|Agence spatiale canadienne|
|Formed||March 1, 1989|
|Jurisdiction||Government of Canada|
|Headquarters||John H. Chapman Space Centre
|Annual budget||CAD $488.7 million (2013–2014)|
|Minister responsible||James Moore, Minister of Industry|
|Agency executive||Walter Natynczyk, President|
The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) (French: Agence spatiale canadienne (ASC)) was established by the Canadian Space Agency Act which received Royal Assent on May 10, 1990. The president of the agency is Walter Natynczyk who reports to the Minister of Industry. He was appointed as president on August 6, 2013.
The headquarters of the CSA is located at the John H. Chapman Space Centre in Saint-Hubert, Quebec. The agency also has offices in Ottawa, Ontario, at the David Florida Laboratory (which is mainly an engineering installation), and small liaison offices in Washington, D.C.; Paris; Cape Canaveral, Florida; and Houston, Texas.
History, mission and mandateEdit
The origins of the Canadian upper atmosphere and space program may be traced back to the end of the Second World War. Between 1945 and 1960, Canada undertook a number of small launcher and satellite related projects under the aegis of defence research, including the development of the Black Brant rocket as well as series of advanced studies examining both orbital rendezvous and re-entry. In 1957, scientists and engineers at the Canadian Defence Research Telecommunications Establishment (DRTE) under the leadership of John H. Chapman embarked on a project initially known simply as S-27 or the Topside Sounder Project. This work would soon lead to the development of Canada's first satellite known as Alouette 1.
With the launch of Alouette 1 in September 1962 Canada became the third country to put an artificial satellite into space. At the time, Canada only possessed upper atmospheric launch capabilities (sounding rockets), therefore, Alouette 1 was sent aloft by the American National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from Vandenberg AFB in California. The technical excellence of the satellite, which lasted for ten years instead of the expected one, prompted the further study of the ionosphere with the Canadian-designed, US-launched, international ISIS program. This undertaking was designated an International Milestone of Electrical Engineering by IEEE in 1993. The launch of Anik A-1 in 1972 made Canada the first country in the world to establish its own domestic geostationary communication satellite network.
These and other space related activities in the 1980s compelled the Canadian government to promulgate the Canadian Space Agency Act which established the Canadian Space Agency. The Act received royal assent on May 10, 1990 and came into force on December 14, 1990.
The mandate of the Canadian Space Agency is to promote the peaceful use and development of space, to advance the knowledge of space through science and to ensure that space science and technology provide social and economic benefits for Canadians. The Canadian Space Agency's mission statement says that the agency is committed to leading the development and application of space knowledge for the benefit of Canadians and humanity.
|This section requires expansion. (January 2010)|
- March 1, 1989 – 1992 – Larkin Kerwin
- May 4, 1992 – July 15, 1994 - Roland Doré
- November 21, 1994–? – William MacDonald Evans
- November 22, 2001 – November 28, 2005 – Marc Garneau
- April 12, 2007 – January 1, 2008 - Larry J. Boisvert
- January 1, 2008 - September 2, 2008 - Guy Bujold
- September 2, 2008 – February 1, 2013 - Steven MacLean
- February 2, 2013 – August 5, 2013 - Gilles Leclerc (acting)
- August 6, 2013 - Walter Natynczyk
Cooperation with the European Space AgencyEdit
The CSA has been an "associated member" of the European Space Agency (ESA) for more than three decades, and has several formal and informal partnerships and collaborative programs with space agencies in other countries, such as NASA, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and Indian Space Research Organization.
Canada's collaboration with Europe in space activities predated both the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency. From 1968, Canada held observer status in the European Space Conference (ESC), a ministerial-level organization set up to determine future European space activities, and it continued in this limited role after ESA was created in 1975. Since January 1, 1979, Canada has had the special status of a "Participating State" with the ESA, paying for the privilege and also investing in working time and providing scientific instruments which are placed on ESA probes. Canada is allowed to participate in optional programs; it also has to contribute to the General Budget but not as much as associate membership would have entailed. This status was unique at the time and remains so today.
