Last modified on 10 December 2014, at 17:21

List of courts of the United States

The courts of the United States are closely linked hierarchical systems of courts at the federal and state levels. The federal courts form the judicial branch of the Federal government of the United States and operate under the authority of the United States Constitution and federal law. The state and territorial courts of the individual U.S. states and territories operate under the authority of the state and territorial constitutions and state and territorial law.

Federal statutes that refer to the "courts of the United States" are referring only to the courts of the federal government, and not the courts of the individual states. Because of the federalist underpinnings of the division between sovereign federal and state governments, the various state court systems are free to operate in ways that vary widely from those of the federal government, and from one another. In practice, however, every state has adopted a division of its judiciary into at least two levels, and almost every state has three levels, with trial courts hearing cases which may be reviewed by appellate courts, and finally by a state supreme court. A few states have two separate supreme courts, with one having authority over civil matters and the other reviewing criminal cases. 47 states and the federal government allow at least one appeal of right from a final judgment on the merits, meaning that the court receiving the appeal must decide the appeal after it is briefed and argued properly. Three states do not provide a right to a first appeal. Rather, they give litigants only a right to petition for the right to have an appeal heard.

State courts often have diverse names and structures, as illustrated below. State courts hear about 98% of litigation; most states have courts of special jurisdiction, which typically handle minor disputes such as traffic citations, and courts of general jurisdiction responsible for more serious disputes.[1]

The U.S. federal court system hears cases involving litigants from two or more states, violations of federal laws, treaties, and the Constitution, admiralty, bankruptcy, and related issues.[2] In practice, about 80% of the cases are civil and 20% criminal.[1] The civil cases often involve civil rights, patents, and Social Security while the criminal cases involve tax fraud, robbery, counterfeiting, and drug crimes.[1] The trial courts are U.S. district courts, followed by United States courts of appeals and then the Supreme Court of the United States. The judicial system, whether state or federal, begins with a court of first instance, whose work may be reviewed by an appellate court, and then ends at the court of last resort, which may review the work of the lower courts.[3]

Institutions which may be considered courts of the United States are listed below.

United States federal courtsEdit

The geographical boundary of the 12 United States Courts of Appeals

Geographic based jurisdictionEdit

Specific subject-matter jurisdictionEdit

  • United States federal courts with Original Jurisdiction over specific subject matter:

Former United States CourtsEdit

Courts by state of the United StatesEdit


AlabamaEdit

Main article: Courts of Alabama
State courts of Alabama

Federal courts located in Alabama

(All United States District Courts in Alabama may be appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia)

Former federal courts of Alabama


AlaskaEdit

Main article: Courts of Alaska
State courts of Alaska

Federal courts located in Alaska


ArizonaEdit

Main article: Courts of Arizona
State courts of Arizona

Federal courts located in Arizona


ArkansasEdit

Main article: Courts of Arkansas
State courts of Arkansas

Federal courts located in Arkansas

Former federal courts of Arkansas


CaliforniaEdit

Main article: Courts of California
Headquarters of the Supreme Court of California, in San Francisco.
State courts of California

Federal courts located in California

Former federal courts of California


ColoradoEdit

Main article: Courts of Colorado
State courts of Colorado

Federal courts located in Colorado


ConnecticutEdit

Main article: Courts of Connecticut
State courts of Connecticut

Federal court located in Connecticut:


DelawareEdit

Main article: Courts of Delaware
State courts of Delaware

Federal courts located in Delaware


FloridaEdit

Main article: Courts of Florida
Headquarters of the Florida Supreme Court in Tallahassee.
State courts of Florida

Federal courts located in Florida

Former federal courts of Florida


GeorgiaEdit

State courts of Georgia

Federal courts located in Georgia

Former federal courts of Georgia


HawaiiEdit

Main article: Courts of Hawaii
Aliʻiōlani Hale, in Honolulu, the building where the Hawaiʻi State Supreme Court meets
State courts of Hawaii

Federal courts located in Hawaii


IdahoEdit

Main article: Courts of Idaho
State courts of Idaho

Federal courts located in Idaho


IllinoisEdit

Main article: Courts of Illinois
State courts of Illinois

Federal courts located in Illinois

Former federal courts of Illinois


IndianaEdit

Main article: Courts of Indiana
State courts of Indiana
The E. Ross Adair Federal Building, seat of the Fort Wayne division of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Indiana

Federal courts located in Indiana

Former federal courts of Indiana


IowaEdit

Main article: Courts of Iowa
State courts of Iowa

Federal courts located in Iowa

Former federal courts of Iowa


KansasEdit

Main article: Courts of Kansas
State courts of Kansas

Federal courts located in Kansas


KentuckyEdit

Main article: Courts of Kentucky
Kentucky Court of Justice

Under an amendment to the Kentucky Constitution passed by the state's voters in 1975,[127] judicial power in Kentucky is "vested exclusively in one Court of Justice", divided into the following:[128]

