Last modified on 23 October 2014, at 14:41

Baloch people

Baloch
بلوچ
Total population
10 to 15 million[citation needed]
Regions with significant populations
 Pakistan approx 6,900,000 (2013)[1]
 Iran 1,557,000[2]
 Oman 434,000 (2009)[3][4][5]
 Afghanistan 300,000 (2009)[6]
 United Arab Emirates 100,000 [7]
 India 60,000 [8]
 Turkmenistan 30,000 [9][10]
Languages
Balochi
Brahui, Persian, Pashto and Arabic are also spoken depending on area of residence.
Religion
Predominantly Sunni Islam[11]
Related ethnic groups
Other Iranian peoples

The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi: بلوچ) live mainly in the Balochistan region of the Iranian plateau in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

They are an Iranian people and mainly speak Balochi language which itself is a branch of the Iranian languages, and more specifically of the Northwestern Iranian languages. The Baloch population worldwide is estimated to be in the range of 10 to 15 million. They make nearly 4% of the Pakistani population and live in the Pakistani provinces of Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab. They make up 2% of Iran's population (1.5 million). There are many Baloch living in other parts of the world, with the bulk living in Arab states of the Persian Gulf (Eastern Arabia). However, the exact number of Baloch and GCC citizens of Baloch ancestry is difficult to determine.

About 50% of the total Baloch population live in East Balochistan, a western province of Pakistan.[12] 40% Baloch are settled in Sindh and also a significant number of Baloch people in South Punjab of Pakistan. Many of the rest live in Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, India and in some parts of Africa, namely Kenya (Mombasa, Malindi, Nairobi and Lamu), Tanzania (Rujewa and Tabora have a large community, Zanzibar, Pemba and Mafia Island), Uganda (Kabramaido, Kalaki). Small communities of Baloch people also live in Europe particularly Sweden, Norway, Denmark, England and in Perth, Australia, where they arrived in the 19th century.[citation needed]

OriginEdit

Iranian Baloch khans in Qajar era, c. 1884
Baloch of Nimruz Province, Afghanistan

Baloch are Hashmi descendants of Hazrat Noah (AS) The first settlement of the Baloch people is Aleppo from where they migrated to Iraq where they remained until, siding the sons of Hazrat Ali and taking part in the Battle of Karbala under the command of Habib ibn Muzahir Baloch against Yazid I, they were expelled by Yazid, the second of the Umayyad Caliphs, in 680 AD. Thence they first went to Kerman, and eventually to Sistan where they were hospitably received by Shams-ud-Din, ruler of that region. According to Dames there was a Shams-ud-Din, independent Malik of Sistan, who claimed descent from the Saffarids of Persia who died in 1164 AD (559 AH) or nearly 500 years after the Baloch migration from Aleppo. Badr-ud-Din appears to be unknown to history. His successor, Badr-ud-Din, demanded, according to eastern usage, a girl from each of the 44 tribes of the Baloch. But the Balochs had never paid tribute in this form to any ruler, and they sent therefore 44 boys dressed in girls' clothes and fled before the deception could be discovered. Badr-ud-Din sent the boys back but pursued the Baloch, who had fled south-eastwards, into Kech-Makran where he was defeated at their hands. At this period Mir Jalal Khan, son of Mir Jiand Khan the first, was the ruler of all the Baloch. He left four sons, Rind, Lashar, Hooth, and Korai, and a daughter Jato, who married his nephew Murad MirJat. These five are the eponymous founders of the five great divisions of the tribe, the Rinds, Lasharis, Hooths, Korais,Kubras and Jatois.[13]

HistoryEdit

Baloch and Alexander's empire
The Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent, including the satrap of ancient Maka
Baloch and Alexander's empire
Baloch tribes and the paths that Alexander the Great took.
Gwadar in Makran
View of a beach in Makran region.

Maka is mentioned by Greek historian Herodotus as one of the early satraps of Cyrus the Great, who successfully united several ancient Iranian tribes to create an empire.[14][15] In the Behistun Inscription, Darius the Great mentions Maka as one of his eastern territories.[16] Darius is recorded to have personally led his elite Immortal forces, whose ranks were restricted to those with Persian, Mede or Elamite ancestry, to fight the invading Scythians of Asia[17] and then led the conquests in South Asia,[18][19][20] where he conquered Sindh in 519 BC, constituted it as his 20th Satrapy, and made use of the oceans there.[21][22] Darius wanted to know more about Asia, according to Herodotus; he also wished to know where the "Indus (which is the only river save one that produces crocodiles) emptied itself into the sea".[23]

The present region of Makran, which is inhabited by Baloch people, derived its name from the word "Maka". The Babylonians made voyages using Maka to communicate with India.[24] Maka communicated with Euphrates, Tigris and Indus valley; objects from the Harappan culture have been found in modern-day Oman, other archaeology suggest that Maka was exporting copper. Herodotus mentions the inhabitants of Maka as "Mykians" who were previously involved in several conquests with Cyrus the Great. After the conquest of Egypt with Cambyses,[25] they went to Sindh in command of Darius I and took in army of Xerxes the great at the battle of Thermopylae, where they were equipped the same as Pactyans, Utians and Paricanians, the tribes adjacent to the Mykians. The word Maka later became Makran as it is common in closely related ancient Avestan and Old Persian languages to use "an" and "ran" at the end of plurals,[26] which then translates as "the land of Mykians". They are mentioned as "the men from Maka" in daeva inscriptions. The "daeva inscription" is one of the most important of all Achaemenid inscriptions; in the Baloch language, dêw translates as "giant devil or monster".

Mykians were responsible for many inventions, such as qanats and underground drainage galleries that brought water from aquifers on the piedmont to gardens or palm groves on the plains. These inventions were important reasons behind the success of the Achaemenid Empire and survival of Mykians in their largely harsh natural environment. Other inscriptions record that gold, silver, lapis lazuli, turquise, cornalin, cedar wood, wood and the decoration for the relief at Susa were from Maka.[27] The Mykians of the other side of ancient Maka, the present-day region of Balochistan and Sindh, had later taken independence because they are not mentioned in the book written by Arrian of Nicomedia about campaigns of Alexander the Great. He only mentions the Oman side of Maka which he calls "Maketa". The reasons for this may have been the arguably unjust rule of Xerxes.[28][28][29] Historical evidence suggests that Baloch people were the ancient inhabitants of the Maka satrapy in the Achaemenid empire and Baloch were part of the army of Cyrus the Great and Darius I.

