|— Comune —|
|Città di Bolzano
|Province||South Tyrol (BZ)|
|• Mayor||Luigi Spagnolli (PD) (Democratic Party)|
|• Total||52.34 km2 (20.21 sq mi)|
|Elevation||262 m (860 ft)|
|Population (Dez. 2010)|
|• Density||2,000/km2 ( 5,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Bolzano listen (help·info) (German: Bozen; Ladin: Balsan or Bulsan; Latin: Bauzanum) is the capital city of the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy. It is one of only five mainly Italian speaking municipalities in South Tyrol.
Bolzano is the seat of the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, where lectures and seminars are held in English, German and Italian. The city is also home to the Italian Army's Alpini High Command (COMALP) and some of its combat and support units.
In a 2010 quality-of-life survey by the Italian newspaper Il Sole 24 Ore, Bolzano was ranked number one on a list of 107 Italian cities. In the 2011 edition of the survey, Bolzano was ranked number two, after top-ranked Bologna.
It was inhabited by the Raetian Isarci people and the Romans built a settlement there after the area was conquered in 15 BC by general Nero Claudius Drusus, after whom the settlement Pons Drusi ("Drusus Bridge") was named. The nearby village was called Bauzanum. With the end of the Roman empire a Bavarian immigration began and the first mention of a Bavarian count as ruler of Bolzano dates from 679. The area has been settled by German populations since then. Bolzano became an important trading point after its elevation to a town on 24 June 1190 by bishop Konrad of Trent owing to its location between the two major cities of Venice and Augsburg. Four times a year a market was held and traders came from the south and the north. The mercantile magistrate was therefore founded in 1635. Every market season two Italic and two Germanic officers (appointed from the traders who operated there) worked in this office. The city was a cultural crosspoint at that time and still is to this day.
Before World War I Bolzano was part of the Austro-Hungarian county of Tyrol. It was annexed by Italy at the end of World War I and on 1 January 1927 became a provincial capital. At the time of its annexation Bolzano was primarily a German-speaking city, with a pre-war population of 30,000 people. In the 1920s, along with the rest of the province, the city was subjected to an intensive Italianization programme under orders from Benito Mussolini. The aim was to outnumber the local German-speaking population by tripling the population with Italian-speaking immigrants drawn from the old provinces.
The city thrives on a mix of old and new high-quality intensive agriculture (including wine, fruit and dairy products), tourism, traditional handicraft (wood, ceramics) and advanced services. Heavy industry (machinery, automotive, steel) installed during the 1930s has now been mostly dismantled. On the downside, the local economy is very dependent on the public sector and especially the provincial government.
Bolzano is the biggest city in South Tyrol, which is an autonomous province in Northern Italy with a special statute. This statute preserves the rights of the German-speaking minority in Italy. This unique system has been admired by the Dalai Lama, who visited the city on several occasions to study a possible application in Chinese-occupied Tibet. It has also been presented as role model for the successful and fair resolution of inter-ethnic conflict to other regions of the world.
Being located at multiple climate borders, Bolzano features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa/Cwa) with hot summers (just sufficient to be called 'subtropical') and relatively cool winters. Some of its suburbs feature an oceanic climate (Cfb) due to some cooler summer temperatures, while mountains in the area may feature a continental climate (Dfb).
|Climate data for Bolzano|
|Average high °C (°F)||5.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||0.3
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.4
|Precipitation mm (inches)||25.6
|Avg. rainy days||4.1||4.1||5.5||7.1||9.5||8.6||9.2||8.6||6.4||5.4||5.9||3.9||78.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||102.3||120.4||148.8||159.0||176.7||201.0||232.5||213.9||180.0||151.9||102.0||96.1||1,884.6|
|Source: Hong Kong Observatory|
Its mediaeval city centre, Gothic and Romanesque churches and bilingual signage give it the flavour of a city at the crossroads of Italian and Austrian cultures. This and its natural and cultural attractions make it a popular tourist destination.