Federal courts located in this state

Former federal courts of Kentucky


LouisianaEdit

Main article: Courts of Louisiana
State courts of Louisiana

Federal courts located in Louisiana

Former federal courts of Louisiana


MaineEdit

Main article: Courts of Maine
State courts of Maine

Federal courts located in Maine


MarylandEdit

Main article: Courts of Maryland
Maryland judicial circuit map
State courts of Maryland

Federal courts located in Maryland

Former federal courts of Maryland


MassachusettsEdit

State courts of Massachusetts
Judicial courts
Administrative courts

Federal courts located in Massachusetts


MichiganEdit

Main article: Courts of Michigan
Judicial circuits map
State courts of Michigan

Federal courts located in Michigan

Former federal courts of Michigan


MinnesotaEdit

Main article: Courts of Minnesota
Supreme Court Chamber of the Minnesota Supreme Court in the Minnesota State Capitol in Saint Paul.
State courts of Minnesota

Federal courts located in Minnesota


MississippiEdit

Main article: Courts of Mississippi
State courts of Mississippi

Federal courts located in Mississippi

Former federal courts of Mississippi


MissouriEdit

Main article: Courts of Missouri
State courts of Missouri
Missouri State Supreme Court building across from state capitol in Jefferson City.

Federal courts located in Missouri

Former federal courts of Missouri


MontanaEdit

Main article: Courts of Montana
State courts of Montana

Federal courts located in Montana


NebraskaEdit

Main article: Courts of Nebraska
State courts of Nebraska

Federal courts located in Nebraska


NevadaEdit

Main article: Courts of Nevada
State courts of Nevada
The headquarters of the Supreme Court of Nevada in Carson City.

Federal courts located in Nevada


New HampshireEdit

State courts of New Hampshire

Federal courts located in New Hampshire


New JerseyEdit

Main article: Courts of New Jersey
State courts of New Jersey
Richard J. Hughes Justice Complex, Trenton, New Jersey: The seat of the New Jersey Supreme Court and the central administrative offices of all statewide courts in New Jersey.

Federal courts located in New Jersey

Former federal courts of New Jersey


New MexicoEdit

Main article: Courts of New Mexico
State courts of New Mexico

Federal courts located in New Mexico


New YorkEdit

Main article: Courts of New York
State courts of New York
The 1842 courthouse of the New York Court of Appeals in Albany.

Federal courts located in New York

Former federal courts of New York


North CarolinaEdit

State courts of North Carolina

Federal courts located in North Carolina

Former federal courts of North Carolina


North DakotaEdit

State courts of North Dakota

Federal courts located in North Dakota


OhioEdit

Main article: Courts of Ohio
State courts of Ohio
The Thomas J. Moyer Ohio Judicial Center, current headquarters of the Supreme Court of Ohio.

Federal courts located in this state

Former federal courts of Ohio


OklahomaEdit

Main article: Courts of Oklahoma
State courts of Oklahoma

Federal courts located in Oklahoma


OregonEdit

Main article: Courts of Oregon
State courts of Oregon
Courtroom of the Oregon Supreme Court.

Federal courts located in Oregon


PennsylvaniaEdit

State courts of Pennsylvania

Federal courts located in Pennsylvania

Former federal courts of Pennsylvania


Rhode IslandEdit

State courts of Rhode Island

Federal courts located in Rhode Island


South CarolinaEdit

State courts of South Carolina

Federal courts located in South Carolina


South DakotaEdit

State courts of South Dakota

Federal courts located in South Dakota


TennesseeEdit

Main article: Courts of Tennessee
State courts of Tennessee

Federal courts located in Tennessee

Former federal courts of Tennessee


TexasEdit

Main article: Courts of Texas
State courts of Texas

Federal courts located in Texas

Former federal courts of Texas


UtahEdit

Main article: Courts of Utah
The Utah Supreme Court meets in the Scott M. Matheson Courthouse.
State courts of Utah

Federal courts located in Utah


VermontEdit

Main article: Courts of Vermont
State courts of Vermont

Federal courts located in Vermont


VirginiaEdit

Main article: Courts of Virginia
State courts of Virginia

Federal courts located in Virginia

Former federal courts of Virginia


WashingtonEdit

State courts of Washington
The headquarters of the Washington Supreme Court in Olympia.