Baloch in Persian means rooster's comb or crest and since the Baloch troops who fought for Astyages of Kai Khosrow in 585-550 BC were wearing helmets with a rooster's crest, this is how they got the nickname of the Baloch.[citation needed] While listing the warriors of Kai Khosrow of Achaemenid empire, Firdowsi mentioned the Baloch in Shahnameh ("The Book of Kings") under the command of general Ashkash As follows:

Next after gustaham came shrewd askash
Endowed with prudent heart and ready brain,
his troop was from the wanderers of the koch and
Baloch wearing exalted roosters comb crests very rams
To fight,no one had seen their backs in the battle or
One of their fingers bare of armour,their banner was a
Pard with claws projecting,akash felicitated Kai
Khusrau at large upon the happy turn of fortune

Firdowsi, Shahnameh

Ferdowsi described the Baloch as part of the army of Cambyses (Siahwash), son of Kai Khosrow of the Achaemenid Dynasty

Mir Chakar Khan BalochEdit

Mir Chakar Rind (1468–1565) was a Baloch chieftain in the 15th century. He is considered a folk hero of the Baloch people and an important figure in the Baloch epic Hani and Sheh Mureed.In the 15th century, Mir Chakar Khan Rind became the King of Balochistan and established the first Kingdom of Balochistan.It stretched from Kerman in the west to Sindh on the east and from north southern Khorasan, and from Afghanistan and the Punjab to Karachi. Mir Chakar Rind lived in the hills of Sibi and became the head of Rind tribe at the age of 18 after the death of his father Mir Shahak Khan. Mir Chakar's fiefdom was short-lived because of a civil war between the Lashari and Rind tribes of Balochistan.Mir Gwahram Khan Lashari, head of the Lashari tribe, went to war that resulted in thousands dead, including Mir Chakar's brother. The war and the gallantry of the two tribe leaders continues to be a part of the Baloch peoples' history. After the "Thirty Years' War" against the Lashari Tribe,After defeating Lashari tribe, Mir Chakar Rind went to war against Afghan King Sher Shah Suri. Mir Chakar Rind defeated the Lasharis and then left Balochistan and settled in the Punjab region in 1518.Mir Chakar settled in Satghara in Okara District and gained power and respect in the area. Afghan King Sher Shah Suri approached Mir Chakar to unite with him to consolidate his gains. Mir Chakar appreciated the offer but refused to help Sher Shah Suri and beaten the Afghan armies in Punjab.Under the command of his son, Mir Shahzad or Shahdad Khan, his 40,000 Baloch forces instead joined the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun in 1555,after a long exile in Persia. Emperor Humayun came back, recaptured Delhi, and ousted the Suri dynasty in 1556. As a reward, Emperor Humayun conferred a vast Jagir, including horses and slaves, to Mir Chakar. Mir Chakar Rind died in 1565. Mir Chakar Rind Also Helped Humayuns Father Babur against Ibrahim Lodi in 1526 . People who accompanied Mir Chakar to Satghara after leaving Balochistan constructed a tomb for his body.

Many members of Mir Chakar's tribe still live in Satghara, Okara District. The Chief of the tribe is Sardar Yar Muhammad Rind. They live in southern Punjab to this day and speak Sulemani Balochi or the Seraiki language; they still exert considerable influence in the daily affairs of the district.

The Rind tribe is one of oldest and largest Baloch tribes. Its members are spread all over Balochistan, including the western (Iranian) Balochistan. With the passage of time, Rind clans have been formed. Dombki tribe in Sibi, Bakhtiarabad, Bakhshapur, distt: Kashmore Sindh,Gurmani, Khosa, Leghari, Qaisrani, Lund, Buzdar, Dasti (Dashti) and Mastoi tribes in Dera Ghazi Khan, Bugti, Mandwani, Notkani and Marri tribes in eastern Balochistan and Askanis along the coastline.

Mir Samandar Khan BalochEdit

Khan of Kalat Mir Samandar Khan Ahmedzai Baloch (1697–1713 ) also known as Amir al-Umara means commander of commanders, Amir of Amirs the title which was given to him by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb and also got the title of Sakhi means generous, was the ruler of Balochistan during the seventeenth Century. Mir Samander Khan Baloch was confronted with a major threat from Persia.in 1698 a Safavid force from sistan Iran under the command of General Tahmasp,entered the Khanate territory,pillaged Chagai District,and advanced toward Kalat.it was under the orders of Gurgin Khan,grand commander of the Safavid forces in Kandahar Afghanistan and he was tasked to take control of the turan region(Balochistan).Mir Samandar Khan Baloch was in Multan at that time.on hearing the news of Safavid advance, he returned in haste, gathered a force of thirty thousand Baloch fighters,and confronted the Iranian force near kad koocha in Mastung.in the ensuing battle, the iranain forces were crushed defeated, and Mir Samander Khan killed their commander in a one-to-one fight in 1698.the remaining force fled in disarray,and a major threat for the survival of the khanate was thwarted.after beating the Persians and the victory in the struggle against his brother, the khan's position strengthened,and he was able to pursue the goal of expanding the khanate territory and authority that was stopped with the death of Mir Ahmed Khan Baloch.In 1701 Mir Samandar Khan Attacked the Safavid garrison at Kandahar and defeated Abdullah Khan's Army and killed his son and also led an expeditionary force into Loralai(Bori)and Zhob.He remained in the area for a month and collected a large booty from the pashtun tribes(Tate,1973).The Khan resumed incursions in the east,and in an expedition during the same year, the Khanate forces snatched the control of Dhaddar and Ghandava from the Kalhoras.during the period of Mir Samander Khan Mughal emperor Aurangzeb not only recognized the Khan's suzerainty over Balochistan but also extended financial assistance to Khan of Kalat according to Naseer(1979).Emperor Aurangzeb ordered prince Mu'azzam to fix an annual grant of 20,000 rupees for the Khan of Kalat after Mir Samandar Khan successfully repulsed an attack by the Safavid forces under the command of general Tahmasp near Mastung in 1698 and Mir Samandar Khan Baloch also got the title of Amir al-umara means commander of commanders emir of emirs from Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb for handing over the rebellious noor Mohammad Kalhora and dad Mohammad Kalhora to him .the coastal town of karachi was taken from the kalhoras and given to the authority of Khanate by Emperor Aurangzeb that became the main source of revenue generation for the Khan.An annual grant of 40,000 rupees was also fixed for Khan of Kalat from Kalhoras by the order of prince Mu'azzam Mir Samanadar Khan died in 1714.[30]

