|Native to||Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia (Vojvodina), Montenegro, Romania (Caraș-Severin County), Slovenia, and diaspora|
|Native speakers||5.55 million (2001)|
|Writing system||Latin (Gaj's alphabet)
|Official language in|| Croatia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
|Recognised minority language in|| Montenegro
Austria (in Burgenland)
Hungary (in Baranya County)
Italy (in Molise)
Romania (in Carașova, Lupac)
|Regulated by||Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics|
|Linguasphere||part of 53-AAA-g|
Traditional extent of Serbo-Croatian dialects in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina
|South Slavic languages
|Western South Slavic|
|Eastern South Slavic|
|a Includes Banat Bulgarian alphabet.|
Croatian (hrvatski jezik) is a standardized register of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighbouring countries. It is the official and literary language of Croatia and one of the official languages of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and neighboring countries.
Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin. The other Serbo-Croatian dialects spoken by Croats are Chakavian, Kajkavian, and Torlakian (by the Krashovani). These four dialects, and the four national standards, are usually subsumed under the term "Serbo-Croatian" in English, though this term is controversial for native speakers and paraphrases such as "Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian" are therefore sometimes used instead, especially in diplomatic circles.
Standardization began in the period sometimes called "Baroque Slavism" in the first half of the 17th century, while some authors date it back to the end of 15th century. The modern Neo-Shtokavian standard that appeared in the mid 18th century was the first unified Croatian literary language.
Modern language and standardisation
The first purely vernacular texts in Croatian date back to the 14th century (e.g. the Vatican Croatian Prayer Book from ca. 1400) and are distinctly different from Church Slavonic. In the 14th and 15th centuries the modern Croatian language emerged, with morphology, phonology and syntax only slightly differ from the contemporary Croatian standard language.
The standardization of the Croatian language can be traced back to the first Croatian dictionary written by Faust Vrančić (Dictionarium quinque nobilissimarum Europae linguarum—Latinae, Italicae, Germanicae, Dalmatiae et Ungaricae, Venice 1595), and to the first Croatian grammar written by Bartul Kašić (Institutionum linguae illyricae libri duo, Rome 1604).
Jesuit Kašić's translation of the Bible (Old and New Testament, 1622–1636; unpublished until 2000), written in the ornate Shtokavian-Ijekavian dialect of the Dubrovnik Renaissance literature is, despite orthographical differences, as close to the contemporary standard Croatian language as are the French of Montaigne's "Essays" or the English of the King James Bible to their respective successors—the modern standard languages.
This period, sometimes called "Baroque Slavism", was crucial in the formation of the literary idiom that was to become the Croatian standard language. The 17th century witnessed three developments that shaped modern Croatian:
- The linguistic works of Jesuit philologists Kašić and Mikalja;
- The literary activity of Bosnian Franciscan Matija Divković, whose Counter-Reformation writings, comprising popular tales from the Bible, sermons and polemics, were widespread among Croats both in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia;
- The poetry of Ivan Gundulić from Dubrovnik.
First attempts at standardisation
In the late medieval period up to the 17th century, the majority of semi-autonomous Croatia was ruled by two domestic dynasties of princes (banovi), the Zrinski and the Frankopan, which were linked by inter-marriage. Toward the 17th century, both of them attempted to unify Croatia both culturally and linguistically, writing in a mixture of all three principal dialects (Chakavian, Kajkavian and Shtokavian), and calling it "Croatian", "Dalmatian", or "Slavonian". It is still used now in parts of Istria, which became a crossroads of various mixtures of Chakavian with Ekavian/Ijekavian/Ikavian dialects.
The most standardised form (Kajkavian-Ikavian) became the cultivated elite language of administration and intellectuals from the Istrian peninsula along the Croatian coast, across central Croatia up into the northern valleys of the Drava and the Mura. The cultural apogee of this unified standard in the 17th century is represented by the editions of "Adrianskoga mora sirena" ("Siren of Adriatic Sea") by Petar Zrinski and "Putni tovaruš" ("Traveling escort") by Katarina Zrinska.