Federal courts located in Washington

Former federal courts of Washington


West VirginiaEdit

State courts of West Virginia

Federal courts located in West Virginia

Former federal courts of West Virginia


WisconsinEdit

Main article: Courts of Wisconsin
State courts of Wisconsin

Federal courts located in Wisconsin

Former federal courts of Wisconsin


WyomingEdit

Main article: Courts of Wyoming
State courts of Wyoming

Federal courts located in Wyoming


Courts in the District of ColumbiaEdit

Federal courts located in the District of Columbia

Former federal courts in the District of Columbia


Courts of the Territories of the United StatesEdit

American SamoaEdit

GuamEdit

United States territorial courtEdit

Northern Mariana IslandsEdit

United States territorial courtEdit

Panama Canal ZoneEdit

Puerto RicoEdit

Federal courts located in Puerto Rico:

United States Virgin IslandsEdit

United States territorial courtEdit


Extraterritorial courts of the United StatesEdit

U.S. judicial system in popular cultureEdit

Due to its involvement in the resolution of crimes and conflicts, which are an intricate part of drama, the U.S. judicial system is often portrayed in American literature and films.

Several Hollywood films such as A Few Good Men (1992) and Runaway Jury (2003) are set around its courts.

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c American Bar Association (2004). How the Legal System Works: The Structure of the Court System, State and Federal Courts. In ABA Family Legal Guide.
  2. ^ USCourts.gov. Comparing Federal and State Court Systems.
  3. ^ Public Services Department. INTRODUCTION TO THE COURT SYSTEM. Syracuse University College of Law.
  4. ^ "United States District Courts". Uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  5. ^ "The Federal Judiciary – United States Courts of Appeals". Uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  6. ^ "US Courts for the First Circuit". Ca1.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  7. ^ "Home". Ca2.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  8. ^ "Third Judicial Circuit". Ca3.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  9. ^ United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. "United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit". Ca4.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  10. ^ "U.S. Court of Appeals, 5th Circuit". Ca5.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  11. ^ "US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit". Ca6.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  12. ^ "Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals". Ca7.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  13. ^ "U.S. Court Court of Appeals – Welcome". Ca8.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  14. ^ "United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit". Ca9.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  15. ^ ":The U.S. Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals:". Ca10.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  16. ^ webmaster@ca11.uscourts.gov. "United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit". Ca11.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  17. ^ "U.S. Court of Appeals – D.C. Circuit – Home". Cadc.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  18. ^ David Bozovich of Web Services, U.S. Government Printing Office. "Supreme Court of the United States". supremecourt.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  19. ^ "United States Tax Court: Home". Ustaxcourt.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  20. ^ "Website of the United States Court of International Trade". Cit.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  21. ^ "US Court of Federal Claims". Uscfc.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  22. ^ "Federal Judicial History | Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court". Fjc.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  23. ^ "United States Bankruptcy Courts". Uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  24. ^ "United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit". Cafc.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  25. ^ "U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces". Armfor.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  26. ^ "USCAVC – United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims". Vetapp.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  27. ^ Federal Judicial Center. "History of the Federal Judiciary". Retrieved 2009-01-17. [dead link]
  28. ^ "Records of the United States Commerce Court". Archives.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  29. ^ Joseph Ragland, Outline of the Jurisdiction and Procedure of the Federal Courts (1917), p. 112, §80.
  30. ^ Alabama Appellate Courts Technology Division. "Alabama Judicial System Online – Supreme Court". Judicial.state.al.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  31. ^ Alabama Appellate Courts Technology Division. "Alabama Judicial System Online – Court of Civil Appeals". Judicial.state.al.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  32. ^ Alabama Appellate Courts Technology Division. "Alabama Judicial System Online – Court of Criminal Appeals". Judicial.state.al.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  33. ^ a b c d Alabama Unified Judicial System Structure
  34. ^ Alabama Appellate Courts Technology Division. "Alabama Judicial System Online – Court of the Judiciary – Overview". Judicial.state.al.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  35. ^ "Northern District of Alabama Internet Site NDAL". Alnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  36. ^ "United States District Court – Middle Alabama". Almd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  37. ^ "Alabama Southern District Court – US District Court". Als.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  38. ^ a b Alaska Appellate Courts.
  39. ^ a b Alaska Trial Courts.
  40. ^ "U.S. District Court for the District of Alaska Home Page". Akd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  41. ^ "Arizona Supreme Court". Arizona Supreme Court. Retrieved 2014-04-28. 
  42. ^ a b [1].
  43. ^ "General Information About the Justice Courts". Superiorcourt.maricopa.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  44. ^ "U.S. District Court of Arizona". Azd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  45. ^ "Supreme Court". Courts.state.ar.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  46. ^ "Court of Appeals". Courts.state.ar.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  47. ^ "Circuit Court". Courts.state.ar.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  48. ^ "District Court". Courts.state.ar.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  49. ^ "City Courts". Courts.state.ar.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  50. ^ "United States District Court Arkansas Eastern District". Are.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  51. ^ "United States District Court – Western District of Arkansas". Arwd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  52. ^ "California Courts: Courts: Supreme Court". Courtinfo.ca.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  53. ^ "California Courts: Courts: Courts of Appeal". Courtinfo.ca.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  54. ^ "California Courts: Courts: Superior Courts". Courtinfo.ca.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  55. ^ "CACD Home Page". Cacd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  56. ^ http://www.caed.uscourts.gov/