Mir Abdullah Khan BalochEdit

Khan of Kalat Mir Abdullah Khan Ahmedzai Baloch (1715 -1730) also known as the Eagle of the Mountain and The Conqueror was the ruler of Balochistan during the eighteenth century.Mir Abdullah Khan Baloch was a very ambitious brave and adventurous person.During his reign,the borders of the Khanate expanded,and he made inroads into Kerman (Iran),Derajat,and Kandahar.Makran was annexed in his time,and he made battles with a kalhora forces.with five thousand strong highly mobile forces,he undertook plundering raids in Kerman,Loralai and Zhob.one of the important development during the reign of Mir Abdullah Khan Baloch was the incorporation of Kachi into the Khanate.The Kalhora in Sindh were in control of the region that was previously a protectorate of Multan province of the Mughals.In 1718,Mir Abdullah Khan entered Kachi and reduced Gajjan,Sanni,Shoran,Dhadar,and Gandava(Ahmedzai 1995). The Khan remained camped in Kachi for months and collected taxes while the Kalhora officials fled from the areas.Advanced in Derajat was another event of that period.In 1719, Mir Abdullah Khan gathered a huge force and attacked Dera Ghazi Khan that was being ruled by a Baloch Confederacy led by Dodai Baloch tribes since early sixteenth century(Ahmadzai, 1995). The Baloch forces from both sides fought bravely,but at the end the Khanate forces prevailed upon the Baloch of Derajat.from Makran the Khan led an expeditionary to reduce Bander Abbas (Iran) to plunder the port not to occupy it but returned to Makran after reducing the surrounding areas of the port and Southern Kerman due to resistance from Europeans guarding their factories in the port.one of the important events during the reign of Mir Abdullah Khan was his confrontation with Ghilzai rulers of Afghanistan after the Makran campaigns in 1724 The Khanate forces under the command of Mir Feroz Raisani Baloch occupied pishin, and the Ghilzai governor of the area fled back to Kandahar.Another force under the command of Mir Sultan Shahwani Baloch occupied Shorawak and made it part of Khanate,Emboldened by these success, the Khan assembled a force under the command of Mir Mullah Issa Raisani Baloch to gain further territory north of pishin.Khan of Kalat under the instigation of Nadir Shah sent this expeditionary force toward Kandahar.the ruler of Afghanistan Hussain Hotaki assembled a huge army and confronted the Baloch forces near Chaman.The more experienced forces of Afghanistan outnumbered the Baloch forces.and the commander of the Baloch forces Mullah Issa Raisani was killed in the fight.The defeat of the Baloch forces by the Afghan forces was shocking,and the whole nation begin preparation for a revenge attack.Next Year,in 1725, Khan of Kalat Mir Abdullah Khan Baloch assembled a huge army to attack Kandahar in order to revenge the earlier defeat(Naseer,1979). some fifty miles from Kandahar,the two forces met in a fierce bloody battle. The Afghan Army was defeated, and the Afghan ruler Hussain Hotaki fled from the scene along with his remaining forces to the safety of Kandahar fort.The Baloch legends had mentioned the tales of extraordinary personnel courage shown by Mir Abdullah Khan Baloch during the battle,which forced the Afghan ruler to flee, Mir Abdullah was killed in the battle with Kalhoras in Kachi District still the Baloch prevailed upon the Kalhoras and forced them out of Kachi District Mir Abdullah Khan was also a great Baloch Poet he composed some very remarkable poetry in Balochi.[31]

Mir Muhabbat Khan BalochEdit

Khan of Kalat Mir Muhabbat Khan Ahmedzai Baloch ( 1730–1749) was the ruler of Balochistan during the eighteenth century.He was a very brave and Strict Person but only have support of some Baloch Sardars cause of his Alliance with Nadir Shah. Mir Muhabbat Khan Ahmedzai Baloch provided fighting contingent to the Persian King Nadir Shah Afshar on many occasions during the reign of Mir Muhabbat Khan Baloch as the Khan,the Baloch forces accompanied the army of Nadir Shah Afshar on his campaigns in Afghanistan,Sindh,Punjab,and Delhi and Mir Muhabbat Khan also Killed the Ghilzai ruler of Afghanistan Ashraf Hotaki in 1730.[32]

Mir Noori Naseer Khan BalochEdit

Khan of Kalat Mir Naseer Khan Ahmedzai Baloch (1749–1794) was the ruler of the Balochistan during the eighteenth century. He was also known as Noori Naseer Khan the Great. He utilized his nine years of imposed 'captivity' under Nadir Shah in studying the history of nations their rise and falls their concepts and ideologies;and the role of religion in the shaping of individuals and states. Nadir Shah observed, “This Baloch Prince is destined to become a great king in the future.”

He was the first ruler of the region who brought about healthy friendly relations with nations, and knit the tribal organization of the Baloch into one Baloch entity. He established a Baloch parliament to function on a workable constitution based on Islamic Sharia (Laws) and Baloch traditions. People came to append the word Wali, meaning 'a saint', to his name. Mosques were constructed all over[vague] the State, and arrangements were made on Government level to collect Zakat (pool tax incumbent upon all Financially sound Muslims); and laws militating against Islamic concepts were repealed. Through a special decree he made Purdah(veil) compulsory for all Muslim women irrespective of their age. 'Turan' -the original name of the land-was changed to 'Baluchistan'.

The Caliph in Turkey conferred upon him the distinguished titles of Ghazi-e-Deen (Hero of Islam) and Naseer-e-Millat-e-Mohammadiya (the supporter of the followers of Mohammad).

Victory Against Persians in 1751 and 1770Edit

Consequently, Mir Naseer Khan and the Army of Baloch participated with Ahmed Shah Abdali in several expeditions and in some expeditions Naseer Khan was himself in command of the joint forces. His bold and victorious steering of the Battle of Nishapur and Mashhad against the Persians in particular with his 3,000 Baloch forces in 1751 and 1770,so greatly impressed the Afghan King that the latter gave him the title of Brather-e`-Wafadar(the faithful brother),[33]

