbian sources, Noel Malcolm also states that in 1912 when Kosovo came under Serbian control, "the Orthodox Serb population [was] at less than 25%" of Kosovo's entire population.[53]

Balkan Wars and World War I-World War IIEdit

Ethnographic map of Europe in 1922, C.S. Hammond & Co.
Distribution of Races in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1923, William R. Shepherd Atlas
  • The 1921 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes population census for the territories comprising modern day Kosovo listed 439,010 inhabitants:
By religion:
By native language:
  • According to the 1931 Kingdom of Yugoslavia population census, there were 552,064 inhabitants in today's Kosovo.
By religion:
By native language:

World War IIEdit

Most of the territory of today's province was occupied by Italian-controlled Greater Albania, massacres of some 10,000[54][55] Serbs, ethnic cleansing of about 100[54] to 250,000[54][56] or more[55][unreliable source?] occurred.

Nazi Germany estimated that from November 1943 to February 1944, 40 000 Serbs fled Italian-occupied Kosovo for Montenegro and Serbia.

On graph are displayed percentages of Albanian and Serbian population in Kosovo during 20th century.[citation needed] All other nations together never took more than 6%, so they are not displayed

1948 censusEdit

727,820 total inhabitants:

1953 censusEdit

808,141 total inhabitants

1961 censusEdit

963,959 total inhabitants

  • 646,604 Albanians (67.08%)
  • 227,016 Serbs (23.55%)
  • 37,588 Montenegrins (3.9%)
  • 8,026 Ethnic Muslims (0.83%)
  • 7,251 Croat (0.75%)
  • 5,203 Yugoslavs (0.54%)
  • 3,202 Romani (0.33%)
  • 1,142 Macedonians (0.12%)
  • 510 Slovenes (0.05%)
  • 210 Hungarians (0.02%)

1971 censusEdit

1,243,693 total inhabitants[citation needed]

  • 916,168 Albanians or 73.7%[56]
  • 228,264 Serbs (18.4%)
  • 31,555 Montenegrins (2.5%)
  • 26,000 Slavic Muslims (2.1%)
  • 14,593 Romani (1.2%)
  • 12,244 Turks (1.0%)
  • 8,000 Croats (0.7%)
  • 920 Yugoslavs (0.1%)

1981 censusEdit

1,584,558 total inhabitants

  • 1,226,736 Albanians (77.42%)
  • 209,498 Serbs (13.2%)
  • 27,028 Montenegrins (1.7%)
  • 2,676 Yugoslavs (0.2%)

1991 censusEdit

Official Yugoslav statistical results, almost all Albanians and some Roma, Muslims boycott the census following a call by Ibrahim Rugova to boycott Serbian institutions.

359,346 total population

  • 194,190 Serbs (10%)[57]
  • 20,356 Montenegrins (1%)
  • 9,091 Albanians (most boycotted)
  • 66,189 Muslims
  • 45,75 Romas
  • 10,446 Turks
  • 8,062 Croats (Janjevci, Letnicani)
  • 3,457 Yugoslavs

Official Yugoslav statistical corrections and projections, with the help of previous census results (1948–1981):

1,956,196 Total population

  • 1,596,072 Albanians (81.6%)
  • 194,190 Serbs (9.9%)
  • 66,189 Muslims (3.4%)
  • 45,760 Romas (2.34%)
  • 20,365 Montenegrins (1.04%)
  • 10,445 Turks (0.53%)
  • 8,062 Croats (Janjevci) (0.41)
  • 3,457 Yugoslavs (0.18%)
  • 11,656 others (0.6%)

The corrections should not taken to be fully accurate. The number of Albanians is sometimes regarded as being an underestimate. On the other hand, it is sometimes regarded as an overestimate, being derived from earlier censa which are believed to be overestimates. The Statistical Office of Kosovo states that the quality of the 1991 census is "questionable." [5].

In September 1993, the Bosniak parliament returned their historical name Bosniaks. Some Kosovar Muslims have started using this term to refer to themselves since.