However, this first linguistic renaissance in Croatia was halted by the political execution of Petar Zrinski and Fran Krsto Frankopan by the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I in Vienna in 1671. Subsequently the Croatian elite in the 18th century gradually abandoned this combined Croatian standard, and after an Austrian initiative of 1850, it was replaced by the uniform Neo-Shtokavian.
The Illyrian movement was a 19th-century movement in Croatia to standardise the Croatian language in order to merge it into a common South Slavic language. Specifically, Croatian had three major dialects, and there had been several literary languages over four centuries. The leader of the Illyrian movement Ljudevit Gaj standardized the Latin alphabet in 1830–1850 and worked to bring about a standardised Croatian literary script. Although based in Kajkavian-speaking Zagreb, Gaj supported using the more populous neo-Shtokavian–—a version of Shtokavian that became the main Croatian and Serbian literary language from the 18th century on——as the common literary standard for Croatian and Serbian. Supported by various South Slavic proponents, Neo-Shtokavian was adopted at the Vienna Literary Agreement of 1850, uniting the Croat and Serb languages. The 19th century linguists' and lexicographers' main concern was to achieve a more consistent and unified written norm and orthography, which led to a "passion for neologisms" or vigorous word coinage, originating from the purist nature of Croatian literary language, which was not shared by Serbian.
Differences between standard Croatian and standard Serbian and Bosnian
|This section requires expansion. (November 2012)|
Croatian, although technically a form of Serbo-Croatian, is sometimes considered a distinct language by itself. Purely linguistic considerations of languages based on mutual intelligibility (abstand languages) frequently clash with sociopolitical conceptions of language, so that varieties that are mutually intelligible may be designated separate languages. Along these lines, the various varieties of Serbo-Croatian have distinct standard forms, the differences are often exaggerated for political reasons, and many Croats and even Croatian linguists regard Croatian as a separate language, and language is considered key to national identity. Croatian is unique in being written exclusively in the Latin script rather than in Cyrillic. The rejection of the term "Serbo-Croatian" as a cover term for all these forms is often based upon the argument that the official language in Yugoslavia, a standardized form of Serbo-Croatian, was "artificial" or a political tool used to combine two distinct people. Within ex-Yugoslavia, the term has largely been replaced by the ethnic terms Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian, which have developed largely independently since the dissolution of Yugoslavia. These have been used as language names historically as well, though not always distinctively; the Croatian–Hungarian Agreement for example designated "Croatian" as one of its official languages, and Croatian is expected to become an official EU language upon accession of Croatia to the EU on 1 July 2013. In 2013, the EU started publishing Croatian language version of its Official Gazette.
Relation to Serbian
The 19th century language development overlapped with the upheavals that befell the Serbian language. It was Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, a self-taught linguist and folklorist, whose scriptory and orthographic stylization of Serbian folk idiom made a radical break with the past; until his activity in the first half of the 19th century, Serbs had been using the Serbian redaction of Church Slavonic and a hybrid Russian-Slavonic language[which?]. His Serbian Dictionary, published in Vienna 1818 (along with the appended grammar), was the single most significant work of Serbian literary culture that shaped the profile of Serbian language (and the first Serbian dictionary and grammar thus far).[clarification needed]
Following the incentive of Austrian bureaucracy which preferred a common literary language of Serbs and Croats languages for practical administrative reasons, in 1850, Slovene philologist Franc Miklošič initiated a meeting of two Serbian philologists and writers, Vuk Stefanović Karadžić and Đuro Daničić, with five Croatian "men of letters": Ivan Mažuranić, Dimitrija Demeter, Stjepan Pejaković, Ivan Kukuljević and Vinko Pacel. The Vienna Literary Agreement on the basic features of a common literary language based on the NeoShtokavian dialect with Ijekavian accent was signed by all eight participants (including Miklošič).