Defeat of Ahmed Shah Abdali and Treaty of Kalat in 1758Edit

Mir Noori Naseer Khan was in an Alliance with Ahmed Shah Durrani from 1749 to 1757 but he declared himself independent and broke the alliance with Afghans in 1758 as Ahmed Shah started interfering in the internal affairs of Balochistan Ahmed Shah Abdali tried every means of reconciliation to induce him to return to his alliance and agree to pay his usual tribute but Mir Naseer Khan treated the advance of Ahmed Shah with contempt and sent to him in reply a register of the Baloch army which exhibited an aggregate of two hundred thousand armed men ready to take up arms against him and Naseer Khan Baloch also told Ahmed Shah that don't interfere in my internal affairs for the next time. left with no alternative Ahmed Shah had to dispatch an army against Naseer Khan Baloch under the command of his prime minister Shah Wali Khan Mir Naseer Khan was not frightened at the approach of the Afghan army he levied his troops and as soon as he was informed of the arrival of shah wali khan he issued forth from Mastung to meet him the battle was fought near Pedangabad Mastung, the troops of Shah Wali were defeated by Noori Naseer Khan and forced to retire to a distance of thirty miles from the field of action. hearing the news of defeat Ahmed Shah Durrani came with a huge army of Afghan and non Afghan tribes and defeated Noori Naseer Khan in Mastung District Naseer Khan retreated in all haste to his stronger position in Kalat where Mir Noori Naseer Khan Baloch Defeated Ahmed Shah Abdali after which the treaty of Kalat was signed between both countries. Historians who researched on Balochistan, majority of them accepted these reasons and events and as well as the treaty of Kalat in 1758 A.D. like, Mason, Henry Pottinger, Ganda Singh, Elphinstone and Akhund Mohammad Siddique. The main points of the treaty were:-

1) Khan - e- Baloch, Mir Naseer Khan Baloch will not pay any tribute to Shah-e-Afghan in the future

2) Khan -e-Baloch will not supply San (Military assistance) to Ahmed Shah Durrani. But provided he is at war against external enemies, the Khan will supply a military contingent as a token of help, on the condition that the Afghan King provide annually Rs. 100,000 and military weapons and provide for the expenditure of the army as rewards

3) Khan -e- Baloch will not provide any help or asylum to rebel princes of the Sadozai or Afghan Chiefs. On the other hand, the Afghan King also will not give any help or refuge to prince of the Royal family of Kalat -e- Ahmedzai

4) Shah-e-Afghan in future will never interfere in the internal affairs, disputes and matters of Balochistan

5) all those areas of Khan -e- Baloch, which are in the possession of Shah-e-Afghan will be handed over today to Khan -e-Baloch


Third Battle of Panipat in 1761Edit

Similarly, it was Mir Naseer Khan again who, with his army of 25,000 Baloch, came to the help of Ahmed Shah Abdali at the famous Battle of Panipat (1761).[34]

Victory Against the Sikhs in 1765Edit

The Sikhs had formed themselves into a force to be reckoned with as early as 1710,when they made their first incursions into the Upper Doab under Banda-a nondescript follower of Guru Govind Singh. They had sacked Sharanpur, Ambehtan and Nanavath in the Upper Doab; but moved no further till after the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, when they once again resumed their infiltrations deeper into the region, finally capturing Lahore in 1764, where they established their short-lived Khalsa State extending from Jhelum to the banks of Jamuna.

It was then that they rose against the Muslims, whose condition was getting progressively weaker due to the onset of the general decline of the Moghul Empire. Sensing danger to the cause of Islam, Ahmed Shah Durrani call for Jehad(religious war) against the Sikh and also sent a massage to Mir Naseer Khan to join him Khan-e-Baloch Mir Naseer Khan, responded readily to it, the latter's contribution being a contingent of twelve thousand Baloch warriors headed by himself in the front.

Thus it was that a combined Muslim Army of 12,000 Baloch with Afghans who marched into India to meet their common foe in 1765. As always, Naseer Khan was in the forefront but in this particular engagement, he was more enthusiastic and reckless than ever, for if he fell on the battlefield, it would mean Shahadat(martyrdom)-a Divine distinction which every true Muslim must live for.

And so it happened that while Mir Naseer Khan was piercing his way on his horse through the Sikh ranks in a furious outburst near Lahore, he fell off his steed; and as he fell to the ground, the turban he was wearing got loose. As a result, his long hair popped out from beneath his head-wear. One of the Sikh combatants noticing the fall rushed out at him with the sword to secure what could have been his 'prize-kill'. But as fate would have it, another Sikh hastily halted his comrade's blow in the nick of time, saying that the man(i e Naseer Khan) was a Khalsa(Sikh)!

The Sikh had naturally mistaken the turban-less Nasir Khan for a Sikh! For, his long hair and unmistakably communal resemblance.

However, by the time the Sikhs became aware of their self-deception, Naseer Khan was once again on his feet and the other Baloch Swordsmen, too, charged and drove back the Sikhs, who eventually suffered a crushing defeat and retreated in haste after which Ahmed Shah encamped in the fort of Rohtas here Ahmed Shah Durrani Thanked Naseer Khan Baloch for his valuable help,granted him the Territory of Quetta and also offered him the territories of Derajat, Multan and Jhang which he declined to except.

On returning to his camp after the encounter, Mir Nasir Khan immediately sent for a barber and got his long hair and beard cropped short in strict accordance with requirements of Sharia(Islamic code of conduct).

For a long time after this, he regretted to have missed the enviable attainment of martyrdom in the cause of Islam on account his resemblance to a kafir(infidel) just because of his misleading long hair and flowing beard.

All those regions where the Baloch are settled are part and parcel of our State.”

Mir Naseer Khan the Khan-e-Baloch

His Majesty Mir Noori Naseer Khan Baloch is the Father of Balochistan, he bought together the Baluch as one nation under God, a nation state stretching from Bandar Abbas in the west to Kulachi (Karachi)in the east ,and from Gawader in the south to Harand-Dajal (Dera Ismail Khan) in the north.[35]

Mir Khudadad Khan BalochEdit

Khan of Kalat Mir Khudadad Khan Ahmedzai Baloch (1857-1863) was the ruler of Balochistan during the nineteenth century and during his reign the country experienced numerous revolts, and even his rule was usurped for more than a year by Sherdil Khan.[36]

Khudadad's predecessor was his half brother[37] Mir Nasir Khan II who also had experienced tribal unrest during his rule.[38] Mir Nasir Khan II was poisoned to death when Khudadad Khan was a boy of sixteen.[36][37]

In 1863, a general revolt broke out with most of the tribal chieftains siding against Khudadad Khan. Khudadad was forced to flee and the chieftains elected his cousin, Sherdil, as khan.[39] Sherdil Khan did not last long as Khan being killed by his own mercenary guard.[39] Despite being returned to the throne by the tribal chieftains, Khudadad continued to have troubles administering the kingdom, and revolts continued.