1995 estimateEdit

In the year of 1995, Official Yugoslav statistical results,.[citation needed] There was a total of around 1,600,000 inhabitants in Kosovo (and a further 600,000 living abroad):

    • Albanians – around 1,360,000 (89.9%); 1,960,000 with the diaspora
    • Serbs – around 140,000 (6.3%)
    • Muslims – around 40,000 (1.9%)
    • Roma – around 40,000 (1.9%)
    • Turks – around 8,000 (0.3%)
    • Montenegrins – around 7,000 (0.3%)
    • others – around 5,000 (0.2%)

2011 censusEdit

In the 2011 census there are 1,739,825 inhabitants, excluding the three Serb-majority municipalities in north Kosovo, this is the ethnic composition of Kosovo:

The Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians,are in fact Roma, but who self identify in such terms to distinguish itself from the Romani people.

Kosovo War refugeesEdit

The total list of countries in which the refugees took refuge and in what numbers:[citation needed]

  • Montenegro – 61,900
  • Serbia – 180,000

abroad:

  • Albania – 405,000
  • Republic of Macedonia – 197,000
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina – 17,000

other countries in which Kosovars took refuge:

  • Germany – 9,974
  • Turkey – 6,259
  • Norway – 2,476
  • France – 2,354
  • Austria – 1,455
  • Belgium – 1,205
  • United Kingdom – 330

CIA World Factbook demographic statisticsEdit

Age structureEdit

  • 0–14 years: 27.7% (male 260,678/female 239,779)
  • 15–64 years: 65.7% (male 617,890/female 567,939)
  • 65 years and over: 6.6% (male 50,463/female 68,089) (2010 est.)

