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Afro-Arab (also African Arab)[when defined as?] refers to people of mixed Black African and genealogical Arab ancestral heritage, and/or to linguistically and culturally Arabized Black Africans.[better source needed] There are individuals and communities of Afro-Arabs in East Africa, West Africa, North Africa, the Near East and Western Europe.
In the Arab States of the Persian Gulf, descendants of black Africans from Tanzania and Zanzibar perform Liwa and Fann At-Tanbura music and dance. The mizmar is also performed by Afro-Arabs in the Tihamah and Hejaz regions of Saudi Arabia.
- Gustavo Benavides, M. W. Daly, Religion and Political Power, SUNY Press, 1989, 84.
- Sarah Grainger, Uganda celebrates Afro-Arab unity, BBC News, March 13, 2008.
- Africans in the Arabian Gulf, Afropop Worldwide.
- Poul Rovsing Olsen, "La Musique Africaine dans le Golfe Persique", Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Vol. 19, (1967), pp. 28-36
- Afro Arab/Middle Eastern Style: Book: Jumping the broom in Style
- "Black African and Arab intermarriage in East Africa" - a cited ColorQ.org essay
- "Black Africans in (Arab) West Asia" - a cited ColorQ.org essay
- Prof. Helmi Sharawy, Arab Culture and African Culture: ambiguous relations, paper extracted from the book The Dialogue between the Arab culture and other cultures', Arab League, Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organisation (ALECSO), Tunis, 1999.
- Africans in the Arabian Gulf, Afropop Worldwide
- Resolution on Afro-arab Co-operation of The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, 23, February 23–28, 1987.
- African Union/league of Arab States Inter-secretariat Consultative Meeting On Afro-arab Cooperation, Addis Ababa: 10–12 May 2005.
- Maho M. Sebiane, « Le statut socio-économique de la pratique musicale aux Émirats arabes unis : la tradition du leiwah à Dubai », Chroniques yéménites, 14, 2007..
- Men Around The Messenger, K.M. Khalid, Al-Azhar Administration, Al-Manar for Publishing Distribution Translation Est. (Pub. Date unavailable)