Karadžić's influence on Croatian standard idiom was only one of the reforms for Croats, mostly in some aspects of grammar and orthography; many other changes he made to Serbian were already present in Croatian literary tradition (which historically flourished in other dialects). Both literary languages shared the common basis of South Slavic NeoShtokavian dialect, but the Vienna agreement didn't have any real effect until a more unified standard appeared at the end of 19th century when Croatian sympathizers of Vuk Karadžić, known as the Croatian Vukovians, wrote the first modern (from the vantage point of dominating neogrammarian linguistic school) grammars, orthographies and dictionaries of the language which they called Serbo-Croatian, Croato-Serbian or Croatian or Serbian. Monumental grammar authored by pre-eminent fin de siècle Croatian linguist Tomislav Maretić (Grammar and stylistics of Croatian or Serbian language, 1899), dictionary by Ivan Broz and Franjo Iveković (Croatian dictionary, 1901), and an orthography by Broz (Croatian Orthography, 1892) fixed the elastic (grammatically, syntactically, lexically) standard[editorializing] of Croatian literary idiom that is used to this day.
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929), after the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1941) was pronounced, tried to use a joint language of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs — in the spirit of supra-national Yugoslav ideology. This meant that Croatian and Serbian were no longer officially developed individually side by side, instead there was an attempt to forge all three into one language.[editorializing] As Serbs were by far the largest single ethnic group in the kingdom, this forging was resultant in a Serbian-based language, which meant a certain degree of Serbianization of the Croatian language. E.g., Croatian terminology in penal legislation was significantly Serbianized after 1929, with unification of terminology in Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
In the 1920s and 1930s, the lexical, syntactical, orthographical and morphological characteristics of "Serbo-Croato-Slovene" were officially prescribed for Croatian textbooks and general communication. This process of "unification" into one Serbo-Croatian language was preferred by neo-grammarian Croatian linguists, the most notable example being the influential philologist and translator Tomislav Maretić. However, this school was virtually extinct by the late 1920s and since then leading Croatian linguists (such as Petar Skok, Stjepan Ivšić and Petar Guberina) were unanimous in the re-affirmation of the Croatian purist tradition.
The situation somewhat eased in the run-up to World War II (cf. the establishment of Banovina of Croatia within Yugoslavia in 1939), but with the capitulation of Yugoslavia and the creation of the Axis puppet regime (the Independent State of Croatia, 1941–1945) came another, this time hardly predictable and grotesque attack on standard Croatian:[editorializing] the totalitarian dictatorship of Ante Pavelić pushed natural Croatian purist tendencies to ludicrous extremes and tried to re-impose older morphonological orthography preceding Ivan Broz's orthographical prescriptions from 1892. An official order signed by Pavelić and co-signed by Mile Budak and Milovan Žanić in August 1941 deprecated some imported words and forbade the use of any foreign words that could be replaced with Croatian neologisms.
However, Croatian linguists and writers were strongly opposed to such "language planning" in the same way that they rejected pro-Serbian forced unification in monarchist Yugoslavia. No Croatian dictionaries or grammars were published in this period. In the Communist period (1945 to 1990), it was the by-product of Communist centralism and "internationalism". Whatever the intentions, the result was the same: the suppression of the basic features that differentiate Croatian from Serbian, both in terms of orthography and vocabulary.[editorializing] No Croatian dictionaries (apart from historical "Croatian or Serbian", conceived in the 19th century) appeared until 1985, when centralism was well in the process of decay.
In Communist Yugoslavia, Serbian language and terminology were un-officially dominant in a few areas: the military (officially: 1963–1974), diplomacy, Federal Yugoslav institutions (various institutes and research centres), state media, and jurisprudence at the federal level. Also encouraged by the state, language in Bosnia and Herzegovina was gradually Serbianized in all levels of the educational system and the republic's administration. Virtually the only institution of any importance where the Croatian language was dominant had been the Yugoslav Lexicographical Institute in Zagreb, headed by Croatian writer Miroslav Krleža.
Notwithstanding the declaration of intent of AVNOJ (The Antifascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia) in 1944, which proclaimed the equality of all languages of Yugoslavia (Slovene, Croatian, Serbian and Macedonian) – everything had, in practice, been geared towards the supremacy of the Serbian language.[neutrality is disputed] This was done under the pretext of "mutual enrichment" and "togetherness", hoping that the transient phase of relatively peaceful life among peoples in Yugoslavia would eventually give way to one of fusion into the supra-national Yugoslav nation and, arguably, provide a firmer basis for Serbianization. However, this "supra-national engineering" was arguably doomed from the outset.[editorializing] The nations that formed the Yugoslav state were formed long before its incipience and all unification pressures only poisoned and exacerbated inter-ethnic/national relations, causing the state to become merely ephemeral. However legal texts were translated to all four official Slavic languages (from 1944), as well as to Albanian and Hungarian (from 1970).