In 1875, British influence and money through the able assistance of Robert Sandeman resulted in the Mastung Agreement which formed the basis for the Baloch confederacy. That agreement succeeded in calming the revolts and they were over within a year.[36]

In 1893, Khudadad has his chief accountant and staff murdered for allegedly planning to assassinate him. In the scandal that followed, Khudadad agreed to abdicate, and did so on 15 August 1893.[40]

Talpur Baloch Dynasty of SindhEdit

Talpur (Balochi: بلوچ ) is a Sindhi Speaking Baloch tribe of Hooth Baloch Branch [41][42] settled in Sindh Punjab and Balochistan. They are descendants of Mir Tala Khan Baloch They were invited by Kalhora to help them organize unruly Baloch tribes living in Sindh during the time of Nader Shah. Talpurs, who spoke the Sindhi language, settled in northern Sindh.Very soon their descendants and allies formed a confederacy against the Kalhora Dynasty.The Talpurs soon gained power and overthrew the Kalhora after the Battle of Halani.Peace between the two warring tribes was soon established after the Mughal Emperor Akbar Shah II issued a Firman in the year 1783, which designated Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur as the new Nawab of Sindh. This brought an end to the ferocious fighting and the defeat of the ruling Kalhora by the Talpur tribes.[43] Talpur dynasty ruled Sindh, in present-day Pakistan, from 1783 to 1843. They were then overthrown by the British East India Company led by General Charles James Napier.

Tombs of the Talpur Mirs (Kubbas), now in Hirabad in Hyderabad, Sindh. These shrines are now in a desolate state.

QizilbashEdit

With the defeat of the Kalhora forces by the Talpurs in the Battle of Halani in 1783 under the command of Mir Fateh Ali Khan, Sindh came under the sway of Talpurs. Abdul Nabi Kalhoro, did not sit idle but went to the Court of Kabul to secure the support of Taimur Shah who was most interested in procuring a tribute from Sindh. He ordered that Sindh be divided into two parts: one ruled by Mir Fateh Ali Talpur and the other by Abdul Nabi Kalhoro. He sent a huge force to implement this scheme of power sharing; but the Baluch, under Mir Fateh Ali, came out to resist the dismemberment at all costs and assembled at Rohri. When the forces of Kabul's Shah heard of the Mir’s determination, he decided to back off. The Shah then accepted Mir Fateh Ali Khan as the ruler of Sindh. The Kabul rulers had felt the blades of Baluch swords and were not anxious to feel them again. Abdul Nabi continued his subversive activities until his death in the Derajat. Mir Fateh Ali, in spite of the heavy odds, was able to consolidate Talpur rule in Sindh. Talpur rule in Sindh was unique, because Mir Fateh Ali Khan and his three brothers ruled at Hyderabad. This was known as "The Chauyari," the rule of four friends. Fateh Ali was the Principal Amir and held the most important position. The other brothers also had responsibilities:

Mir Thara Khan ruled at Mirpur Khas and Mir Sohrab ruled at Khairpur. The critics consider this a contentious issue and malign the Talpurs. They fail to see that this was better than putting the pretenders to the sword and starting costly internecine wars. Abdul Majeed Jokhia, an eminent historian of that period, says that Sindh was divided into seven districts: three were under Mir Fateh Ali and his brothers, (sons of Mir Sobdar), two were under Mir Sohrab, one under Mir Thara of Mirpur and one under Mir Mahmood (their uncle) and sons of Mir Abdullah. Talpurs, who pardoned even their most inveterate enemies, couldn't be expected to wield swords against their brethren. In cases where they had to, they were ruled by reason and showed great restraint. It was Mir Fateh Ali who made Hyderabad the seat of rule.

The First ChauyariEdit

Mir Fateh Ali Khan continued to rule until his death in 1801. The role of Principal Amir was passed on to his brother Mir Ghulam Ali Khan who followed his brother's way of governance but unfortunately a dispute arose between Mir Ghulam and Mir Thara Khan of Mirpur. Matters came to a head when the former rallied his supporters to fight it out. This was a delicate situation and needed to be dealt with carefully as an internal war could lead to disintegration. Mir Ghulam Ali asked his uncle, Mir Mahmood Khan, to lead the forces against Mir Thara Khan. Mir Mahmood Khan was the only surviving son of Mir Bahram Khan. The Kalhoras had assassinated both of his elder brothers, Mir Bijar Khan and Mir Sobdar Khan. He had been very young at the time of the assassinations. Mirsahib led the forces and proved himself to be a brilliant military strategist. When he heard that Mir Thara Khan’s forces were entrenched near Wangi, he ordered his men to split into two sections, each attacking from a different side. This forced Mir Thara to come out into the open. In the fierce battle that followed 414 Baluchs were killed on both sides. Azeemudeen, Thatvi, and Abdul Majeed Jokhia have covered the subject in detail in their books. Mir Thara Khan was injured, but Mir Mahmood Khan made sure that he came to no further harm. He had him taken to his own tent and from there on to Hyderabad with all the respect due a relative and fellow ruler. Mir Sahib handled a potentially explosive situation with the wisdom that is required in such situations. Mir Thara Khan was nursed back to health and sent back to Mirpur to rule as he did before the battle. He could have been eliminated had that been the purpose. This event occurred in 1803.AD. Another reason he was not touched was that his, Mir Thara's, sister was wife of Mir Ghulam Ali and both were close relatives. In fact, it was a conspiracy to sow seeds of disunity among Talpur Amirs of Hyderabad and Mirpurkhas.

Mir Ghulam Ali died in 1811AD. His rule too was as glorious as Mir Fateh Ali's. They are both buried at Khudabad (the city was earlier founded by Khudabadi Sindhi Swarankar, on empty land, around 1351 A.D.) near Hala. Mir Karam Ali Khan now assumed the role of Principal Amir. The British were now eyeing Sindh for its wealth and strategic position and were making inroads with new agreements aimed at increasing their influence. It should be remembered that most of India by this time was solidly under British rule, and 'The Great Game' was in full play. They had signed treaties with Mir Ghulam Ali.

When Mir Murad Ali the youngest of all brothers fell gravely ill, Mir Karam Ali requested the Governor in Bombay to send an able doctor. Dr.James Burnes came and cured him of the disease. Dr Burnes book "A Visit to the Court of Sinde" tells a lot about the state of the Court in 1827. The book dispels a lot of misconceptions regarding the Talpurs and their rule. He talks about the splendor of their Court and the decorum that was maintained. He says that Mir Mahmood Khan was a very handsome and a well-dressed person. Mir Karam Ali Khan was a poet of some repute and his 'Diwan e Karam' is accepted (even by Iranians!) as being of high quality. He died in 1828 AD. Mir Murad Ali was the last ruler of the first "Chauyari." He ruled with the advice of his sons and nephews. In 1832, a new agreement was signed with the British. They were slowly gaining a foothold. Mir Sahib, also a poet, ruled judiciously until his death in 1833 ended the first Chauyari.