On 15 December 2010 the accord was renewed for a further 10 years, until 2020. By virtue of this accord, Canada takes part in ESA deliberative bodies and decision-making and in ESA's programmes and activities. Canadian firms can bid for and receive contracts to work on programmes. The accord has a provision specifically ensuring a fair industrial return to Canada. The head of the Canadian delegation to ESA is the president of the Canadian Space Agency. As of February 2009, there are currently 30 Canadians that are employed as staff members at ESA. (Distributed over various ESA sites: 20 at ESTEC; 4 at ESOC; 4 at ESA HQ; 2 at ESRIN).
Canadian space programEdit
The Canadian Space Program is administered by the Canadian Space Agency. Canada has contributed technology, expertise and personnel to the world space effort, especially in collaboration with NASA and ESA.
There have been three recruiting campaigns for astronauts for the CSA. The first, in 1983, led to the selection of Roberta Bondar, Marc Garneau, Robert Thirsk, Kenneth Money, Bjarni Tryggvason and Steve MacLean. The second, in 1992, selected Chris Hadfield, Julie Payette, Dafydd Williams and Mike Mackay. On May 13, 2009, it was announced after the completion of a third selection process that two new astronauts, Jeremy Hansen of Ailsa Craig, Ontario, and David Saint-Jacques, of Quebec City, had been chosen. As of December 2012 there have been 17 space flights by Canadians.
In addition to its astronauts, some of the most notable Canadian technological contributions to space exploration include the Canadarm on the Space Shuttle, as well as the Canadarm2 and the rest of the Mobile Servicing System on the International Space Station. The Canadarm and Canadarm2 employ the Advanced Space Vision System which allows more efficient use of the robotic arms. Another Canadian technology of note is the Orbiter Boom Sensor System, which is an extension of the Canadarm used to inspect the Space Shuttle's thermal Protection System for damage while in orbit.
|Alouette 1||September 29, 1962||1972||Explore the ionosphere|
|Alouette 2||November 29, 1965||August 1, 1975||Explore the ionosphere|
|ISIS-I||January 30, 1969||1990||Explore the ionosphere|
|ISIS-II||April 1, 1971||1990||Explore the ionosphere|
|Hermes||January 17, 1976||November, 1979||Experimental communications satellite|
|RADARSAT-1||November 4, 1995||March 29, 2013||Commercial Earth observation satellite|
|MOST||June 30, 2003||Still in service||Space telescope|
|SCISAT-1||August 12, 2003||Still in service||Observe the Earth's atmosphere|
|RADARSAT-2||December 14, 2007||Still in service||Commercial Earth observation satellite|
|Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite||February 25, 2013||Still in service||Microsatellite Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite|
|Sapphire||February 25, 2013||Still in service||military satellite|
|UniBRITE-1||February 25, 2013||Still in service||nano satellite|
|CASSIOPE||29 September 2013.||Still in service||Ionosphere research, telecommunications.|
Additionally, there are some commercial satellites launched by the telecommunications company Telesat Canada. These are the 13 Anik satellites (3 of which are still in service), the 3 Nimiq satellites (all currently used by Bell TV), and a satellite called M-Sat 1 launched on April 20, 1996, at 22h36 UTC. Further, technology and research satellites have been developed by the University of Toronto, including the CanX series.