The single most important effort by ruling Yugoslav Communist elites to erase the "differences" between Croatian and Serbian – and in practice impose the Serbian Ekavian accent, written in Latin script, as the "official" language of Yugoslavia – was the so-called "Novi Sad Agreement".[neutrality is disputed] Twenty five Serbian, Croatian, and Montenegrin philologists came together in 1954 to sign the Agreement. A common Serbo-Croatian or "Croato-Serbian" orthography was compiled in 1960 in an atmosphere of state repression and fear. There were 18 Serbs and 7 Croats in Novi Sad. The "Agreement" was seen by the Croats as a defeat for the Croatian cultural heritage.[editorializing] According to the eminent Croatian linguist Ljudevit Jonke, it was imposed on the Croats. The conclusions were formulated according to goals which had been set in advance, and discussion had no role whatsoever. In the more than a decade that followed, the principles of the Novi Sad Agreement were put into practice.
A collective Croatian reaction against such de facto Serbian imposition erupted[editorializing] on March 15, 1967. On that day, nineteen Croatian scholarly institutions and cultural organizations dealing with language and literature (Croatian Universities and Academies), including foremost Croatian writers and linguists (Miroslav Krleža, Radoslav Katičić, Dalibor Brozović and Tomislav Ladan among them) issued the "Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language". In the Declaration, they asked for amendment to the Constitution expressing two claims:
- the equality not of three but of four literary languages, Slovene, Croatian, Serbian, and Macedonian, and consequently, the publication of all federal laws and other federal acts in four instead of three languages.
- the use of the Croatian standard language in schools and all mass communication media pertaining to the Republic of Croatia. The Declaration accused the federal authorities in Belgrade of imposing Serbian as the official state language and downgrading Croatian to the level of a local dialect.
Notwithstanding the fact that "Declaration" was vociferously condemned by Yugoslav Communist authorities as an outburst of "Croatian nationalism", Serbo-Croatian forced unification was essentially halted and an uneasy status quo remained until the end of Communism.[neutrality is disputed] The "Declaration" succeeded in establishing a Constitutional norm by which in the Socialist Republic of Croatia the official language was the Croatian literary language which could be called Croatian or Serbian.
In the decade between the death of Marshall Tito (1980) and the final collapse of communism and the Yugoslavian federal state (1990/1991), major works that manifested the irrepressibility of Croatian linguistic culture had appeared.[editorializing] The studies of Brozović, Katičić and Babić that had been circulating among specialists or printed in the obscure philological publications in the 1960s and 1970s (frequently condemned and suppressed by the authorities) have finally, in the climate of dissolving authoritarianism, been published. This was a formal "divorce" of Croatian from Serbian.[editorializing] These works, based on modern fields and theories (structuralist linguistics and phonology, comparative-historical linguistics and lexicology, transformational grammar and areal linguistics) revised or discarded older "language histories",[neutrality is disputed] and restored the continuity of the Croatian language by definitely reintegrating and asserting specific Croatian characteristics (phonetic, morphological, syntactic, lexical, etc.) that had been constantly suppressed in both Yugoslavian states and finally gave modern linguistic description and prescription to the Croatian language. Among many monographs and serious studies, one could point to works issued by the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, particularly Katičić's Syntax and Babić's Word-formation.
After the collapse of Communism and the birth of Croatian independence (1991), the situation with regard to the Croatian language has become stabilized. No longer under negative political pressures and de-Croatization impositions,[neutrality is disputed] Croatian linguists expanded the work on various ambitious programs and intensified their studies on current dominant areas of linguistics: mathematical and corpus linguistics, textology, psycholinguistics, language acquisition and historical lexicography. From 1991 on, numerous representative Croatian linguistic works were published, among them four voluminous monolingual dictionaries of contemporary Croatian, various specialized dictionaries and normative manuals (the most representative being the issue of the Institute for Croatian Language and Linguistics). For a curious bystander, probably the most noticeable language feature in Croatian society was the re-Croatization of Croatian in all areas, from phonetics to semantics and (most evidently) in everyday vocabulary.[editorializing]
Croatian is today the official language of the Republic of Croatia and, along with Bosnian and Serbian, one of three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is also official in the regions of Burgenland (Austria),Molise (Italy) and Vojvodina (Serbia). Additionally, it has co-official status alongside Romanian in the communes of Carașova and Lupac,Romania. In these localities, Croats or Krashovani make up the majority of the population, and education, signage and access to public administration and the justice system are provided in Croatian, alongside Romanian. There are eight Croatian language universities in the world: the universities of Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek, Zadar, Dubrovnik, Pula, and Mostar.