Sex ratioEdit

  • at birth: 1.086 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
  • 15–64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
  • total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Final Results of the 2011 Kosovo census
  2. ^ People's Daily: Belgrade to Reject Results of U.N.-Conducted Census in Kosovo
  3. ^ Living Standard Measurement Survey 2000, Statistical Office of Kosovo – see also Kosovo and its Population
  4. ^ Statistical Office of Kosovo Ndryshimet demografike të popullsisë së Kosovës në periudhën 1948-2006
  5. ^ "Agjensia e Statistikave te Kosoves". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  6. ^ "Statistikat e Popullsisë". Agjensia e statistikave te Kosoves. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  7. ^ "Kosovo Agency of Statistics". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  8. ^ "CIA- The World Factbook". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  9. ^ "People on Move,pg.18". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  10. ^ "People on Move,pg.22". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  11. ^ "People on Move,pg.22". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  12. ^ "People on Move,pg.20". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  13. ^ BBC: [1]
  14. ^ Coordination Centre of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Republic of Serbia for Kosovo and Metohija at the Wayback Machine (archived February 3, 2004)
  15. ^ UNHCR: 2002 Annual Statistical Report: Serbia and Montenegro, pg. 9
  16. ^ USCR: Country report: Yugoslavia
  17. ^ "Demographic and Socioeconomic Fnidings, pg 6". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  18. ^ "Demographic and Socioeconomic Fnidings, pg 7-11". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  19. ^ "Demographic and Socioeconomic Fnidings, pg 8". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  20. ^ "Demographic and Socioeconomic Fnidings, pg 27". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  21. ^ "Demographic and Socioeconomic Fnidings, pg 29". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  22. ^ "Health 2009". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  23. ^ https://www.jallc.nato.int/newsmedia/docs/kosovo_case_study.pdf
  24. ^ "Demographic and Socioeconomic Fnidings, pg 72". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  25. ^ "Demographic and Socioeconomic Fnidings, pg 73". Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  26. ^ http://esk.rks-gov.net/rekos2011/repository/flipbook/2/Final%20Results_ENG, p.62
  27. ^ http://euobserver.com/news/31390
  28. ^ http://esk.rks-gov.net/rekos2011/repository/flipbook/2/Final%20Results_ENG/#/143
  29. ^ http://esk.rks-gov.net/rekos2011/repository/flipbook/2/Final%20Results_ENG/#/144, p.125
  30. ^ http://esk.rks-gov.net/rekos2011/repository/flipbook/2/Final%20Results_ENG/#/144, p.131
  31. ^ http://esk.rks-gov.net/rekos2011/repository/flipbook/2/Final%20Results_ENG/#/144, p.145
  32. ^ Djordje Janković: Middle Ages in Noel Malcolm's "Kosovo. A Short History" and Real Facts
  33. ^ The central Balkan tribes in pre-Roman times: Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci and Moesians by Fanula Papazoglu,ISBN 90-256-0793-4,page 265
  34. ^ a b Pannonia and Upper Moesia: a history of the middle Danube provinces of the Roman Empire The Provinces of the Roman Empire Tome 4,ISBN-0710077149, 9780710077141,1974,page 9
  35. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0-631-19807-5.,Page 85,"... Whether the Dardanians were an Illyrian or a Thracian people has been much debated and one view suggests that the area was originally populated with Thracians who where [sic?] then exposed to direct contact with illyrians over a long period..."
  36. ^ Hauptstädte in Südosteuropa: Geschichte, Funktion, nationale Symbolkraft by Harald Heppner,page 134
  37. ^ Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De administrando imperio
  38. ^ Anne Comnène, Alexiade – Règne de l'Empereur Alexis I Comnène 1081-1118, texte etabli et traduit par B. Leib, Paris 1937-1945, II, 147-148, 157, 166, 184
  39. ^ Milica Grković, 2004, First charter of Deçan: Dečanski hrisovulja ili raskošni svitak, Zbornik Matice srpske za književnost i jezik, vol. 52, iss. 3, pp. 623-626
  40. ^ Pavle Ivić and Milica Grković, 1976, Dečanske hrisovulje, Institute of Linguistics (Novi Sad), (Serbo-Croatian)
  41. ^ The original Turkish-language copy of the census is stored in Istanbul's archives.
  42. ^ Vasić, Milan (1991), "Etnički odnosi u jugoslovensko-albanskom graničnom području prema popisnom defteru sandžaka Skadar iz 1582/83. godine", Stanovništvo slovenskog porijekla u Albaniji : zbornik radova sa međunarodnog naučnog skupa održanog u Cetinju 21, 22. i 23. juna 1990 (in Serbo-Croatian), OCLC 29549273 
  43. ^ TKGM, TD № 55 (412), (Defter sandžaka Prizren iz 1591. godine).
  44. ^ Noel Malcolm, Kosovo, A Short History pp.139–171
  45. ^ Dr. Joseph Müller, Albanien, Rumelien und die Österreichisch-montenegrinische Gränze, Prag, 1844
  46. ^ a b c d e H.R. Wilkinson, Maps and Politics; a review of the ethnographic cartography of Macedonia, Liverpool University Press, 1951
  47. ^ Das Fürstenthum Serbien und Türkisch-Serbien, eine militärisch-geographische Skizze von Peter Kukolj, Major im k.k.Generalstabe, Wien 1871
  48. ^ ISBN 86-17-09287-4: Kosta Nikolić, Nikola Žutić, Momčilo Pavlović, Zorica Špadijer: Историја за трећи разред гимназије, Belgrade, 2002, pg. 63
  49. ^ Detailbeschreibung des Sandzaks Plevlje und des Vilajets Kosovo (Mit 8 Beilagen und 10 Taffeln), Als Manuskript gedruckt, Vien 1899, 80–81.
  50. ^ H. N. Brailsford, Macedonia, Its Races and Their Future, London, 1906
  51. ^ Servia by the Servians, Compiled and Edited by Alfred Stead, With a Map, London (William Heinemann), 1909. (Etnographical Map of Servia, Scale 1:2.750.000).
  52. ^ a b Gustav Weigand, Ethnographie von Makedonien, Leipzig, 1924; Густав Вайганд, Етнография на Македония (Bulgarian translation)
  53. ^ "Is Kosovo Serbia? We ask a historian". The Guardian. 26 February 2008. Retrieved 24 March 2014. 
  54. ^ a b c Serge Krizman, Maps of Yugoslavia at War, Washington 1943.
  55. ^ a b ISBN 86-17-09287-4: Kosta Nikolić, Nikola Žutić, Momčilo Pavlović, Zorica Špadijer: Историја за трећи разред гимназије природно-математичког смера и четврти разред гимназије општег и друштвено-језичког смера, Belgrade, 2002, pg. 182
  56. ^ a b Annexe I, by the Serbian Information Centre-London to a report of the Select Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
  57. ^ Bugajski, Janusz (2002). Political Parties of Eastern Europe: A Guide to Politics in the Post-Communist Era. New York: The Center for Strategic and International Studies. p. 479. ISBN 1563246767. 

External linksEdit