Second ChauyariEdit

The mantle now passed on to his eldest son Mir Noor Mohammad Khan who, following the path of his illustrious uncles and father, continued with the Chauyari form of rule, including his brother Mir Mohammad Naseer and cousins Mir Sobdar Khan and Mir Muhammad Khan in the ruling Council. Mir Noor Mohammad continued to rule judiciously. The British were slowly and gradually gaining influence by fanning discontent within the ranks of the Talpurs and were coming up with a succession of new treaties which were to their advantage alone. There have been attempts by various historians to present the Talpur era as one riddled with differences and consequent incompetence and malfeasance. Nothing could be further from the truth. While there were differences within the ranks they weren't allowed to fester. Attempts were made to resolve and accommodate the just demands. This is apparent from the fact that no Talpur or other Baluch was put to the sword for dissent during the two Chauyaris. There is a website on which some sections of Talpurs and some personalities have been praised to the detriment of others. This is not the right attitude as it is neither accurate nor does it reflect the tolerance practiced by the persons mentioned. The purpose of this site not to gloss over the differences and the drawbacks that were present then but to present them in the proper historical perspective, to see events in light of the times in which they events occurred, not to judge history by today's standards. The British, despite all assurances kept working for their own interests. In 1838 a new agreement was signed which was not at all in the interest of Sindh. Mir Noor Mohammad died in 1841. The rule now passed to Mir Mohammad Naseer Khan. In the same year Sir Charles Napier was sent to Sindh to achieve the ultimate goal of annexation of Sindh to the British Empire. Differences between the Talpurs began to crop up anew and the old grievances came to fore. There were differences between the sons of Mir Noor Mohammad. Mir Sobdar Khan in Hyderabad and Mir Ali Murad in Khairpur failed to realize that the English would eventually not be their friends either. The British presented new terms for a treaty and Mir Naseer Khan was an unwilling signatory as there were many unjust demands. The British wanted Karachi, Thatta and Bakhaar permanently. They wanted the Mint to be closed and no taxation for their traders. They wanted to replace Mir Rustam Khan Talpur with his brother Mir Ali Murad and kept making unjust demands on him. Eastwick says that at one point Mir Rustam was so fed up with their demands that he said he couldn't accept them. After all, he was a Baluch. "A Glance at Sindh Before Napier " by Eastwick presents the true picture of those times. Napier forced Mir Rustam to go to Hyderabad. Mirsahib was old and ailing at that time. The Talpurs and other Baluchs were infuriated at this. To make the matters worse, Napier started his incursion towards Hyderabad to provoke the Baluchs. He confiscated Mir Rutam's possessions on flimsy pretexts in December 1842. Napier continued his provocations by words and deeds. The Baluchs knew for certain that Napier would use the logic of the wolf that is bent upon devouring the sheep and not relent even if all his demands were met. They decided to meet force with force. On 5 February Major Outram's post near Kotri was attacked but he embarked on the steamer and escaped. Napier had camped near Miani and the Baluchs assembled there to fight it out.

The Battle of MianiEdit

Mir Nasir Khan Talpur prior the Battle of Miani

On 17 February the opposing forces met. The Baluch surpassed all in valour and bravery. Mir Jan Mohammad Talpur charged into the English camp and attacked Major Outram who narrowly escaped his charge by jumping off his horse. Mir Jan Mohammad's grave is in Miani. One Baluch, bayoneted by a British soldier and unable to reach the opponent with his sword, pushed the bayonet and the rifle through his own body and killed the opponent. The British say their casualties were 62 killed and 194 wounded. The casualties on the Baluch side are estimated to be six times higher. The Baluchs were defeated and had to retreat. Valor alone has never been and can never on its own be the determining factor in the outcome of any battle. Discipline and planning played a much more important role and on February !7th 1843, won the day for the British. Had the outcome of the Battle at Miani been different it would have changed the history of the sub-continent. It could have been different if only the Talpurs had realized that the British would never abide by the agreements they were making. The next day Mir Naseer Khan surrendered to Charles Napier. He and others were then arrested and sent in exile to Calcutta and other places in India. The houses were looted even the ladies were not spared. Finally, the English had gotten Sindh.

Battle of DabboEdit

Mir Sher Mohammad Talpur of Mirpur tried to rally his forces. He fought against the English at Dabbo near Hyderabad on 24 March 1843 to liberate Sindh but his forces too were defeated and no change could be brought to the state of things.

The British had wormed their way into Sindh through deceit and intrigues but conquered it through force of arms and that was the only recourse for them in sustaining their illegal rule here. They sowed dissension among the people here and ensured their rule. They exiled all those who could have acted as a symbol for resistance. To clarify one point, some over- enthusiastic Talpurs regardless of their own contribution to the fight against the British, conveniently accuse the Mahmoodanis of not having fought. While, Mahmoodanis may not have fought the British due to the differences within the Talpur family at that time, at no stage did they collaborate with England or any enemy of Sindh. Moreover the descendants of Mir Mahmood quite made up for their battlefield absence by resisting British Imperialism tooth and nail, when it was even a crime to utter a word against them, while their accusers enjoyed English patronage. It is no less than a miracle that the Talpurs have been able to preserve the books and artifacts that they still have in their possession. Mir Naseer Khan died in exile as did some others. His son and that of Mir Noor Mohammad among others later returned to Sindh. The English always felt threatened by the Talpurs. They did restore the possessions of the Talpurs but under strict conditions. Contrary to common belief the Talpurs were never given Jagirs (estates)by England. The only concession was that their original holdings were restored to them as is apparent from the Sanads still in possession of Talpur family. These lands were not taken away from anyone by the Talpurs but these were virgin lands which they had brought under cultivation by having new canals and waterways dug.

Talpur Family in Post British Rule PeriodEdit

With the loss of rule to the British, the Talpur family's situation changed overnight. The former rulers were now the persecuted. Charles Napier went about his job with vindictiveness and spite. He incarcerated all the male members of the ruling family, leaving the ladies to fend for themselves. The households were looted and stripped of valuables. The arrested Mirs were sent to Calcutta and other places in India where many of them died, including Mir Sobdar, Mir Fateh Ali Khan and Mir Mohamad Naseer the last ruler of Sindh. This was a period of trials and tribulations for the entire Talpur Family. They passed it with fortitude and dignity, which added to their stature immensely. The basic reason for their survival was that their roots within the people of Sindh, whom they had served well. The influence of this family survived in spite of efforts of British to undermine it. Though it was no longer possible for the family to have a collective influence as it had enjoyed previously, different sections of the family retained influence in their respective regions. Their social influence over the people did not recede and they continued to play a very important role in keeping the people united. They still symbolised all the better things the people expected. This forced the English to restore the Jagirs (Estates) to the families they had belonged to in the first place. Even in their decline, The Talpurs continued their patronage of arts and literature as before.