  57. ^ http://www.cand.uscourts.gov/
  58. ^ "United States District Court - CASD - Welcome to CASD". Casd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  59. ^ http://www.courts.state.co.us/supct/supctindex.htm
  60. ^ http://www.courts.state.co.us/coa/coaindex.htm
  61. ^ http://www.courts.state.co.us/district/districts.htm
  62. ^ http://www.courts.state.co.us/district/counties.htm
  63. ^ "United States District Court for the District of Colorado". Cod.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  64. ^ "Overview of the Supreme Court". Jud.state.ct.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  65. ^ "Appellate Court of Connecticut". Jud.state.ct.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  66. ^ "Connecticut Superior Court". Jud.state.ct.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  67. ^ "Connecticut Probate Court". Jud.state.ct.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  68. ^ Website of the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut
  69. ^ "First State Judiciary – Supreme Court Welcome!". Courts.delaware.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  70. ^ "First State Judiciary – Court of Chancery Welcome!". Courts.delaware.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  71. ^ "First State Judiciary – Superior Court of Delaware-Official Web Site". Courts.delaware.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  72. ^ "First State Judiciary – Family Court Welcome!". Courts.delaware.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  73. ^ "First State Judiciary – Court of Common Pleas Welcome!". Courts.delaware.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  74. ^ "USDC". Ded.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  75. ^ "Florida Supreme Court". Floridasupremecourt.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  76. ^ "District Courts". Flcourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  77. ^ "Circuit Courts". Flcourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  78. ^ "County Courts". Flcourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  79. ^ "Welcome to the Northern District of Florida". Flnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  80. ^ Linda H. Wade-Bahr. "United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida". Flmd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  81. ^ "Florida Southern District Court". Flsd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  82. ^ "The Supreme Court of Georgia :: gasupreme.us :: Home". Gasupreme.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  83. ^ "Court of Appeals of Georgia: 47 Trinity Ave., Suite 501, Atlanta, GA 30334". Gaappeals.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  84. ^ "Judicial Branch of Georgia :: Superior Courts". Georgiacourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  85. ^ "Judicial Branch of Georgia :: State Courts". Georgiacourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  86. ^ "Judicial Branch of Georgia :: Magistrate Courts". Georgiacourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  87. ^ "Judicial Branch of Georgia :: Juvenile Courts". Georgiacourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  88. ^ "Judicial Branch of Georgia :: Probate Courts". Georgiacourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  89. ^ "Welcome to the Homepage of the Judicial Branch of Georgia". Georgiacourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  90. ^ "NDGA: Internet Home". Gand.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  91. ^ "U.S. District Court – Middle District of Georgia". Gamd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  92. ^ "Southern District of Georgia". Gasd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  93. ^ "Hawai`i State Judiciary – Courts – Hawai`i Supreme Court – Hawai`i Supreme Court". Courts.state.hi.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  94. ^ "Hawai`i State Judiciary – Courts – Intermediate Court of Appeals – Intermediate Court of Appeals". Courts.state.hi.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  95. ^ "Hawai`i State Judiciary – Courts – Circuit Courts – Circuit Courts". Courts.state.hi.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  96. ^ "Hawai`i State Judiciary – Courts – Family Courts – Family Courts". Courts.state.hi.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  97. ^ "Hawai`i State Judiciary – Courts – District Courts – District Courts". Courts.state.hi.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  98. ^ a b Hawaii Land and Tax Appeal Courts.
  99. ^ "US District Court – District of Hawaii". Hid.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  100. ^ a b Idaho State Judiciary.
  101. ^ "Idaho District Court Websites". Isc.idaho.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  102. ^ "US Courts – District of Idaho Internet". Id.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  103. ^ "Illinois Supreme Court Home Page". State.il.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  104. ^ "Illinois Appellate Court Home Page". State.il.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  105. ^ "Illinois Circuit Court General Information". State.il.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  106. ^ "Northern District of Illinois – U.S. Courts". Ilnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  107. ^ "Central District of Illinois – U.S. Courts". Ilcd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  108. ^ "Southern District of Illinois – U.S. Courts". Ilsd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  109. ^ a b U.S. District Courts of Illinois Legislative history.
  110. ^ "Welcome to the Website of the Indiana Supreme Court!". In.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  111. ^ "IN.gov/judiciary/appeals :: Indiana Court of Appeals". In.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  112. ^ "Welcome to the Website of the Indiana Tax Court". In.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  113. ^ a b c Indiana Trial Courts.
  114. ^ a b c Indiana Trial Courts: Types of Courts.
  115. ^ "Northern District of Indiana – United States District Court". Innd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  116. ^ "U.S. District Court – Southern District of Indiana". Insd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  117. ^ "Supreme Court". Judicial.state.ia.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  118. ^ http://www.judicial.state.ia.us/Court_of_Appeals/