International satellite projectsEdit
|Viking||Sweden||SNSB||1986||Ultraviolet Imager||PI: C. D. Anger and J. S. Murphree, University of Calgary; CAL|
|Akebono||Japan||ISAS||1989||Suprathermal and energetic ion mass spectrometer||PI: Andrew Yau, U. of Calgary; HIA / SED / COM DEV|
|UARS||USA||NASA||1991||Wind Imaging Interferometer (WindII)||PI: Gordon Shepherd, York University; CAL|
|Freja||Sweden||SNSB||1992||Auroral Imager; Cold Plasma Analyzer||PI: J. S. Murphree, U. of Calgary; CAL / Routes|
|Interball-2||Russia||RSA||1996||Ultraviolet Auroral Imager||PI: L. L. Cogger, U. of Calgary; CAL|
|Nozomi||Japan||ISAS||1998||Thermal Plasma Analyzer||PI: Andrew Yau, U. of Calgary; CAL / COM DEV|
|FUSE||USA||NASA||1999||Fine Error Sensor||COM DEV|
|Terra||USA||NASA||1999||MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in The Troposphere)||PI: Jim Drummond; COM DEV|
|IMAGE||USA||NASA||2000||Wide Band Imaging Camera telescope||EMS Technologies|
|Odin||Sweden||SNSB||2001||OSIRIS (Optical Spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System)||PI: Doug Degenstein, University of Saskatchewan; Routes|
|CloudSat||USA||NASA||2006||Radar components||COM DEV|
|Herschel||Europe||ESA||2009||HIFI Local Oscillator Source Unit||COM DEV|
|Marc Garneau||Challenger||STS-41-G||1984, October 5||First Canadian in space|
|Roberta Bondar||Discovery||STS-42||1992, January 22||First Canadian woman in space|
|Steven MacLean||Columbia||STS-52||1992, October 22|
|Chris Hadfield||Atlantis||STS-74||1995, November 12||Only Canadian to visit Mir|
|Marc Garneau||Endeavour||STS-77||1996, May 19||First Canadian to return to space|
|Robert Thirsk||Columbia||STS-78||1996, June 20|
|Bjarni Tryggvason||Discovery||STS-85||1997, August 7|
|Dafydd Williams||Columbia||STS-90||1998, April 17|
|Julie Payette||Discovery||STS-96||1999, May 27||First Canadian to visit the International Space Station|
|Marc Garneau||Endeavour||STS-97||2000, November 30||ISS mission. Return to space (third visit)|
|Chris Hadfield||Endeavour||STS-100||2001, April 19||ISS mission. Return to space (second visit). First spacewalk by a Canadian|
|Steven MacLean||Atlantis||STS-115||2006, September 9||ISS mission. Return to space (second visit); spacewalk|
|Dafydd Williams||Endeavour||STS-118||2007, August 27||ISS mission. Return to space (second visit); spacewalk|
|Robert Thirsk||Soyuz-FG||Soyuz TMA-15 (Союз ТМА-15)||2009, May 27||ISS Expedition 20 and Expedition 21. Return to space (second visit). First flight on a Russian launch vehicle by a Canadian. First Canadian on a permanent ISS crew. First time two Canadians were in space simultaneously (with Payette)|
|Julie Payette||Endeavour||STS-127||2009, July 15||ISS mission. First Canadian woman to return to space. First time two Canadians were in space simultaneously (with Thirsk). Largest gathering of humans (13) in space, as seven STS-127 arrivals join 6 already on ISS. Largest gathering (5) of nationalities in space, as USA, Russia, Japan, Canada, and Belgium have astronauts together on ISS. Last Canadian to fly on a US Space Shuttle.|
|Guy Laliberté||Soyuz||Soyuz TMA-16 (Союз ТМА-16)||2009, September 30||First Canadian space tourist|
|Chris Hadfield||Soyuz-FG||Soyuz TMA-07M (Союз ТМА-07M)||2012, December 19||ISS Expedition 34 and Expedition 35. Return to space (third visit). First Canadian Commander of a permanent ISS crew|
On December 19, 2012, Canadian Astronaut Chris Hadfield launched aboard a Soyuz spacecraft to reach the International Space Station where he worked for six months as part of the crew of the ISS Expedition 34 and Expedition 35. During the second half of his mission Hadfield became the first Canadian Commander of the ISS. In addition to overseeing operations as Commander, he carried out scientific experiments, operated Canadarm2 and performed various robotics tasks. This mission marked the last space flight opportunity for Canadian astronauts, provided by NASA as "compensation" for Canada's contribution to the Shuttle and International Space Station programs. After this mission, the CSA will have to pay NASA for any flights for Canadian astronauts. There is at present no funding for further missions by Canadian astronauts.
- John H. Chapman Space Centre – Longueuil, Quebec
- David Florida Laboratory – Ottawa, Ontario
- Fort Churchill – Manitoba
- Canadian Space Agency Building – Innovation Place Research Park – Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
A number of foreign launch facilities have been used by the CSA to launch their payload:
- Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan (leased to Russian Federal Space Agency and Russian Space Forces)
- Vandenberg Air Force Base in California (USAF)
- Cape Canaveral in Florida (NASA)
- Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia (Russian Federal Space Agency)
- Satish Dhawan Space Centre in India (Indian Space Research Organisation)
With the successful launching of Radarsat-2 in December 2007 and near completion of Canada's C$1.4 billion contribution to the ISS the agency in early 2008 found itself with no major follow-on projects. This fact was highlighted by Marc Garneau, Canada's first astronaut and former head of the CSA who in the fall of 2007 called upon the Canadian government to develop and institute a space policy for Canada.
A modest step has been taken to resolve this problem. In November 2008, the Agency signed a $40 million 16-month contract with MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates of Vancouver to begin the design of the RADARSAT Constellation (3 satellite) earth observation mission. In August 2010 further funding was awarded for detailed design work scheduled for completion by 2012. Launch of the three satellites is scheduled for 2018. Also in the 2009 Federal budget, the agency was awarded funding for the preliminary design of robotic Lunar/Martian rovers.
However, a number of initiatives are without funding. The CSA is the lead agency for the Polar Communication and Weather mission (PCW) which involves the planned launch of two satellites in polar orbit to provide Canadian authorities with improved weather information and communications capabilities in the high arctic. Launch of the two satellites is proposed to take place in 2016. Funding for further development of the mission has yet to be approved.
The Canadian Space agency has no indigenous launch system capability beyond upper atmospheric sounding rockets. Canada relies on other countries, such as the U.S., India and Russia, to launch its spacecraft into orbit, but both the Defence Department and the space agency are looking at the option of constructing a Canadian-made launcher.
The CSA has been researching locations in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, and Fort Churchill, Manitoba, for a possible micro satellites (150 kg) launch site for the CSA, and end its reliance on foreign launch providers. However, Canadian politicians seldom change funding without having at least some idea of the expected economic, social and national defense benefits that could reasonably accrue to their constituents from the program. According to Canadian Space Agency officials, it would take 10 to 12 years for a full-scale project to design and build a small satellite launcher. There is no funding for these activities yet.
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (February 2013)|
- "THE CANADIAN SPACE AGENCY 2013–14 Estimates REPORT ON PLANS AND PRIORITIES". SpaceREF. 2013.
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- Andrew B. Godefroy. Defence & Discovery: Canada's Military Space Program, 1945–1974. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2011. ISBN 978-0-7748-1959-6 http://www.ubcpress.ubc.ca/search/title_book.asp?BookID=299173226
- Ibid, chapters 2–6.
- "Canadian Space Agency Act". Department of Justice. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- "(John) Larkin Kerwin". Science.ca. GCS Research Society. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
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-  History of the Canadian Astronaut Corps. Retrieved on 2014-05-04
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- Foust, Jeff (2013-03-27). "After Dragon, SpaceX’s focus returns to Falcon". NewSpace Journal. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
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- Official website
- Canadian Space Agency's channel on YouTube
- SpaceRef Canada – Canada in Space
- Text of the Canadian Space Agency Act
- SPIE Video: John B. Hutchings -- Canadian Space Astronomy: Past, Present and Future