Adversity did not diminish the family's brilliance and strength of character. Those who were incarcerated lived a very hard life in conditions they were not used to. They bore these hardships with great dignity. Mir Mohammad Naseer Khan's Son Mir Abbas Ali Khan married an English lady. Their son became one of the greatest poets of Sindh, Mir Abdul Hussain Khan Sangi, whose personal hand-written "Deewan" is still available with Talpur family. Mir Mohammad Hassan Ali was also a poet of stature. The works of these two poets are still included in the textbooks of educational institutions in Sindh. Mir Sobdar Khan, the son of Mir Fateh Ali Khan (the first ruler of Sindh) was also a poet. His works included "Judai Nama", "Odes of Separation." Pages from these can also be seen at one of the sites maintained by Talpur family. He died during exile in 1263 A.H. The Talpur family not only maintained its status but also extended its influence through involvement the in social and political affairs of the region. At no time did they abjectly accede to the demands of the British. This raised their stature in the eyes of the masses and was one of the reasons for their political ascendancy after loss of their rule.

The four main branches of TalpursEdit

The British considered four branches of the Talpur clan to be of major importance, the Shahwani, Sohrabani Khanani, and Mankani. Shahdadani branch includes the Ruling Family, Mahmoodanis and Bijaranis all living in Hyderabad. Khananis reside in and around Tando Jam, Mankanis in the Mirpurkhas region, and Shahwani's make their home in the district of Tando Muhammad Khan. They all were Jagirdars and the British regranted their estates. The Talpurs of Tando Bago and Tando Ghulam Ali were also Jagirdars. It should be noted that the ruling family were given grants and some agricultural land but not the Jagirs. The British probably hoped to limit their influence. The heads of the four major branches were formally invited to the Darbars and other special events held by The British Raj. It should be pointed out that the British had wilfully tried to deter the Talpur family from indulging in anti-colonial political movements by adding a clause in the re-grants of Jagirs in 1861 proscribing such involvement.

The Mankani TalpursEdit

Mir Thara Khan (Mir Tharo) founded his state in South East with capital at Keti Mir Tharo. Later the capital was shifted to Mirpurkhas, by his, Mir Ali Murad Khan, who founded this city in 1806A.D. Next ruler of the State of Mirpurkhas was Mir Thara's younger son, Mir Ali Murad Khan. Mir Ali Murad Khan became the ruler with consent of his elder brother, Mir Ghulam Haider Khan. Mir Ali Murad was famous for his justice and fair-play. He was followed by Mir Sher Muhammad Khan, popularly known as "Sher-e-Sindh" (The Lion of Sindh). After the fall of Hyderabad at the hands of Charles Napier at the Battle of Miani, Mir Sher Muhammad tried to liberate Sindh and fought the battle of liberation at Dubbo. However, again, treachery and deception by Charles Napier's forces succeeded in suppressing Talpur forces led by Mir Sher Muhammad Khan.

Sohrabani TalpursEdit

Mir Sohrab Khan had founded his state in the north of Sindh soon after the fall of kalhoras. Mir Rustum Khan was the next Amir of Sohrabani State. After the takeover of Hyderabad by forces of British East India Company, Mir Ali Murad Sohrabai was able to establish and continue as head of the princely state of Khairpur under tutelage of the forces of the British East India Company.

Baloch inhabiting Sistan and Baluchestan Province , Nimroz south of Helmand lower areas of Kandahar and coastal areas in the region of Makran, Chabahar, Gwadar, Gulf of Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain) and Karachi, and other parts of Sindh as Talpur Baloch Conquered and ruled Sindh from from 1783 to 1843.The Sindhi Baloch tribes including the Jatoi, Mirani, Rind, Bizenjo, Brahui and Gabol are highly skilled in designing boats, fishing and other skills required to survive in their environment. Herodotus mentions that Darius had made use of the ocean in this region of Sindh. The Sulemani Baloch who inhabit the Balochistan region including Makran for example, tribes including the Domki, Marri, Dashti, Bugti, Buzdar, Lund, Ranjhani, Ahmedani, Mazari, Mengal, Denari, Jiskani, Laghari, Chandio, Muhammad Hassani, Nausherwani, MirJat, Rind, Mandwani, Bizenjo, Zehri, Dehwar, Changwani, Raisani and others—carry different skills to survive in their mostly mountainous environment and have a history of aggressive behavior towards invasions. These tribes are not confined to one specific location as they also contain sub-tribes and can be found all over the region.

Balochi cultureEdit

A traditional Balochi dress worn by a teenage girl.

Balochi customs and traditions are conducted according to codes imposed by tribal laws. These strong traditions and cultural values are important to Baloch people and have enabled them to keep their distinctive ancient cultural identity and way of life with little change to this day. The culture and traditions of the Baloch have historically been passed down from mother to daughter, and from father to son.

Balochi culture is mentioned in the Pir M. Zehi's account of his travel to the province of Sakestan, or the present-day Sistan province of Iran, which holds strong significance to the culture of Baloch people. Baloch people have preserved their traditional dress with little change over the centuries. The Baloch men wear long shirts with long sleeves and loose pants. The dress is occasionally accompanied by a pagh (turban) or a hat on their heads.

The Balochi costume varies from Iran to Pakistan. Iran Baloch dress code is more conservative in sense of length and material. Some Baloch women in Iran also cover their faces with thick red color wools (Burqah) and wear a (Sareeg) which is the head scarf and (Chadar) which is a long veil.