There is at present no sole regulatory body which determines correct usage of the Croatian language. There is however an Institute for the Croatian language and linguistics with a prescription department. The current language standard is generally laid out in the grammar books and dictionaries used in education facilities, such as the school curriculum prescribed by the Ministry of Education and the university programmes of the Faculty of Philosophy at the four main universities. Attempts are being made to revive Croatian literature in Italy. The most prominent recent editions describing the Croatian standard language are:
- Hrvatski pravopis by Babić, Finka, Moguš,
- Rječnik hrvatskoga jezika by Anić,
- Rječnik hrvatskoga jezika by Šonje et al.
- Hrvatski enciklopedijski rječnik, by a group of authors,
- Hrvatska gramatika by Barić et al.,
Also notable are the recommendations of Matica hrvatska, the national publisher and promoter of Croatian heritage, the Lexicographical institute "Miroslav Krleža", as well as the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.
Numerous representative Croatian linguistic works were published since the end of Communism in 1990, among them three voluminous monolingual dictionaries of contemporary Croatian.
- "Linguistic Lineage for Croatian". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- "Serbo-Croatian". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
The official language of Croatia is Croatian (Serbo-Croatian). [...] The same language is referred to by different names, Serbian (srpski), Serbo-Croat (in Croatia: hrvatsko-srpski), Bosnian (bosanski), based on political and ethnical grounds. [...] the language that used to be officially called Serbo-Croat has gotten several new ethnically and politically based names. Thus, the names Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian are politically determined and refer to the same language with possible slight variations. ("Croatia: Language Situation", in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2 ed., 2006.)
- David Dalby, Linguasphere (1999/2000, Linguasphere Observatory), pg. 445, 53-AAA-g, "Srpski+Hrvatski, Serbo-Croatian".
- Benjamin W. Fortson IV, Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (2010, Blackwell), pg. 431, "Because of their mutual intelligibility, Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian are usually thought of as constituting one language called Serbo-Croatian."
- Václav Blažek, "On the Internal Classification of Indo-European Languages: Survey" retrieved 20 Oct 2010, pp. 15–16.
- E.C. Hawkesworth, "Serbian-Croatian-Bosnian Linguistic Complex", in the Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edition, 2006.
- Radio Free Europe – Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Or Montenegrin? Or Just 'Our Language'? Živko Bjelanović: Similar, But Different, Feb 21, 2009, accessed Oct 8, 2010
- Stjepan Krasić: Počelo je u Rimu – Katolička obnova i normiranje hrvatskoga jezika u XVII stoljeću, Matica hrvatska, Dubrovnik, 2009, ISBN 978-953-6316-76-2
- Stjepan Babić: Hrvatski jučer i danas, Školske novine, Zagreb, 1995, ISBN 953-160-052-X, p. 250
- Journal of Croatian studies (1986) 27-30:45
- "Croatia: Themes, Authors, Books | Yale University Library Slavic and East European Collection". Library.yale.edu. 2009-11-16. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
- Fausto Veranzio, Dictionarium quinque nobilissimarum Europæ linguarum, Latinæ, Italicæ, Germanicæ Dalmatiæ et Ungaricæ. Apud Nicolaum Morettum, Venice, 1590
- Cassio, Bartholomaeo (1604). Institutionum linguae illyricae libri duo.
- Vladimir Horvat (March 2012). "Apologija Bartola Kašića" [Apology of Bartol Kašić]. Filologija (in Croatian) (Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts) (57). ISSN 0449-363X. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- Balázs Trencsényi; Márton Zászkaliczky (2010). Whose Love of Which Country?: Composite States, National Histories and Patriotic Discourses in Early Modern East Central Europe. BRILL. p. 201. ISBN 9789004182622. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- Gazi, Stephen (1973). A History of Croatia. New York: Philosophical library. ISBN 978-0-8022-2108-7.
- Van Antwerp Fine, John (2006). When Ethnicity did not Matter in the Balkans. Michigan, USA: University of Michigan Press. pp. 377–379. ISBN 978-0-472-11414-6.
- Kalsbeek, Janneke (1998). "The Čakavian dialect of Orbanići near Žminj in Istria". Studies in Slavic and General Linguistics (Rodopi) 25.
- "Matica Hrvatska - Dva brata i jedna Sirena". Retrieved 9 March 2012.
- "Matica Hrvatska - Putni tovaruš - izvornik (I.)". Retrieved 9 March 2012.
- Tanner, Marcus (1997). Croatia: a Nation Forged in War. New Haven, USA: Yale University Press. p. 50. ISBN 0-300-06933-2.
- Malić, Dragica (1997). Razvoj hrvatskog književnog jezika. ISBN 953-0-40010-1.
- Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskoga pravopisaňa
- Uzelac, Gordana (2006). The development of the Croatian nation: an historical and sociological analysis. New York: Edwin Mellen Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-7734-5791-1.
- Marica Čilaš (March 2002). "Sportsko nazivlje u hrvatskome i makedonskom standardnom jeziku na početku 21. stoljeća" [Sports terminology in Croatian and Macedonian standard languages in the beginning of the 21st century]. Rasprave Instituta za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje (in Croatian) (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje) 27 (1). ISSN 1331-6745. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- Cvetkovic, Ljudmila. "Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Or Montenegrin? Or Just 'Our Language'? – Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty © 2010". Rferl.org. Retrieved 2010-11-01.
- Benjamin W. Fortson IV, Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (2010, Blackwell), pg. 431.
- Snježana Ramljak; Library of the Croatian Parliament, Zagreb, Croatia (June 2008). ""Jezično" pristupanje Hrvatske Europskoj Uniji: prevođenje pravne stečevine i europsko nazivlje" [The Accession of the Croatian Language to the European Union: Translation of the Acquis Communautaire and European Legal Terminology]. Croatian Political Science Review (in Serbo-Croatian) (Faculty of Political Science, University of Zagreb) 45 (1). ISSN 0032-3241. Retrieved 2012-02-27.
- David Crystal "Language Death", Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 11, 12
- "Vandoren: EU membership – challenge and chance for Croatia – Daily – tportal.hr". Daily.tportal.hr. 2010-09-30. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
- "Applications for Croatian linguists". EU careers. 2012-06-21. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
- "Službeni list Europske unije" [Official Gazette of the European Union] (in Croatian). European Union. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- Miletić, Josip (January 2006). "Povijesni razlozi terminoloških promjena u novom hrvatskom kaznenom zakonodavstvu" [Historical reasons for the terminological changes in the new Croatian penal legislation]. Croatica et Slavica Iadertina (Department of Croatistics and Slavistics, University of Zadar) 1 (1). Retrieved 2012-02-27.
- "Croatia". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2010-12-21.
- "Ethnologue report for Bosnia and Herzegovina". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2010-12-21.
- Kinda-Berlakovich, Andrea Zorka (2006). "Hrvatski nastavni jezik u Gradišću u školsko-političkome kontekstu" [Croatian as the Language of Instruction and Language Policy in Burgenland from 1921 onwards]. LAHOR (Crotian Philological Society) 1 (1): 27–35. ISSN 1846-2197.
- "Endangered languages in Europe: report". Helsinki.fi. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
- "www.puma.vojvodina.gov.rs". Puma.vojvodina.gov.rs. Retrieved 2010-12-21.
- "Structura Etno-demografică a României". Edrc.ro. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
- "Structura Etno-demografică a României". Edrc.ro. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
- "Structura Etno-demografică a României". Edrc.ro. Retrieved 2010-12-21.