  119. ^ http://www.iowacourts.gov/District_Courts/
  120. ^ "US District Court | Northern District of Iowa". Iand.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  121. ^ "Southern District of Iowa". Iasd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  122. ^ "Kansas Judicial Branch – Supreme Court". Kscourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  123. ^ "Kansas Judicial Branch – Court of Appeals". Kscourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  124. ^ "Kansas Judicial Branch – District Courts". Kscourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  125. ^ "Kansas Judicial Branch – Municipal Courts". Kscourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  126. ^ http://www.ksd.uscourts.gov/
  127. ^ Kentucky State Board of Elections. "Amendment (May 29, 1975)". Kentucky Court of Justice. Retrieved May 5, 2011. 
  128. ^ "Section 109". Kentucky Constitution. Legislative Research Commission (Kentucky). Retrieved May 5, 2011. 
  129. ^ "Kentucky Supreme Court". Kentucky Court of Justice. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  130. ^ "Kentucky Court of Appeals". Kentucky Court of Justice. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  131. ^ "Kentucky Circuit Courts". Kentucky Court of Justice. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  132. ^ "Kentucky District Courts". Kentucky Court of Justice. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  133. ^ "US District Court KYED – Home". Kyed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  134. ^ "United States District Court – Western District of Kentucky". Kywd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  135. ^ "The Louisiana Supreme Court". Lasc.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  136. ^ "map02.asp". Lasc.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  137. ^ "map01.asp". Lasc.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  138. ^ "U.S. District Court – Eastern District of Louisiana". Laed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  139. ^ "Louisiana Middle District: Home". Lamd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  140. ^ "USDC Home". Lawd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  141. ^ "Maine Judicial Branch: Supreme Court". Courts.state.me.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  142. ^ "Maine Judicial Branch: Superior Court". Courts.state.me.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  143. ^ "Maine Judicial Branch: District Court". Courts.state.me.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  144. ^ "Maine Judicial Branch: Speciailized Court". Courts.state.me.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  145. ^ "United States District Court – District of Maine". Med.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  146. ^ "Court of Appeals of Maryland". Courts.state.md.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  147. ^ Theresa Thomas. "Maryland Court of Special Appeals". Courts.state.md.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  148. ^ "Circuit Courts Directory". Courts.state.md.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  149. ^ Roberta Warnken/Ken Brown. "District Court of Maryland". Courts.state.md.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  150. ^ "U.S. District Court District of Maryland". Mdd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  151. ^ a b Federal Judicial History: Federal Courts of the District of Columbia.
  152. ^ "Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court – Home Page". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  153. ^ "Appeals Court of Massachusetts". Mass.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-08-01. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  154. ^ "The Massachusetts Court System". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  155. ^ "Superior Court Department – Main Information Page". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  156. ^ "District Court Department – Main Information Page". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  157. ^ "Boston Municipal Court Department – Main Information Page". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  158. ^ "Land Court Department – Main Information Page". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  159. ^ "Housing Court Department – Main Information Page". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  160. ^ "Juvenile Court Department – Main Information Page". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  161. ^ "Probate and Family Court Department – Main Information Page". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  162. ^ "Appellate Tax Board: Who We Are". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  163. ^ "Massachusetts Division of Labor Relations – Home Page". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2010-03-18. [dead link]
  164. ^ "United States District Court – District of Massachusetts". Mad.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  165. ^ "Michigan Supreme Court". Courts.michigan.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  166. ^ "Michigan Court of Appeals". Courtofappeals.mijud.net. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  167. ^ "United States District Court – Eastern District of Michigan". Mied.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  168. ^ "United States District Court – Western District of Michigan". Miwd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  169. ^ Minnesota Judicial Branch Supreme Court website.
  170. ^ Minnesota Judicial Branch Court of Appeals website.
  171. ^ Minnesota Judicial Branch District Courts website.
  172. ^ "Welcome to the Minnesota Tax Court". Taxcourt.state.mn.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  173. ^ "Minnesota Workers' Compensation Court of Appeals". Workerscomp.state.mn.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  174. ^ "United States District Court – District of Minnesota". Mnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  175. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Supreme Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  176. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Court of Appeals". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  177. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Chancery Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  178. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Circuit Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  179. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – County Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  180. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Justice Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  181. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Justice Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  182. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Drug Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  183. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Youth Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  184. ^ "U.S. District Court : Northern Mississippi". Msnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  185. ^ "USDC Home Page". Mssd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  186. ^ "Supreme Court". Courts.mo.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  187. ^ "Court of Appeals". Courts.mo.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  188. ^ "Circuit Courts". Courts.mo.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  189. ^ "Municipal Courts". Courts.mo.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  190. ^ "United States District Court". Moed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  191. ^ Tammie Cooper. "Welcome to the Western District of Missouri". Mow.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  192. ^ "Montana Supreme Court". Montanacourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  193. ^ "MT – District Court". Montanacourts.org. Archived from the original on 2008-06-21. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  194. ^ a b c "Montana Supreme Court". State of Montana. Retrieved 2010-08-08. 
  195. ^ a b c Montana Courts of Limited Jurisdiction.
  196. ^ http://www.mtd.uscourts.gov/
  197. ^ http://www.mtb.uscourts.gov/
  198. ^ "Nebraska Judicial Branch". Supremecourt.ne.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  199. ^ "Nebraska Judicial Branch". Supremecourt.ne.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  200. ^ "Nebraska Judicial Branch". Supremecourt.ne.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  201. ^ "Nebraska Judicial Branch". Supremecourt.ne.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  202. ^ "Nebraska Judicial Branch". Supremecourt.ne.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  203. ^ "Nebraska Workers' Compensation Court – Homepage". Wcc.ne.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  204. ^ "Nebraska Judicial Branch". Supremecourt.ne.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  205. ^ "Small Claims Self-Help for the State of Nebraska". Cdp3t0c1.cdp.state.ne.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  206. ^ "US District Court – Nebraska". Ned.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  207. ^ "Welcome to the Supreme Court of Nevada". Nvsupremecourt.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  208. ^ a b c District Courts of Nevada.
  209. ^ "U.S. District Court – District of Nevada – Home". Nvd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  210. ^ "New Hampshire Supreme Court". Courts.state.nh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  211. ^ "New Hampshire Superior Court". Courts.state.nh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  212. ^ "New Hampshire District Court". Courts.state.nh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  213. ^ "Family Division index". Courts.state.nh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  214. ^ "New Hampshire Probate Court". Courts.state.nh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  215. ^ "USDC – District of New Hampshire – Welcome". Nhd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  216. ^ "Supreme Court". Judiciary.state.nj.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  217. ^ "Appellate Division". Judiciary.state.nj.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  218. ^ "Tax Court of New Jersey". Judiciary.state.nj.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  219. ^ "Municipal Court Services". Judiciary.state.nj.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  220. ^ "U.S. District Court of New Jersey". Njd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  221. ^ a b "New Mexico Supreme Court". Nmsupremecourt.nmcourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  222. ^ a b c New Mexico Courts: About the Courts.
  223. ^ http://www.nmcourts.gov/othercourts/nmmagistratecourts.html
  224. ^ http://www.metrocourt.state.nm.us/xnet/
  225. ^ "United States Courts – District of New Mexico". Nmcourt.fed.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  226. ^ "New York State Court of Appeals Home Page". Nycourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  227. ^ "Appellate Divisions". Courts.state.ny.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  228. ^ "Court Structure". Courts.state.ny.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  229. ^ "New York Courts Online Guide". Courtreference.com. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  230. ^ "New York State Court of Claims". Nyscourtofclaims.courts.state.ny.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  231. ^ "Town & Village Courts". Courts.state.ny.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  232. ^ U.S.D.C, Eastern New York – Systems Department. "Home". Nyed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  233. ^ "U.S. District Court – Northern District of New York". Nynd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  234. ^ "U.S. District Court • Southern District of New York". .nysd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  235. ^ U.S. District Court for the Western District of New York
  236. ^ "About Supreme Court". Nccourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  237. ^ "About Court of Appeals". Nccourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  238. ^ "Superior Court". Nccourts.org. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  239. ^ "District Courts". Nccourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  240. ^ "Welcome to the Eastern District of North Carolina". Nced.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  241. ^ "U. S. District Court". Ncmd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  242. ^ "NCWD Home". Ncwd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  243. ^ "North Dakota Supreme Court". Court.state.nd.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  244. ^ "District Courts". Court.state.nd.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  245. ^ "North Dakota Municipal Courts". Court.state.nd.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  246. ^ US District Court-ND Webmaster. "U.S. District Court of North Dakota". Ndd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  247. ^ "Welcome to the Supreme Court of Ohio". Sconet.state.oh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  248. ^ "Ohio District Courts of Appeal". Sconet.state.oh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  249. ^ "Court of Claims of Ohio". Cco.state.oh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  250. ^ a b c Structure of the Ohio Trial Courts.