The dress worn by Baloch women is one of the most interesting aspects of Balochi culture. They are of strong significance to the culture of Iran and hold a special place in the society. The women put on loose dress and pants with sophisticated and colourful needlework, including a large pocket at the front of the dress to hold their accessories. The upper part of the dress and sleeves are also decorated with needlework, a form of artistry that is specific to the clothing of the Baloch women. Often the dress also contains round or square pieces of glass to further enhance the presentation. They cover their hair with a scarf, called a sarig in the local dialect.[44]

These customs are unique to the people of Iran and the art of this needlework on women's clothing may provide one with a picture of the freedom and high status of Baloch women in Achaemenid era.[45]

Gold ornaments such as necklaces and bracelets are an important aspect of Baloch women's traditions and among their most favoured items of jewellery are dorr, heavy earrings that are fastened to the head with gold chains so that the heavy weight will not cause harm to the ears. They usually wear a gold brooch (tasni) that is made by local jewellers in different shapes and sizes and is used to fasten the two parts of the dress together over the chest. In ancient times, especially during the pre-Islamic era, it was common for Baloch women to perform dances and sing folk songs at different events. The tradition of a Baloch mother singing lullabies to her children has played an important role in the transfer of knowledge from generation to generation since ancient times. Apart from the dressing style of the Baloch, indigenous and local traditions and customs are also of great importance to the Baloch.[46]

Truthfulness , Honesty , Loyalty , Generosity , Justice , Hospitality , Intolerance to any kind of Supremacy , giving Refuge to the guest Fulfilling the Promise and Revenge are the basic ingredients of Baloch Social Conduct .

Balochi musicEdit

Main article: Balochi music

Folk music has always played a great role in Balochi traditions. Balochi music belong to the same branch of Iranian music performed by many other Iranian peoples including Persians, Kurds, Lurs, Tajiks and others. Traditions like the transfer of knowledge from generation to generation by singing lullabies to children and praising warriors also have a significant role in Balochi music traditions. The fact that both men and women participate in folk music reflects on the pre-Islamic significance of folk music in Balochi culture. Many years of invasions, wars and later adopted religious values have prevented Balouchi music from prevailing further in the 21st century. However, a Swedish folk band, Golbang and Padik with the lead singer Rostam Mirlashari originally from Zahedan & Lashar in Balochistan, has made progress in introducing Balouchi folk music to the Western world. The most commonly used instruments in Balouchi folk music are tanbur, long-necked lutes. Lutes have been present in Mesopotamia since the Akkadian era, or the 3rd millennium BC. The dohol, a large cylindrical drum with two skin heads, is the principal accompaniment for the surna, an ancient Iranian woodwind instrument that dates back to the Achaemenid Dynasty (550-330 BC). The ney is also commonly played, using single or double flutes. The Suroz, a Balochi folk violin, which is considered as the official instrument of the Baloch. Other Baloch musical instruments include the tar and the saz.

Cuisine of BalochistanEdit

Main article: Baloch cuisine

Geographic distributionEdit

See also: Baloch diaspora

The total population of ethnic Baloch people is estimated to be around 15 million worldwide. However, the exact number of those who are Baloch or claim to be of Baloch ancestry is difficult to determine. As of 2012, the Baloch are 7.11% of Pakistan's 177 million people

Major ethnic groups in Pakistan, Afghanistan and the surrounding areas, 1980. The Baluch are shown in pink.

Baloch ancestry is also claimed in the neighboring areas that adjoin Baloch majority lands. Those who speak Brahui are known as Brahuis.[47] Many Baloch outside of Balochistan are also bilingual or of mixed ancestry due to their proximity to other ethnic groups, including the Sindhis, Saraikis and Pashtuns. A large number of Baloch have been migrating to or living in provinces adjacent to Balochistan for centuries. In addition, there are many Baloch living in other parts of the world, with the bulk living in the GCC countries of the Persian Gulf. The Baloch are an important community in Oman, where they make up a sizable minority.

Many Baloch over the years have migrated to Punjab for its lush green fertility and they can be found in large numbers in South Punjab, Central Punjab and in Lahore but most of them identify themselves now as Punjabis. There is a small population of Baloch in several Western countries such as Sweden and Australia. Some Baloch settled in Australia in the 19th century; some fourth-generation Baloch still live there, mainly in the western city of Perth.

Baloch in OmanEdit

The Baloch in Oman have maintained their ethnic and linguistic distinctions. The Southern Baloch comprise approximately 25% of the country's population. The traditional economy of Baloch in Oman is based on a combination of trade, farming and semi-nomadic shepherding.[48]

Iranian language tree
Iranian languages family tree
language family tree
Indo-European language family tree

Balochi languageEdit

The Balochi language is spoken in Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, the Persian Gulf Arab states, Turkmenistan, and as far as East Africa and some Western countries. It is classified as a member of the Iranian group of the Indo-European language family, which includes Kurdish, Persian, Pashto, Dari, Tajik and Ossetian. The Balochi language has the closest similarities to Kurdish, Avestan, old Persian and other Iranian languages.

Two main dialects are spoken in Sistan va Balochestan and Balochestan: Eastern and Western. The exact number of Baloch speakers is difficult to know, but the estimated number could be around 15 million. The majority speak Western Balochi, which is also the dialect that has been most widely used in Balochi literature. Within the Western dialect are two further dialects, Rakhshani and Nousherwani (spoken mainly in the northern areas) and Makurani (in the south).[49]

The Baloch have several tribes and sub-tribes. Some of these tribes speak Brahui, while most speak Balochi. Multilingualism is common, with many Baloch speaking both Brahui and Balochi. The Rind Marri, Magsi, Domki, Umrani and Bugti tribe speak Balochi. The Mengal tribe, who live in the Chagai, Khuzdar, Kharan districts of Balochistan. the sarpara tribe, who live in kardigap, Meskan Qalat/Kharan, Larkana, and they speak both Brahui and balochi, The Meskanzai (sarpara) tribe who live in the Meskan Qalat kharna, and Quetta, and they speak Balochi and Brahui. and in southern parts of Afghanistan, speak Brahui. The Muhammad Hasni tribe speak Brahui, Balochi and some other languages according to the area they are living. The Lango tribe, who live in central Balochistan in the Mangochar area, speak Brahui as their first language and Balochi as their second. The Bizenjo tribe speak both languages. The Bangulzai tribe mostly speaks Brahui, but has a Balochi-speaking minority known as Garani.

The Mazari tribe, Talpur, Mastoi, Jatoi, Wahocha, Gabol, Chandio, Mirani, Nutkani, Ahmedani, Jagirani, Marri, Khushk, Magsi, Domki, Khosa, Bozdar, Jiskani, Bijarani, Hesbani, Leghari, Lashari, Muhammad Hasni, Kalpar, Korai, Zardari, Rind, Mandwani or Bhurgari, MirJat, Jakhrani, and other Baloch tribes that are settled in Sindh speak Sindhi, Balochi and Seraiki. The Gadi and Qaisrani Baloch living near Taunsa Sharif in the Punjab province of Pakistan speak Seraiki and Balochi, while their clansmen living in Dera Ghazi Khan tribal areas speak Balochi. The Lund Baloch living in Shadan Lund speak Sindhi, Seraiki and Balochi.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit