Burmese by-elections, 2012

Burmese (Myanmar) by-election, 2012
Burma
2010 ←
1 April 2012
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40 (of the 440) seats to the Pyithu Hluttaw (House of Representatives)
and 6 (of the 224) seats to the Amyotha Hluttaw (House of Nationalities)
  First party Second party Third party
  TheinSeinASEAN.jpg Aung San Suu Kyi 17 November 2011.jpg SNDP
Leader Thein Sein Aung San Suu Kyi Sai Ai Pao
Party USDP NLD SNDP
Leader since 2 June 2010 (2010-06-02) 27 September 1988 (1988-09-27) 8 April 2010 (2010-04-08)
Leader's seat (not a candidate) Kawhmu (Pyithu) (not a candidate)
Last election 259 (Pyithu)
129 (Amyotha)
Did not contest[1] 18 (Pyithu)
3 (Amyotha)
Seats after 212 (Pyithu)
124 (Amyotha)
37 (Pyithu)
4 (Amyotha)
18 (Pyithu)
4 (Amyotha)
Seat change Decrease 37 (Pyithu)
Decrease 5 (Amyotha)
Increase 37 (Pyithu)
Increase 4 (Amyotha)
Steady (Pyithu)
Increase 1 (Amyotha)
A woman places her ballot into the Pyithu Hluttaw representative election box in the April by-elections.

The 2012 Burmese by-elections were held on 1 April 2012.[2] The elections were held to fill 46 vacant parliamentary seats.[3][4]

The main opposition party National League for Democracy was re-registered for the by-elections on 13 December 2011 as part of the reforms in Burma since 2010. NLD leader Aung San Suu Kyi ran in the seat of Kawhmu,[5] which she won and her party won in 43 of the 44 seats they contested (out of 46).[6][7]

Election observersEdit

In February 2012, President Thein Sein remarked that the government would "seriously consider" allowing Southeast Asian observers from the Association of South East Asian Nations to observe the election.[8] The Burmese government confirmed that it had requested for ASEAN election observers to arrive on 28 March, five days before the election.[9] Canada, United States, European Union, China, and North Korea, as well as ASEAN dialogue partners (India, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, Russia and Australia), were also invited to observe the election, although it remained unclear the degree of access these international observers would have.[10][11] The United States sent two election observers and three journalists.[12]

On 13 March 2012, the Union Election Commission, approved political party monitors to monitor polling stations during the election.[13] In the previous election, only Union Solidarity and Development Party monitors had been allowed to observe the elections and ballot counts.[13] A civilian-led monitoring group, including members of the 88 Generation Students Group, will also be scrutinizing election irregularities.[14]

On March 28, 2012, Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade sent a delegation consisting of Senator Consiglio Di Nino and Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Foreign Affairs Deepak Obhrai.[15]

Pre-election controversiesEdit

Aung Din of the US Campaign for Burma has said that the Burmese government is exploiting the elections to have Western sanctions lifted as quickly as possible, since a free and transparent election has been one of the conditions set by the European Union and American governments.[10] Moreover, the National League for Democracy has pointed out irregularities in voter lists and rule violations by local election committees.[16] On 21 March 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi was quoted as saying "Fraud and rule violations are continuing and we can even say they are increasing."[16]

With regard to the invitations of international election observers, a US State Department spokesperson said that the Burmese government fell short of expectations to accommodate observers during the entirety of the campaign season (as typically done), which is nearing the end, as a select number of observers were allowed only to observe the election:[17][18]

"...it does fall short of international complete transparency on an election, and we hope they’ll continue to keep the system open, and open it further... A full-scale international observation effort would typically include quite a bit of pre-Election Day observation, systematic coverage on Election Day, post-election follow-up, and professional monitors from nongovernmental organizations."

Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL), a Bangkok-based election monitoring organization, has publicly called the election observations inadequate, failing to meet international standards, being too restrictive (only two observers are allowed per government, or five for ASEAN nations), and coming too late (invitations were sent less than two weeks before the election date), all of which make it logistically impossible to monitor all 48 polling stations.[19] On 20 March 2012, Somsri Hananuntasuk, executive director of ANFREL, was deported from Yangon, purportedly for entering the country on a tourist visa.[20]

On 23 March 2012, the three by-elections in Kachin State, namely in the constituencies of Mogaung, Hpakant and Bhamo Townships, were postponed due to the security situation there.[21][22]

Two days before the by-elections, at press conference, Suu Kyi remarked that the voter irregularities were "beyond what is acceptable for democratic elections," said she did not consider the campaign "genuinely free and fair" and referred to acts of intimidation (such as stone-throwing incidents and vandalism) toward party members.[23][24] On 1 April, the opposition National League for Democracy alleged irregularities, claiming that ballot sheets had been tampered to allow the election commission to cancel the vote for Suu Kyi's party.[25]

Two Australian MPs (Janelle Saffin and Mathias Cormann), who were selected to observe the by-elections as part of Australia's monitoring team, were denied visas to enter the country.[26]

AftermathEdit

Much of the international reaction on the by-elections has revolved around the sanctions imposed by Western countries (including the United States, Australia, and the European Union). President Thein Sein and the Burmese government have been eager to work with Aung San Suu Kyi in order to remove these measures.[27]

President Thein Sein remarked that the by-elections were conducted "in a very successful manner."[10]

The Union Solidarity and Development Party has said it will lodge official complaints to the Union Election Commission on poll irregularities, voter intimidation, and purported campaign incidents that involved National League for Democracy members and supporters.[28] The National League for Democracy has also sent an official complaint to the commission, regarding ballots that had been tampered with wax.[29]

In response to the by-elections, a Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesman said:[30]

China has noted that some Western countries have said they will lift sanctions on Myanmar. China has had a consistent stance on this issue. We welcome moves by these countries to lift sanctions on Myanmar and call on all parties to fully lift sanctions on Myanmar as soon as possible.

ASEAN leaders, including those from Cambodia, Malaysia, and Indonesia, have called for the immediate removal of sanctions.[31] Singapore's Prime Minister said the following: "President Thein Sein has been much bolder than many observers have expected. ASEAN is happy that Myanmar has been able to take these steps forward."[32] Australia's foreign minister, Bob Carr, said the Australian government was planning to loosen sanctions, but not abolish them altogether.[33]

US Senator John McCain, who had met with Aung San Suu Kyi in January 2012, said:[34][35]

We should now work with our many international partners to begin the process of easing sanctions on Burma. This will be a gradual and incremental process, and the U.S. Congress will have a critical role to play.

On 4 April 2012, the Obama administration announced that it would nominate an ambassador to the country and ease some travel and finance restrictions, without specifying a time table.[36] Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said of the elections:[37]

The results of the April 1st parliamentary by-elections represents a dramatic demonstration of popular will that brings a new generation of reformers into government. This is an important step in the country’s transformation, which in recent months has seen the unprecedented release of political prisoners, new legislation broadening the rights of political and civic association, and fledgling process in internal dialogue between the government and ethnic minority groups.

To normalize diplomatic relations between the countries, she also said that following the nomination of an ambassador, the US would establish USAID mission in Burma, ease restrictions on export of finance services and developmental assistance and facilitate travel for some government officials, although targeted sanctions toward "individuals and institutions that remain on the wrong side of these historic reform efforts" would remain in place.[37] A few sanctions (in the financial, agriculture, tourism and telecommunications sectors), are directly controlled by the executive branch, but most of the imposed sanctions were legislated by Congress, and will take a lengthy process to remove.[38] On 6 April 2012, the Obama administration nominated Derek Mitchell, who is currently the American special envoy to Burma, as United States Ambassador to Burma.[39]

The European Union, which has already eased some sanctions and travel restrictions (including on Thein Sein), will review travel bans and asset freezes on individuals tied to the previous ruling junta, the State Peace and Development Council on 23 April 2012.[40] UK Foreign Secretary William Hague suggested that easing of restrictions would be contingent on the release of political prisoners and further progress.[41]

Other scholars have noted that the by-elections, which were a relatively minor event, given the number of seats at stake, are not as defining and important as other steps toward national reconciliation.[42] Some have called removal of sanctions premature, while others have considered sanctions ineffective in the reform process.[42]

ResultsEdit

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This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Burma

OverviewEdit

Source: Result Burmese by-elections, 2012

House of Nationalities (Amyotha Hluttaw) by-elections, 2012
Party Seats Gains Losses Net gain/loss Seats % Votes % Votes +/−
  NLD 4 66.6
  USDP 1 16.7
  NUP +
  KDUP +
  LNDP +
  SNDP 1 16.7
  UPP +
Total 6 100 100


House of Representatives (Pyithu Hluttaw) by-elections, 2012
Party Seats Gains Losses Net gain/loss Seats % Votes % Votes +/−
  NLD 37 92.5
  USDP
  NUP
  NDF +
  NNDP +
  MNC +
  ARDP +
  DP +
  PNO +
  UMFNP +
  MPP +
  Independent +
  Vacant 3 7.5
Total 40 100 100


House of Nationalities (Amyotha Hluttaw)Edit

Ayeyarwady RegionEdit

Pyapon and Dedaye Townships make up Constituency № 10.

Ayeyarwady Region's Constituency № 10 by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Thein Swe ' %
USDP Aye Kyaing  %
NUP Mahn Thein Hla  %
Totals ' %

Bago RegionEdit

Oktwin and Htantabin Townships make up Constituency № 7.

Bago Region's Constituency № 7 by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Min Oo ' %
USDP Than Than Nwe  %
Totals ' %

Magway RegionEdit

Magway Region's Constituency № 4 (Taungdwingyi Township) by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Aung Kyi Nyunt ' %
USDP Maung Maung Win  %
NUP Maung Win (Aung Win)  %
UPP Aung Than Tin  %
Totals ' %

Sagaing RegionEdit

Kanbalu, Kyunhla, Ye-U and Taze Townships make up Constituency № 3.

Sagaing Region's Constituency № 3 by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Myint Naing ' %
USDP Tin Maung Win  %
NUP Bo Myint Aung  %
SNDP Sai Sam Min  %
Totals ' %

Banmauk, Kawlin, Wuntho and Pinlebu Townships make up Constituency № 7.

Sagaing Region's Constituency № 7 by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
USDP Tin Mya ' %
NLD Saw Hlaing (disqualified)  %
NUP Chit Han  %
SNDP Mar Kyin  %
Totals ' %

Shan StateEdit

Lashio, Tangyan, Mongyai, Hsenwi and Kunlong Townships make up Constituency № 3.

Shan State's Constituency № 3 by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
SNDP Sai Sam Min 47,226 29.1%
NLD Sai Myint Maung 45,700 28.1%
USDP Nang Keng Phawng Tip 45,220 27.8%
KDUP Luo Xingguang (Law Shin Kwan) 17,894 11.0%
LNDP Yaw Thup 6,360 3.9%
Totals 162,400 %

House of Representatives (Pyithu Hluttaw)Edit

Ayeyarwady RegionEdit

Maubin Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Sein Win Han (Sein Win) ' %
USDP Myo Thant Tin  %
NUP Maung Maung Thin  %
NDF Khin Su Su Aung  %
MPP Thein Shwe  %
Totals ' %
Myanaung Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Kyaw Myint ' %
USDP Than Htut  %
NUP Win Hlaing  %
Totals ' %
Myaungmya Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Mahn Johnny ' %
USDP Phyo Ko Ko Tint San  %
NDF Aung Myo Hlaing  %
Totals ' %
Pathein Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Win Myint ' %
USDP Aung Tin Myint  %
NDF Tin Win  %
Totals ' %
Wakema Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Myint Myint San ' %
USDP Htun Aung Kyaw  %
NUP Than Aung  %
Totals ' %

Bago RegionEdit

Htantabin Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Sein Htun ' %
USDP Kyaw Kyaw Oo  %
NUP Tin Win  %
UPP Thet Oo  %
Totals ' %
Letpadan Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Kyaw Min ' %
USDP Aung Thein  %
NUP Win Hlaing  %
NDF Nan Kyu Than Win  %
Totals ' %
Taungoo Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Aung Soe Myint ' %
USDP Wai Wai Tha  %
NDF Win Tun  %
Totals ' %
Thanatpin Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Myint Oo ' %
USDP Sein Htoo  %
NUP Than Hlaing  %
Totals ' %

Mandalay RegionEdit

Kyaukpadaung Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Zaw Myint Maung ' %
USDP Aung Win Kyi  %
Totals ' %
Maha Aungmye Township by-election, 2012[43]
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Ohn Kyaing 87,598 89.54%
USDP Than Htun 6,785 7.74%
NUP Tun Kyi  %
NDF Hla Ko  %
Independent Kyaw Kyaw  %
Independent Nyunt Oo  %
Independent Sein Hla  %
Totals ' %
Meiktila Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Win Htein ' %
USDP Hla Myint  %
UMFNP Win Zan  %
Independent Myint Myint Aye  %
Totals ' %
Natogyi Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Paw Khin ' %
USDP Soe Naing Win  %
NUP Aung Than  %
Totals ' %
Pyinoolwin Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Kyaw Thiha ' %
USDP Khin Maung Win  %
Totals ' %
Tada-U Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Khin Thanda ' %
USDP Aung Mon  %
NDF Nan Htaik Zaw  %
UPP San Htun  %
Totals ' %

Magway RegionEdit

Magway Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Myint Thein ' %
USDP Aung Thein Kyaw  %
NUP Hla Myint  %
NDF Kyaw Sein Han  %
UMFNP Kyaw Swa Soe  %
Totals ' %
Myaing Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Myint Aung ' %
USDP Kyaw Myint Than  %
NUP Win Hlaing  %
Totals ' %
Pakokku Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Paik Ko ' %
USDP Kyaw Tint  %
Totals ' %
Pwintbyu Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Aung Myo Nyo ' %
USDP Tint Lwin  %
National Unity Tint Lwin  %
Totals ' %
Yezagyo Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Tin Htay Aung ' %
USDP Bo Win  %
Independent Han Shin Win  %
Totals ' %

Mon StateEdit

Mawlamyine Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Khin Htay Kywe ' %
USDP Tin Soe Moe Naing  %
NUP Aung Than Oo  %
ARDP Myint Myint Wai  %
Totals ' %

Naypyidaw Union TerritoryEdit

Dekkhinathiri Township by-election, 2012[44]
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Naing Ngan Lin 7,681 %
USDP Maung Shein  %
Ottarathiri Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Min Thu ' %
USDP Hla Thein Swe  %
NUP Kyi Myint  %
Pobbathiri Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Zayar Thaw (Phyo Zeyar Thaw) ' %
USDP Tha Htay  %
Independent Lwin Myint Than  %
Zabuthiri Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Sanda Min (Shwee) ' %
USDP Win Htay  %

Sagaing RegionEdit

Mingin Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Khin Hmway Lwin 27,989 56.43%
USDP San Win 19,779 39.88%
NUP Htay Aung 1,828 3.69%
Totals 49,596 100%
Pale Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Khin San Hlaing 43,946 68.49%
USDP Htay Naing 20,133 31.38%
HADEP Hein Htet Aung 831 1.29%
Totals 64,162 100%
Sagaing Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Khin Maung Thein 94,703 75.98%
USDP Soe Naing 29,932 24.02%
Totals 124,635 100%
NLD hold

Shan StateEdit

Kalaw Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Daw Than Ngwe ' %
USDP Mya Win  %
NUP Khin Maung Hla  %
SNDP Sao Tha Oo  %
PNO Khun Than Maung  %
Totals ' %

Taninthayi RegionEdit

Launglon Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Aung Soe ' %
USDP Sein Maung  %
Totals ' %
Kyunsu Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Tin Tin Yi ' %
USDP Chit Than  %
Totals ' %

Yangon RegionEdit

Dagon Seikkan Township by-election, 2012[45]
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Myo Aung 36,126 %
USDP Aung Win  %
NUP Win Myint  %
NDF Kyee Myint  %
NNDP Win Shwe  %
Totals ' %
NLD gain from USDP
Hlegu Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Phyo Min Thein ' %
USDP Aung Myat Thu  %
Totals ' %
NLD gain from USDP
Kawhmu Township by-election, 2012[46]
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Aung San Suu Kyi 55,902 85.38%
USDP Soe Min 9,172 14.10%
UPP Tin Yi 397 0.61%
Totals 65,471 100%%
NLD gain from USDP
Mayangon Township by-election, 2012[47]
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD May Win Myint 60,216 77.5%
USDP Ye Htut 14,475  %
NDF Khin Phyu Phyu Nyein 1,162  %
NNDP Ye Min Thein (Yatha) 414  %
Independent Khin Hlaing (Zawtika)  %
MNC Hayma Htay 149  %
Totals ' %
NLD gain from USDP
Mingala Taungnyunt Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Phyu Phyu Thin ' %
USDP Lei Lei Aye  %
NUP Sanda Myint (disqualified)  %
NNDP Phone Myint  %
DP Thu Wai  %
MNC Kaung Myint Htut  %
Totals ' %
NLD gain from USDP
Thongwa Township by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Su Su Lwin ' %
USDP Aung Kyaw Min  %
NDF Kyi Than  %
Totals ' %
NLD gain from USDP

Regional ParliamentsEdit

Bago Region Hluttaw's Kawa Township № 2 by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Myo Khaing ' %
USDP Aye Win  %
NUP Kyi Lwin  %
Totals ' %
Ayeyarwady Region Hluttaw's Yekyi Township № 2 by-election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
NLD Hla Myat Thway ' %
USDP Tin Soe  %
NUP Win Kyi  %
Totals ' %

ReferencesEdit

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  39. ^ Robinson, Gwen (6 April 2012). "US nominates first ambassador to Myanmar in years". Financial Times. 
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See alsoEdit

Last modified on 20 April 2014, at 23:43