  251. ^ "US District Court, Northern District of Ohio". Ohnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  252. ^ "United States District Court – Southern District of Ohio". Ohsd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  253. ^ a b c Oklahoma Court System.
  254. ^ http://www.occa.state.ok.us/
  255. ^ webmaster@owcc.state.ok.us. "Oklahoma Workers' Compensation Court". Owcc.state.ok.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  256. ^ "U.S. District Court – OKED". Oked.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  257. ^ "Northern District of Oklahoma". Oknd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  258. ^ "US District Court – Western District of Oklahoma". Okwd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  259. ^ "Oregon Supreme Court". Ojd.state.or.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  260. ^ "Court of Appeals Judges". Ojd.state.or.us. Archived from the original on 2008-07-13. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  261. ^ "Circuit Courts". Ojd.state.or.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  262. ^ a b Oregon Justice Courts.
  263. ^ "Oregon Blue Book: Municipal Courts". Bluebook.state.or.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  264. ^ "Tax Court Home". Ojd.state.or.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  265. ^ "U.S. District Court – Oregon". Ord.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  266. ^ "Pennsylvania Unified Judicial System". Aopc.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  267. ^ "Pennsylvania Unified Judicial System". Aopc.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  268. ^ "Pennsylvania Unified Judicial System". Aopc.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  269. ^ "Pennsylvania Unified Judicial System". Aopc.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  270. ^ "Pennsylvania Unified Judicial System". Aopc.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  271. ^ "U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania, Clerk's Office". Paed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  272. ^ "Welcome to the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of PA". Pamd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  273. ^ http://www.pawd.uscourts.gov/
  274. ^ "Rhode Island Judiciary Supreme Court Homepage". Courts.ri.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  275. ^ "Rhode Island Judiciary Superior Court Homepage". Courts.ri.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  276. ^ "Rhode Island Judiciary District Court Homepage". Courts.ri.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  277. ^ "Rhode Island Judiciary Family Court Homepage". Courts.ri.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  278. ^ "Rhode Island Judiciary Workers' Compensation Court Homepage". Courts.ri.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  279. ^ "Rhode Island Judiciary Traffic Homepage". Courts.ri.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  280. ^ "United States District Court, District of Rhode Island Home Page". Rid.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  281. ^ "SC Judicial Department Supreme Court". Judicial.state.sc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  282. ^ "SCJD Court of Appeals". Judicial.state.sc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  283. ^ "SC Judicial Department". Judicial.state.sc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  284. ^ "SC Judicial Department". Judicial.state.sc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  285. ^ "SC Judicial Department". Judicial.state.sc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  286. ^ "SC Judicial Department". Judicial.state.sc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  287. ^ "SC Judicial Department". Judicial.state.sc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  288. ^ "USDC District of South Carolina". Scd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  289. ^ "Unified Judicial System". Sdjudicial.com. Archived from the original on 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  290. ^ "Unified Judicial System". Sdjudicial.com. Archived from the original on 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  291. ^ "Unified Judicial System". Sdjudicial.com. Archived from the original on 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  292. ^ "USDC-SD Main Index". Sdd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  293. ^ "Tennessee Supreme Court". Tsc.state.tn.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  294. ^ "Court of Appeals". Tsc.state.tn.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  295. ^ "Court of Criminal Appeals". Tsc.state.tn.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  296. ^ a b c d National Center for State Courts – Tennessee Court Structure.
  297. ^ "Tennessee Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges". State.tn.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  298. ^ http://gscourt.nashville.gov/portal/page/portal/generalSessions/home
  299. ^ "US District Courts – Eastern District of Tennessee". Tned.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  300. ^ "| United States District Court". Tnmd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  301. ^ "United States District Court for the Western District of Tennessee". Tnwd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  302. ^ Texas Office of Court Administration. "Welcome to the official site of the Supreme Court of Texas!". Supreme.courts.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  303. ^ Texas Office of Court Administration. "Welcome to the official site of the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals!". Cca.courts.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  304. ^ Texas Office of Court Administration. "Texas Courts Online | Courts | Courts of Appeals". Courts.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  305. ^ Texas Office of Court Administration. "Texas Courts Online | Courts | District Courts". Courts.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  306. ^ Texas Office of Court Administration. "Texas Courts Online | Courts | County Courts". Courts.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  307. ^ Texas Office of Court Administration. "Texas Courts Online | Courts | Justice of the Peace Courts". Courts.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  308. ^ Texas Office of Court Administration. "Texas Courts Online | Courts | Municipal Courts". Courts.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  309. ^ "Welcome to the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas". Txed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  310. ^ "U.S. District Court – Northern District of Texas". Txnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  311. ^ "Southern District of Texas Public Website Home Page". Txs.