Carlo M. Cipolla
|Born||August 15, 1922|
|Died||September 5, 2000(aged 78)|
|Alma mater||University of Pavia|
Through his study of economic history, he showed a keen interest in the causes that prompted specific economic and social situations during history, instead of focusing on facts and figures. He was noted as well for his work on overpopulation and his essays on human stupidity.
As a young man, Cipolla wanted to teach history and philosophy in an Italian high school, and therefore enrolled at the political science faculty at Pavia University. Whilst a student there, thanks to professor Franco Borlandi, a specialist in Medieval economic history, he discovered his passion for economic history. Subsequently he studied at the Sorbonne and the London School of Economics.
Cipolla obtained his first teaching post in economic history in Catania at the age of 27. This was to be the first stop in a long academic career in Italy (Venice, Turin, Pavia, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa and Fiesole) and abroad. In 1953 Cipolla left for the United States as a Fulbright fellow and in 1957 became a visiting professor at the University of California, Berkeley. Two years later he obtained a full professorship. In 1995 he received the Balzan Prize with this citation. "Carlo Maria Cipolla is considered by his peers as a leader in economic history who knew how to instill a spirit of innovation in the discipline. Thanks to his intellectual curiosity, dominated by the most rigorous thought and methodology, and through meticulous research of source material, he has combined the macro-historic approach with studies in micro-history in works of great originality and solidity, which cover a broad range of economic and cultural fields".
Allegro ma non troppo
Cipolla's most popular work is a collection of two tongue-in-cheek essays on economics, circulated (in English) among friends in 1973 and 1976, then published in 1988 (in Italian) under the title Allegro ma non troppo ("Forward, but not too fast", "Happy but not too much", from the musical, "Quickly, but not too quick").
The second essay, The Fundamental Laws of Human Stupidity, explores the controversial subject of stupidity. Stupid people are seen as a group, more powerful by far than major organizations such as the Mafia and the industrial complex, which without regulations, leaders or manifesto nonetheless manages to operate to great effect and with incredible coordination.
These are Cipolla's five fundamental laws of stupidity:
- Always and inevitably everyone underestimates the number of stupid individuals in circulation.
- The probability that a certain person (will) be stupid is independent of any other characteristic of that person.
- A stupid person is a person who causes losses to another person or to a group of persons while himself deriving no gain and even possibly incurring losses.
- Non-stupid people always underestimate the damaging power of stupid individuals. In particular non-stupid people constantly forget that at all times and places and under any circumstances to deal and/or associate with stupid people always turns out to be a costly mistake.
- A stupid person is the most dangerous type of person.
As is evident from the third law, Cipolla identifies two factors to consider when exploring human behaviour:
- Benefits and losses that an individual causes to him or herself.
- Benefits and losses that an individual causes to others.
By creating a graph with the first factor on the x-axis and the second on the y-axis, we obtain four groups of people, with an additional category either existing in its own right or drawn from the members of each previous category whose position with respect to both axes is least extreme:
- Intelligent people (top right), who contribute to society and who leverage their contributions into reciprocal benefits
- Naive people (top left), who contribute to society but are taken advantage of by it (and especially by the "bandit" [q.v.] sector of it); note, however, that extreme altruists and pacifists may willingly and consciously (rather than "naive[ly]") accept a place in this category for moral or ethical reasons
- Bandits (bottom right), who pursue their own self-interest even when doing so poses a net detriment to societal welfare
- Stupid people (bottom left), whose efforts are counterproductive to both their and others' interests
- Helpless/ineffectual people (center)
Cipolla further refines his definition of "bandits" and "naive people" by noting that members of these groups can either add to or detract from the general welfare, depending on the relative gains (or losses) that they cause themselves and society. A bandit may enrich himself more or less than he impoverishes society, and a naive person may enrich society more or less than he impoverishes himself and/or allows himself to be impoverished. Graphically, this idea is represented by a line of slope -1, which bisects the second and fourth quadrants and intersects the y-axis at the origin. The naive people to the left of this line are thus "semi-stupid" because their conduct creates/allows a net drain of societal welfare; some bandits may fit this description as well, although many bandits such as sociopaths, psychopaths, and non-pathological "jerks" and amoralists may act with full knowledge of the net negative consequences to a society that they neither identify with nor care about.
The first essay, The role of spices (and black pepper in particular) in Medieval Economic Development, traces the curious correlation between spice import and population expansion in the late Middle Ages, postulating a causation due to a supposed aphrodisiac effect of black pepper.
- Studi di Storia della Moneta (1948)
- Mouvements monétaires dans l'Etat de Milan (1951)
- Money, Prices and Civilization (1956)
- Le avventure della lira (1958)
- Storia dell'economia italiana: Saggi di storia economica (1959)
- Economic History of World Population (1962)
- Guns, Sails, and Empires: Technological Innovation and the Early Phases of European Expansion, 1400-1700 (1965)
- Clocks and Culture, 1300-1700 (1967), reissued 2003, with an introduction by Anthony Grafton
- Literacy and Development in the West (1969)
- The economic decline of empires (1970)
- European culture and overseas expansion (1970)
- Economic History of Europe (1973)
- Faith, Reason, and the Plague in Seventeenth-Century Tuscany (1977)
- The technology of man: A visual history (1980)
- Fighting the Plague in Seventeenth Century Italy (1981)
- The Monetary Policy of Fourteenth Century Florence (1982)
- Allegro ma non troppo (1988)
- Between Two Cultures: An Introduction to Economic History (1992)
- Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy, 1000-1700 (1994)