- "From Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- "Babić – Finka – Moguš : Hrvatski Pravopis". Sveznadar.com. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- "Vladimir Anić : Veliki Rječnik Hrvatskoga Jezika". Sveznadar.com. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- "Jure Šonje Gl.Ured. : Rječnik Hrvatskoga Jezika". Sveznadar.com. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- "Skupina Autora : Hrvatski Enciklopedijski Rječnik". Sveznadar.com. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- "Barić – Lončarić – Malić I Dr. : Hrvatska Gramatika". Sveznadar.com. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- Banac, Ivo: Main Trends in the Croatian Language Question, YUP 1984
- Blum, Daniel (2002). Sprache und Politik : Sprachpolitik und Sprachnationalismus in der Republik Indien und dem sozialistischen Jugoslawien (1945-1991) [Language and Policy: Language Policy and Linguistic Nationalism in the Republic of India and the Socialist Yugoslavia (1945-1991)]. Beiträge zur Südasienforschung ; vol. 192 (in German). Würzburg: Ergon. p. 200. ISBN 3-89913-253-X. OCLC 51961066.
- Franolić, Branko: A Historical Survey of Literary Croatian, Nouvelles Editions Latines, 1984
- Franolić, Branko: A Bibliography of Croatian Dictionaries, Paris, Nouvelles Editions Latines, 1985 139p
- Franolić, Branko: Language Policy in Yugoslavia with special reference to Croatian, Paris, Nouvelles Editions Latines 1988
- Franolić, Branko and Mateo Žagar: A Historical Outline of Literary Croatian & The Glagolitic Heritage of Croatian Culture, Erasmus & CSYPN, London & Zagreb 2008 ISBN 978-953-6132-80-5
- Greenberg, Robert David (2004). Language and identity in the Balkans: Serbo-Croatian and its disintegration. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-925815-4. (reprinted in 2008 as ISBN 978-0-19-920875-3)
- Gröschel, Bernhard (2009). Das Serbokroatische zwischen Linguistik und Politik: mit einer Bibliographie zum postjugoslavischen Sprachenstreit [Serbo-Croatian Between Linguistics and Politics: With a Bibliography of the Post-Yugoslav Language Dispute]. Lincom Studies in Slavic Linguistics ; vol 34 (in German). Munich: Lincom Europa. p. 451. ISBN 978-3-929075-79-3. LCCN 2009473660. OCLC 428012015. OL 15295665W.
- Kačić, Miro: Croatian and Serbian: Delusions and Distortions, Novi Most, Zagreb 1997
- Kordić, Snježana (2010). Jezik i nacionalizam [Language and Nationalism]. Rotulus Universitas (in Croatian). Zagreb: Durieux. p. 430. ISBN 978-953-188-311-5. LCCN 2011520778. OCLC 729837512. OL 15270636W. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Moguš, Milan: A History of the Croatian Language, NZ Globus, 1995
- Težak, Stjepko: "Hrvatski naš (ne)zaboravljeni" [Croatian, our (un)forgotten language], 301 p., knjižnica Hrvatski naš svagdašnji (knj. 1), Tipex, Zagreb, 1999, ISBN 953-6022-35-4 (Croatian)
||This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (April 2010)|
|Croatian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Croatian language|
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Croatian|
|Look up Croatian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Croatian language at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
- Croatian Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix)
- EUdict – online dictionary – translation from Croatian into many languages and vice versa
- Croatian Language Corpus
- Croatian Language Portal (Croatian)
- Croatian Language E-Learning Center
- Croatian Old Dictionary Portal
- Croatian Glagolitic Script
- Croatian Cyrillic Script
- Croatian Glagolitic Manuscripts held outside of Croatia
- The Croatian Language Today, a lecture given by dr. Branko Franolić
- History of Croatian Dictionaries and Grammar books at Yale University Library – Slavic and East European Collection
Read in another language
This page is available in 155 languages
- Беларуская (тарашкевіца)
- Fiji Hindi
- Bahasa Indonesia
- Basa Jawa
- Bahasa Melayu
- Dorerin Naoero
- Norsk bokmål
- Norsk nynorsk
- Олык марий
- Перем Коми
- Runa Simi
- Gagana Samoa
- Simple English
- Словѣ́ньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ
- Српски / srpski
- Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
- ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche
- Vepsän kel’
- Tiếng Việt