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  312. ^ "U.S. Courts, Western District of Texas". Txwd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  313. ^ "Utah State Courts – Supreme Court". Utcourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  314. ^ "Utah State Courts – Court of Appeals". Utcourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  315. ^ "Utah State Courts – District Court". Utcourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  316. ^ "Utah State Courts – Juvenile Courts". Utcourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  317. ^ "Utah State Courts – Justice Courts". Utcourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  318. ^ "U.S. District Court, District Of Utah Internet Home Page". Utd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  319. ^ "Home Page of Supreme Court". Vermontjudiciary.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  320. ^ "Vermont Superior Court: General Information". Vermontjudiciary.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  321. ^ "Home Page of District Court". Vermontjudiciary.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  322. ^ "Home Page of District Court". Vermontjudiciary.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  323. ^ "Vermont Environmental Court: General Information". Vermontjudiciary.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  324. ^ "Vermont Family Court: General Information". Vermontjudiciary.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  325. ^ "Vermont Probate Information". Vermontjudiciary.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  326. ^ "Vermont Judical Bureau". 
  327. ^ "United States District Court – Home Page". Vtd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  328. ^ "Supreme Court of Virginia". Courts.state.va.us. Archived from the original on 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  329. ^ "Court of Appeals of Virginia". Courts.state.va.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. [dead link]
  330. ^ "Circuit Courts". Courts.state.va.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  331. ^ "General District Courts". Courts.state.va.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  332. ^ "Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Courts". Courts.state.va.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  333. ^ "U.S.D.C. Eastern District of Virginia". Vaed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  334. ^ "US District Court - VAWD". Vawd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  335. ^ Federal Judicial History: Federal Courts of the District of Columbia.
  336. ^ "Washington Courts". Courts.wa.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  337. ^ "Washington Courts". Courts.wa.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  338. ^ "Trial Courts with web sites". Courts.wa.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  339. ^ "Trial Courts with web sites". Courts.wa.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  340. ^ "Trial Courts with web sites". Courts.wa.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  341. ^ "U.S. District Court Eastern District of Washington". Waed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  342. ^ "U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington – Federal Courthouse – Seattle and Tacoma". Wawd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  343. ^ a b c d e The West Virginia Judicial System.
  344. ^ "US District Court, WVN". Wvnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  345. ^ "United States District Court – Southern District of West Virginia". Wvsd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  346. ^ "Wisconsin Court System - Supreme Court". Wicourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  347. ^ "Wisconsin Court System - Court of Appeals". Wicourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  348. ^ "Wisconsin Court System - Circuit courts". Wicourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  349. ^ "Wisconsin Court System - municipal courts". Wicourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  350. ^ "Wisconsin Eastern District Federal Courthouse - Welcome to the Eastern District of Wisconsin's Web Site". Wied.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  351. ^ U.S. District Court, Western District of Wisconsin. "United States District Court, Western District of Wisconsin". Wiwd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  352. ^ "Wyoming Judicial Branch". Courts.state.wy.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  353. ^ "Wyoming Judicial Branch". Courts.state.wy.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  354. ^ "Wyoming Judicial Branch". Courts.state.wy.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  355. ^ "Official Webpage Of The U.S. District Court For The District Of Wyoming". Wyd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  356. ^ "District of Columbia Court of Appeals – Welcome". Dcca.state.dc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  357. ^ "Superior Court of the District of Columbia – Welcome". Dccourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  358. ^ Maureen A. Lawrie. "U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia". Dcd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  359. ^ "American Samoa – Guide to Court Resources". Usdoj.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  360. ^ "Unified Courts of Guam – Supreme Court of Guam". Justice.gov.gu. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  361. ^ "Unified Courts of Guam". Justice.gov.gu. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  362. ^ "District Court of Guam". Gud.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  363. ^ "Supreme Court". Justice.gov.mp. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  364. ^ "Superior Court". Justice.gov.mp. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  365. ^ "United States District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands". Nmid.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  366. ^ "Franklin D. Roosevelt: Executive Order 7676 – THE CANAL ZONE JUDICIARY". Presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  367. ^ Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico (in Spanish)
  368. ^ Tribunal de Apelaciones de Puerto Rico (in Spanish)
  369. ^ Tribunal de Primera Instancia de Puerto Rico (in Spanish)
  370. ^ "US District Court – Puerto Rico District". Prd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  371. ^ "Welcome to the website of the Supreme Court of the Virgin Islands". Visupremecourt.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  372. ^ "Welcome to the V.I. Superior Court Online". Visuperiorcourt.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  373. ^ "Web Site of the District Court of the Virgin Islands". Vid.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  374. ^ Teemu Ruskola, Law's Empire: The Legal Construction of 'America' in the 'District of China'
  375. ^ Joseph Ragland, Outline of the Jurisdiction and Procedure of the Federal Courts (1917), p. 112–13, §81.