Among the major monuments and sights are:
- Walther Square, with a statue of Walther von der Vogelweide, a German minstrel (minnesinger)
- the Lauben, a mile-long street in the city centre with mediaeval arcades along its entire course, now housing countless high-street shops
- the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology, which has the mummy of Ötzi the Iceman
- the Gothic Cathedral, started in 1184, expanded in the 14th century by architects Martin and Peter Schiche (completed in 1382)
- the old parish church of Gries, with an altarpiece by Michael Pacher
- the benedictine monastery of Muri-Gries, with baroque paintings by Martin Knoller
- The Chiesa dei Domenicani/Dominikanerkirche (13th century), with a series of 14th century Gothic paintings
- various castles, including Castle Maretsch, Runkelstein Castle and Firmian/Sigmundskron Castle
- Victory Monument, a triumphal arch built on the order of Benito Mussolini in 1928
- Messner Mountain Museum of Reinhold Messner
For more historical and geographical information see South Tyrol.
City districts and neighbouring communities
- Centro-Piani-Rencio (German: Zentrum-Bozner Boden-Rentsch)
- Don Bosco
- Europa-Novacella (German: Europa-Neustift)
- Gries-San Quirino (German: Gries-Quirein)
- Oltrisarco-Aslago (German: Oberau-Haslach)
The city is also connected to the Italian railway system. Bolzano railway station, opened in 1859, forms part of the Brenner railway (Verona–Innsbruck), which is part of the main railway route between Italy and Germany. The station is also a junction of two branch lines, to Merano and Mals.
There is a 50-kilometer network of cycle paths and about 30% of journeys in Bolzano are made by bicycle.
The town is host to an annual road running competition – the BOclassic – which features an elite men's 10K and women's 5K races. The event, first held in 1975, takes place on New Year's Eve and is broadcast live on television by Rai Sport Più.
Bolzano is also the host city to the Giro delle Dolomiti annual road bike event.
- F.C. Südtirol plays in Lega Pro Prima Divisione
- F.C. Bolzano 1996 played 2011/12 in Eccellenza
- F.C. Neugries played 2011/12 in Promozione
- Bozner F.C. played 2011/12 in Promozione
- Virtus Don Bosco played 2011/12 in Promozione
- Loacker Bozen Handball Handball A-Elite Liga
- Ice hockey
- Sudtirolo Rugby Cavaliers The Cavaliers play in the Italian Serie C
- American Football
- Giants Bolzano The Giants plays in IFL (Italian Football League), the first league of the FIDAF
- Softball and Baseball
- Softball Club Dolomiti
- Pool 77
- SSV Bozen plays in the FBL (Austrian Fistball League), the first Austrian league.
- Le unità di supporto del Comando Truppe Alpine(Italian)
- "Qualità della vita 2010". Il Sole 24 Ore. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "QUALITÀ DELLA VITA 2011". Il Sole 24 Ore. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- As reported by Paulus Diaconus in his Historia Langobardorum, ed. Georg Waitz, MGH Scriptores rerum Langobardicarum, Hannover 1878, p. 35.
- Bozner Chronik, Ferdinand Troyer; Bozen 1648
- City of Bolzano publication (Italian)
- Juliane Wetzel (1994), "Das Polizeidurchgangslager Bozen", Die vergessenen Lager, eds Wolfgang Benz and Barbara Distel (Dachauer Hefte 5), Munich.
- "Volkszählung 2011/Censimento della popolazione 2011". astat info (Provincial Statistics Institute of the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol) (38): 6–7. June 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-14.
- "Climatological Normals of Bolzano". Archived from the original on 24 February 2012.
- A22.it Autostrada del Brennero SpA Brennerautobahn AG. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Bolzano città della bicicletta
- Sampaolo, Diego (2010-01-01). Three-peat for Soi in Bolzano. IAAF. Retrieved on 20 May 2010.
- Sampaolo, Diego (2008-12-31). Soi and Kibet at the double? Boclassic preview. IAAF. Retrieved on 20 May 2010.
Media related to Bolzano at Wikimedia Commons
- Bolzano City Hall Official website (in Italian and German)
- Bolzano Tourist Board Official website
- Bolzano travel guide from Wikivoyage
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